The objective of this paper is to clarify the hierarchical spatial composition of dead end streets for residential environment in the old district of Macao. It has been developed into high density city where residential and commercial areas coexist. Dead end streets as buffer zone are analyzed focusing on a hierarchical spatial composition with three levels such as urban, building and individual. As the result, four types of hierarchical spatial composition into dead end streets were pointed out.
The goal of this study is to elucidate changes in land divisions and housings of long-term dwellers in detached housing estate in a suburban area, concerning their transformation, integrity and succession. The area we investigated is Seijo Residential Area, which became a suburban residential area before World War II. In this study, we defined the long-term dwellers as those who had settled there since before WWII. Seijo Residential Area underwent two developmental stages and developed a mosaic of housing and leasing subdivisions with more variety in size than other early-stage residential areas. Major changes were mostly seen in the leased lands among all housing subdivisions. We categorized the changes in long-term dwellings into five patterns and clarified their differences in the patterns of changings in housing types and site scales. Finally, we focused on succeeded components in the residential areas that underwent a series of transformations, and discussed specifically about the methods for the preservation and succession of residential environments for the long-term residency.
We compare remodeling with replacement for housing improvement. The author considers that it is necessary to choose remodeling as the long span of detached house when comparing. This paper aims to clarify the characteristics of the remodeling from comparing with statistical data of replacement and remodeling, and from analyzing the way of change the part of its frames by remodeling, regarding detached house. As a result, these remodeling cases are chosen more large-scale in a cost and a total floor area than statistical data. Extension is done in parts with no structural influence. And the kind of the space influences strongly the remodeling way.
Repetitive reuse of components is expected to contribute to the reduction of energy use in construction process of detached houses. However, quantitative methodology to evaluate the potential reduction has not been established. The paper presents the methodology to evaluate the potential reduction by developing the energy use model of two generations of production process where components used in the house of first generation is reused in the house of second generation. Then the paper shows case studies to estimate the embodied energy over two generations in terms of four detached houses with same schematic planning by completely different building methods. The result of case studies demonstrates that intensive degree of reuse of components could generate up to 20% reduction of embodied energy for two generations' houses.
This study is to consider the state of housing as a place for long term convalescent care through investigating the case of ALS patients. Following facts were obtained through the consideration of the lifestyle of 13 ALS patients and their families. 1) The principal of the home convalescence is the 10 hour nursing by the family members. The suetion of phlegm, required every 15 minutes throughout the day for using artificial respirator, adds the burden for the family members. 2) The state of living of ALS patients who reside in their own houses varies depending on the condition. The adoption of artificial respirator triggers the change in the state of living. To prepare for the home convalescence the patients, who decided to use artificial respirator, and their family members changes their lifestyle. 3) The state of living for ALS patients is strongly influenced by their ability to express their intention. In the case where no communications are possible, bedroom of the patient tends to be contained in family room since family member must determine when to absorb the phlegm.
The purpose of this study is to find the new management method for a future university institution considering mitigating the expense burden by management of buildings, The following were main examination subjects: 1) An expense burden increases quickly along with the elapsed years after construction. 2) As for the feature of repairing each parts of building, electric power equipments, air conditioners, and doors are repaired frequently from immediately after construction, and walls and floors are repaired periodically once in what ten years. 3) Not only use of space but use frequency is reflected in an expense burden The maintenance management planning is important to contain the three above-mentioned subjects. Further, it becomes important to make deterioration reduce and to improve the function of buildings.
In order to verify the validity of the hands-on exhibition in science museums, this study undertakes visitor tracking research, and clarifies the influence of the exhibit method affected on the visitors' behavior. We categorized the exhibit method into three types, i.e., experience type, participatory type and viewing type, and compared them from behavioral aspect. The first two types can be called as hands-on exhibit method and the last hands-off. As the result of the survey on 452 exhibitions and 5560 visitors' behavior, we found that the average consumed time per exhibition of the experience type is 69.5 seconds, that of participatory type 90.1 seconds, and that of view type 39.8 seconds. We also analyzed that the number of behavior per exhibition of the experience type is highest and that of the participatory type the second. Moreover, based on the result of the behavioral data, the length of expected stay time is calculated according to the ratio of the exhibit methods, and it compared with the observed stay time. Calculation of expected stay time was proved to be within allowable error range, and confirmed that it can simulate expected stay time in other exhibition plans of science museums.
The purpose of this study is to understand the use of public halls by regional groups during the creation of their performances. For this study, we investigated the use of a public hall by many groups in general, and four groups specifically, from their rehearsals to their public performances. The majority of the rehearsals and performances are by music groups. The rehearsal rooms that tend to be used the most by all groups are the meddium-sized rehearsal rooms. For regional groups, the large-sized rehearsal room is useful not only for rehearsals by music groups, but also public performances by theater groups.
