The author visited the homes of 19 elderly people of the shiwei community in Changchun city, China, and investigated their basic living conditions, care, residence, and community service. From among the 19 people, 14 live with their families, while 5 live alone. Twelve persons were bedridden. Moreover, it was found that 16 people had their own bedrooms, while 3 of them shared their bedroom with other family members, besides their spouse. With regard to the use of community service, 11 persons have been using the homemaking service. Moreover, the investigation showed that 13 persons have received economical assistance.
The aim of this study is to find out what kind of daily living environment for inpatients should be provided in hospitals by clarifying the relationship between therapeutic / healing environment and inpatients' days. The analysis focused on the differences in inpatients' behaviors during ordinary and free time in different physical settings. The questionnaire and interview surveys had been carried out in each medical/surgical ward in three hospitals. The major findings are shown below: 1. The satisfaction of private room is the best, and the satisfaction of new type of “territorialized” 4-beds rooms is better than the satisfaction of traditional type of 4-beds rooms. 2. In particular, the satisfaction evaluation of the area, the sound, the privacy, the communication and the atmosphere in the private room are better than that in 4-beds rooms. 3. Besides the view, each performance in new type of “territorialized” 4-beds rooms is better than that in traditional type of 4-beds rooms. 4. In traditional type of 4-beds rooms, the satisfaction evaluation of the area, the light and the view is remarkably higher in the space environment of the window side bed than the corridor side bed. In new type of “territorialized” 4-beds rooms, there is a tendency that the satisfaction evaluation of the light and the view in the corridor side bed is near to that in the window side bed, and the satisfaction evaluation of the area, the room temperature, the smell, the usability, the security and the beautiful sight in the corridor side bed is higher than that in the window side bed, the space environment of the corridor side bed is improved. 5. We should plan the physical space environment of the whole fitting the attribute and the life style of the inpatients, including the outside space.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of spaces in “Free schools” from the viewpoint of children's ways of placing. The result of field surveys and analysis are as follows; 1) “The directions of spaces” are different of kinds of furniture or partitions. As a result, they are classified 10 types. 2) Children's ways of placing are classified 7 plus 3 types. It is important to plan spaces following these types because children would like to communicate with the other children by using the directions of spaces. 3) Because children do activities with invisible communication between children, it is important to plan a whole atmosphere of a “Free school” .
The aim of this study is to clarify the architectural features of community base small multi care facilities from layout plan view analysis. Investigation performed the questionnaire including the request of the institution plan view for 908 facilities. The collection rate was 27.4 percent. The results are following. (1) The rate of “all private rooms” was 39.8 %. (2) As for living and dining area, 3 to 4 sq m per person occupied many. (3) The width of a corridor, area of bathrooms or lavatories in the practical use of existing house were narrower than an ideal value.
The purpose of this research is a clear about the care activity of the night shift care staff of unit type nursing home, the actual condition, and the feature of space use. In night shift care with a unit type institution, there is the feature of taking charge of two units in the one staff. The fundamental knowledge tied to the space plan of a unit type institution is acquired by clarifying aspect of movement between the staff's units, and aspect of stay of a night shift time zone. Investigation was conducted in four institutions. The investigator accompanied the night shift staff by man-to-man, and the night shift staff's care activities and use space were recorded for every minute from 10:00 to 7:00 of the next morning night. In night shift care, the actual conditions, like excretion care accounts for 20 to 30 percent, and businesslike acts, such as record, account for 20 to 30 percent became clear. The difference of the rate of each institution and the difference between the staff also became clear. The following points became clear about space stay. (1) Stay in a bed-room accounts for 30 to 50 percent. (2) With an institution without the care base station, stay in the living of one unit increases and deviation comes to be looked at by the stay situation between two units which it takes charge of. (3) With an institution with a station, that serves as a base of stay, and two units go round uniformly and stay.
By using bayesian network, we assessed the correlations between the occurrence of snatch and the reasons for the increase in elderly people's feeling of insecurity toward snatch-thieves in walking environment. The following findings were noted: 1)36.4% correlation between safe road-uneasy feeling; 6.4% between unsafe road-uneasy feeling; 16.1% between unsafe road-safety feeling, 16.1%; 2)the strongest relationship being between safety/uneasy feeling toward pedestrian/vehicle flow and occurrence of snatch; and 3)The correlation between uneasy feeling toward pedestrian/vehicle flow and occurrence of snatch at the same time range it is expected is 41%, while occurrence of snatch when it is not expected is 26%.
Architectural space is composed by the interrelationship of three elements; relationship between interior space and exterior space which created the space by putting the wall, relationship between interior space and interior space which is based on arrangement and expanse of room and wall and human being who enjoy two relationships and move in it. So to speak, the architectural design is pursuit of the interrelationship of three elements, and what were created by the behavior are the outline, zone, and path. On this research, we define three kind of factor, outline which expanse to exterior space, zone, which means continuity of rooms and path which means positioning of various buildings. Furthermore, we analyze by comparison of those factors and consider the interrelationship of three elements.
The space of construction a certain place has been formed by the fact that it is divided into the external space and the internal space(territory) by the material boundary of the roof and the wall open part etc. Shape has occurred in the building as a substance, the building contour which forms the boundary aspect inside and outside directly is a relationship. Because of that, the designer changes relationship by the construction contour and the fact that form of the inside and outside space is operated. In addition, as a use there is a function in those segmentation. You can do the arrangement of the space where it corresponds to the respective function in those, furthermore in the material boundary the various elements which respond to function exist. We use the concept of interior/exterior that internal space and the external space and boundary are caught continually.
Sangen-kyotei is an agreement for the purpose of scenic development made by three residents living next to each other. As a system receiving government subsidy, it is unique. Residents use this system mainly to do planting to enhance the scenery. In our research, we performed a quantitative comparative analysis of the meaning of regional environment and environmental development based on the ‘narratives’ of the residents. From this, we clarified the characteristics of each agreement area. In this way, we clarified the systemic possibilities of ‘sangen-kyotei’ by expanding the meaning of the environment and the act through planting.
This study suggests how to make a place is important for revitalization and recomposion of the center of city. Researching people's action/behavior excepted walking in a public pedestrian mall leads to analyze what spacial character make people do their action/behavior. In case of taking a rest, waiting, talking with standing, the area and volume of liking of space make clear through the place-marking method in selected six pedestrian malls. The conclusion of this study is as follows: The existence of abundant space effects the action/behavior of taking a rest in a pedestrian mall. There are several types of abundant space in spacial feature. Not only a special sculpture but also design of entrance effect the action/behavior of wating.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristic and possibility of satellite nursery school as alternative for improving nursery environment. The results are as follows; 1. Satellite nursery school can be established easily because of is able to use small space in office building, condominium or detached housing. 2. Supply and arrangement of satellite nursery school are effective to improve nursery service condition in the area where there is imbalance between nursery service supply and demand. 3. As a result of business profit analysis, satellite nursery school is profitable in the suburb or in the case of using vacant classroom, but is difficult in the center of the city by high floor rent.
There is livable traditional landscape at Roji where is small alley space in the central part of Kyoto. As the design method for renewal of this kind of Roji, we focus on the Relational Collateral Building System, this paper deals with the Roji space of Kyoto comparing with its suburban equivalent. First, by the comparison between the alley spaces of the new collateral building system application and the old alley examples,we find out the significant difference between them. Second, through the analysis of renewal aspects, we point out that the traditional landscape is disappearing from the alley and their buildings. And third, upon the basis of the spatial typology by the sectional view and the width of alley space, we find that the spatial characteristics of Roji in Kyoto is decided by the spaces between the buildings or beneath of the eaves.