This research aims to clarify the expression of architectural space in relation to the daily lifestyle in the Netherlands by studying the themes and elements that appeared in the paintings from the 17th century. It is because the pictures of this time, which can be referred to as having built the foundations genre paintings and be known and described "golden age" the foundations of paintings expression of architectural space, are realistic. We choose four painters (Jan Steen, Pieter de Hooch, Jan Vermeer, Rembrandt van Raijin) and analyze 125 paintings.
Since National Universities in Japan were incorporated in April 2004, managerial aspect for facilities maintenance and construction of campus has been required. For the first step, idea and goal of campus facility management should be established reflecting all students' and teaching/administrative staffs' demand. The purpose of this study is to develop a calculation method of importance degree on arranging campus facilities by multiple concerned persons' view. This paper describes the proposed calculation method by using AHP and QDA method. The effectiveness of this method is examined by case study on campus planning with staffs of facility division and graduate/undergraduate students of Kumamoto University.
This article attempts to clarify matters as below. (1) To propose the frame work concerning renovation of multi-family dwellings and new towns. (2) To extract and assemble renovation contents on the basis of advanced cases in Europe, United States and Japan. (3) To analyze and compare the renovation case of Kozoji New Town in Japan with Bijlmermeer in the Netherlands adopting R-D Matrix. (4) To suggest the course of renovation contents and extents in Japan.
This research aims to understand the classification and distribution of the composition and decoration of intermediate parts of historical architecture in the Eurasian region. In this research, the intermediate parts are defined as the part between the beams and the columns that include the capital and the joinery parts. The composition was classified according to the visual forms, while the decoration Was classified according to the embroider design. As a result, we were able to classify eight groups for both the composition and the decoration. We further carried out classification based on the tendency of regional distribution where by we were able to obtain four major groupings of the intermediate parts. The research was able to establish that apart from the influence of regional materials, the development and distribution of the intermediate parts had a great religious influence.
This study is focused on water that is taken in the Architectural space. The aim of this study is to make a pattern of water and Architecture clear from designer's expression to water in contemporary Architecture,and to get a figure of speech from that. The result of this study can lead to know architect's perceptions and proposal to water,and it gives suggestion to an architecture planning or urban planning that is concerned to water.
This is an experimental study to investigate cognitive process in persons to the urban space, while their wayfinding changes by three repetition learning in grid network of streets. The results are summarized as follows. 1)"Visual-Organization" of spatial knowledge acquired by direct perception from a horizontal viewpoint is done at a comparatively early stage as far as the cognitive process is concerned."Sign-Organization", symbolized by reconstructing the spatial knowledge with one's inner mentality, cannot be perceived as quickly from a bird's-eye viewpoint, which is more delayed than "Visual-Organization". The result of cluster analysis, which does not have to do with behavioral factors but with mental factors such as cognition or organization, strongly influences the main factor determining the cognitive process as related to urban space. 2) Based on the cognitive process shown previously, the following changes were shown: (1) The distance concept about the shortest course distance to a target point changes from a functional distance concept to a cognitive. (2) The form of wayfinding behaviors changes the uniform behavioral pattern based on a mental standard such as a functional or cognitive distance related to the various behavioral patterns that have been tried and erred, with each characteristic based on individual difference. (3) As for the strategy for a target point attainment, the tendency to perceive a sense of direction as being important becomes stronger as one approaches the target point.
A model that can generate compact and intelligible route guidance maps is essential for distributing efficient information on pedestrian route guidance through mobile terminals. In this research, we focus on the fact that the existing route guidance maps have been prepared by considering the characteristics of people's spatial cognition. By analyzing which roads and buildings are represented in the existing maps, i.e., which map elements are important and necessary for pedestrian route guidance, we construct a model that can extract key map elements from the geographical database. The route guidance maps generated by the proposed model are shown and evaluated in comparison with the existing maps.
This study aims at analyzing the population structure in terms of generation balance, and at classifying the municipalities in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. For this purpose, a new index, the Generation Balance Index, was developed to describe the balance of the second generation to the first one, who first started to live in this area after the WWII. By comparing the generation balances of populations between 1980 and 2000, it is clarified that the Tokyo Metropolitan Area is not monotonous even in the suburbs. From the micro-scale analysis, it is clarified that the population is extremely out of balance in suburban detached housing areas, apartment housing developments, business and commercial districts near stations, and agricultural areas.