This study aims to clarify the evaluation of the ancient scenery landscape Matsushima by the National Park Administration through literature and local surveys. Matsushima was evaluated as an archipelago, but was not designated as national park even though the view of it as an archipelago is similar to that of other natural scenic areas that are designated as national parks. This is because the purpose of national parks is to find new natural scenic areas and the elements of each are evaluated individually. It can be said that Matsushima being an archipelago landscape is the basis of its qualification to be a national park.
The purpose of this research is to examine the lives of foreign residents and to present models of action from case studies at ten public housing estates. The research results are summarized as follows: 1) The difference between Japanese and foreign residents in terms of language and everyday customs is a direct factor behind daily problems. Complex, indirect, and background factors are also important. 2) The activities of residents' associations at public housing estates are useful in creating a significant relationship between Japanese and foreign residents. 3) The lower the number of foreign residents (less than 10% of total residents) is, the more effective the problem-solving actions are. 4) The effectiveness of and difficulties faced by the actions are dependent on the size of public housing estates and the proportion of foreign residents. 5) Five models of action taken by residents' associations, local governments, and regional associations exist.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the eye fixation behavior and the relation between eye fixation tendency for space characteristics of street with emphasis on the eye fixation tendency of the surrounding information based on the spatial cognition of Venezia. This paper differs from the previous research by conducting moving experiments by selecting a pathway of a different experimental area. From the experiments, the following can be concluded: 1) The average frequency of the eye fixation per a walking time of the subject with high degree of the spatial cognition is more frequent. 2) The eye fixation subject with low degree of the spatial cognition focuses on the facade of building and the subject with high degree of the spatial cognition focuses on the pedestrians. 3) The eye fixation frequency for the information character is relatively high for the subject with low degree of spatial cognition.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the visual characteristics when grasping views from view points and to verify the notation. The descriptive model is proposed and tested in 18 areas located the vistaed view preservation zone established by Kyoto city. The observation took 48 view points and extracted occluding elements and ground texture around the view point using notation. The results are as follows. The descriptive model is divided into vertical and horizontal visual experience from the view point. And classified visual experiences into 3 types in the horizontal direction and 5 types in the vertical direction.
We investigated the High School Home Economics Textbooks about the Zest for Sustainable Living. The following results were obtained. 1. The descriptions to aim at the sustainable society increase. 2. Above all, the descriptions about the community improvement increase. 3. However, the descriptions about the living which kept local climate and culture do not increase. It is important to develop the ability for best use of the local climate and culture. It is a problem to bring up the teacher who can use the textbooks well.
In this study, a system to calculate the quantity of nursing demand and possible nursing supply were developed for every living slot and activities. The local nursing potential and the influence of the local active volunteers were quantified by this system. The results are as followings. 1.Considerable potential of nursing supply were observed, while the “pre-advanced aged people” can participate as local volunteers, but in the limit of volunteer's active time. 2. From 2000 to 2005, while local nursing demand has risen, also the family and local nursing supply has increased, but it is not sufficient. 3. At the geographical distribution, high local-nursing-supply potentials were observed at the suburb ring regions, but not at the rural area and built up area.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the influence of affordable housing incentives on architectural planning through eight case studies of mixed-income housing projects by for-profit developers in the City of Los Angeles and to consider the benefits and issues in methods of increasing affordable units by mixed-income housing by for-profit developers in Japan. Affordable housing incentives in the City of Los Angeles gave density bonuses to mixed-income housing and influenced building stories, typical floor plan, and party wall. As a result, a good living environment by low and mid-rise apartments and the opportunities to select many variations of unit plan by efficiency of typical floor plan were created. Therefore, a gradual increase of affordable units with the good living environment is also expected by mixed-income housing by for-profit developers in Japan. On the other hand, the necessity of affordable housing incentives by density bonuses in Japan should be considered in terms of participation of for-profit developers and conservation of the living environment.
This paper describes a basic concept of the method using wireless communication technology for preventing collision accidents of workers with heavy equipment such as a hydraulic excavator and a mobile crane. This method aimed to send worker a warning early to provide sufficient time for a worker to avoid a dangerous situation. Closeness information of workers and heavy equipment on the site was used to identify dangerous situation. The closeness information was estimated using existence area of each object. The area was calculated from detection data of active type RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) device that was attached to workers and equipments. An experiment was performed and shows that the actual distance between two tags became progressively shorter.
Residual ratio of buildings greatly influences the estimation of building stock and amount of wastes from building demolition. However, it may depend on not only the age of buildings but also the age in which buildings exist. Especially, social background in Japan is drastically changing and building stock became more important than ever so that lifetime of buildings seem to be extended. This study discusses an estimation method of residual ratio of buildings under the trends in longer life of buildings as follows, 1. The simulation in which the residual ratio of buildings changes corresponding to both the age of buildings and the age in which buildings exist. 2. Verification of residual ratio of buildings by comparing between new residential construction statistics and housing stock statistics from 1961 to 1990.
This paper tries to clarify the formation of old town houses distributed over Yamashiro, Settsu, and Tanba. The style of these town houses is featured by having the entrance on the gable side. Mr. Kuroda argues with Mr. Oba on this formation connected with structure. But I points out that this type had been formed with modeling on‘Hafu’(the triangle board on the gable side on the roof) by the investigation of pictures and architectural regulations with using Hafu. This opinion holds the same view with Mr. Norio Nagai.
Daiku-Toryo "Myouo-taro" who lived at the foot of Mt. Oyama in the pre-modern period is known as a master carpenter building a lot of architecture for temple and shrine at Sagami-no-kuni or Musashi-no-kuni area. But it doesn't yet become clearly that the way of dealing with so many constructions by Myouo-taro. It seems that contract was exchanged between clients and carpenters, and these documents that remain in several cases provide information about construction. Taking advantage of them, the method of construction by "Myouo-taro" will be clarified in this paper.
This report will analyze the old construction documents of building activities for farm houses in the Edo period. Abundant forestry documents have been left in Hida. By analyzing the documents, I clarify the concrete procedure about application, permission and provision of Wood for farm houses. I point out, 1: The estimate of lumbering in detail was requested from the application for cutting trees. 2: The ruler“Takayama Jinya”was recording the number of cutting trees in the whole area of Hida, and the number was ordered to be decreased. 3: In the case of provision of wood at the applied forest, agreement of the officials in the village was necessary.
Budapest is a city born in 1873 by unifying two independent areas separated by the Danube. In 1871, the Counsel for Public Utility Works, the task of which was to prepare a town planning scheme after the integration of the city, held an urban design competition. The purpose of the competition was to connect the two areas by transport plans and to create monumental cityscape by placing public buildings. Although few of the ideas of the participants were adopted in the plan created by the Counsel, similar ideas were proposed by urban planners later and some of them were realized.
This paper seeks to clarify the formative process of Kamiashigawa settlement in Koshu area under the influence of a barrier (Sekisho, Kuchidome-bansho) which had been set up by Takeda clan for guard of the border in the late medieval period by means of existent archival materials on land tenure and village maps in the Edo era. The results of restoration are as follows. In 1602, Kamiashigawa was still a small mountainous village and the gate with fences was arranged on the east end of the settlement. The main road was cranked artificially inside of the gate and all dwellings were gathered around there. Torinji temple, the residence of village head (Banya-yashiki) and Suwa Shinto-shrine stood on the west of the crank. Such compact and defensive settlement form was the feature of the Warring States period. The settlement was developed outside of the gate with cultivation in the early Edo era, so the gate moved in the center of the expanded settlement and articulated two parts of the village society.
This paper exemplifies conservation through external sources in a developing country where internal sources can hardly meet the demands to safeguard their historic heritage. The paper draws attention to conservation activities of external sources in the heritage Stone Town of Zanzibar and unveils their influence on sustaining a built heritage. It was found that, external sources are instrumental to take the heritage to the world stage and play a significant role in revamping it from stagnant conservation. However, practices in the country render the ultimate results of these sources rather detrimental to warrant a sustainable effect.