Collecting rainwater and penetrating it into the ground in a whole river basin and slow outflow into a stream path in waterway trails can prevent urban river flood and create important effects for human beings and for ecological creatures. In our proceeding paper, we had set up the elemental effects by such outflow control of rainwater. The purposes of this research was to obtain residents evaluations 1. on contigent local government policy for outflow control of rainwater in Shirako River basin and in waterway trails, and 2. on the elemental effects. 318 residents (16% of the total) answered the questions. (1) 80% of residents agreed the policy and admitted residents tax payment. The amounts of the tax per year were 5,000〜7,000 yen for outflow control of the whole basin and 3,000〜4,000 yen for streams in waterway trails. (2) The highly evaluated elemental effects by the residents were flood control, daily use, ecology, underground water cultivation, climate control, and amenity. (3) And we concluded that residents evaluations which were shown above (2)(3) proved the importance of our original effects by outflow control. (4) Some words of the effects were not clearly known by the residents. However, sketches and brief explanations of the effects seemed to have helped their understanding.
The purpose of this study is to construct a fundamental evaluation theory for the various functions of a road network in district scale from the city scale viewpoint. This theory is based on Percolation Theory because of some similarities between road blockade by houses collapse and the site process percolation model of Square lattice. The distinction of this theory is that the function of road network after an earthquake will be evaluated for any size district, if average probability of road blockade and road shortage in a district is given. In this paper, we explain in detail that in the constructing process of this theory we consider the distribution of passable probability of each road which compose a road network, and we indicate an evaluation method of the road network function focusing on the fire fighting difficulty.
Recently, there are growing interests on introducing the transit-mall to commercial areas in order to re-create the pedestrian-oriented urban environment for revitalization of declining city centers in the developing countries as well as Japan. This study aims to clarify the system of supporting the accessibility and creating the urban liveliness at the two transit malls in the traditional city center of Tianjin City, China through the survey on the mall area. Following the survey and analysis on the pedestrian traffic and physical environment at the malls and the traffic condition on the other streets connecting the malls, we clarify the planned and controlled traffic system and the function of each of these streets in the district. These results of the analysis suggest on the method and manipulation for pedestrian-oriented development of the shopping street in the existing urban area and creation of the liveliness on the mall.
The purpose of this research is evaluate the three-dimensional spatial structure of Shiodome area, the urban space which is being constructed through the Urban Renewal of Japanese Government. The analysis is done from the viewpoint of accessibility, contrasting the straight distance of a sight line which is lead by a basic behavior of transferring in the urban space with the actual distance of transferring. With this viewpoint, the urban space of Shiodome Area which is in the process of construction, and the existent neighboring urban space of Shinbashi Area is analyzed and compared. Through this method, the characteristics of each urban spaces are extracted and the accessibility within the urban space is evaluated. Theoretical model is also developed in terms of accessibility, so that the evaluation of actual urban spaces may be made by comparison with the theoretical model.
Quality management techniques in China construction have improved since its open door policy in 1978. TQC and ISO9000s have been made to improve quality in the production process and the efficiency of construction operations. The improvement is largely attributed to the management skill transfers of Japan and Western knowledge. However, Chinese construction quality management techniques are still generally considered to be primitive and immature when compared with Japan or Western countries. So far, little research has been conducted on construction quality management and very limited documents about the construction TQC and ISO9000s in China has been published. This paper by the reviews of the popular process of TQC and ISO9000s for the construction industry, discusses the reasons that may lead to the failure of TQC, ISO9000s program in Chinese construction industry.
The paper attempts to describe the recent trend of increasing homeless population in the USA and UK, and to analyse how governments are restructuring their homeless policies for improving the cost-effectiveness of their policies. The analysis has identified several common trend in restructuring in both countries, such as the emphasis of holistic approach, assigning more responsibility to local governments, targeting the scope of policies, introducing prevention approach and improving economic efficiency of NPO's activities. These findings should provide useful insights for improving the cost-effectiveness of homeless policies in other countries.
This study aims to analyze the standardization of the member size in Nandai-mon, Todai-ji as an inevitable preparation for the formation of the Daibutsu style, the new construction method invented by Chogen. 1) Through the calculation of the percentage ratio of timber volume and structural timber volume, 6 kinds of parts with standardized section are found in Nandai-mon, Todai-ji. 2) The percentage ratio of timber volume of 6 kinds of standardized parts above mentioned is 82.23% of total timber volume. 3) Main section sizes of horizontal members of the frame are standardized.
This paper clarifies the formation and the features of the Yasukawa's residence at the late Meiji era. The residence is clearly divided into a dwelling space, a guest room, and service area. Although the main appearance residence at the late Meiji era mainly consists of Japanese style design, a Western style element was introduced to other places; for example, the two warehouses; though the appearance and a scale are almost the same, they are different structures made of wood and brick. The features of Yasukawa's residence became clear when compared with an entrepreneur's residence or a coal mine owner's residence. The formation of the Yasukawa's residence follows the design of the Imperial Family and other upper-class residences that incorporate traditional Japanese architecture.
Japanese Government erected its pavilion at Panama-Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco in 1915. This Japanese-style pavilion was modeled on Kinkaku-ji temple and designed by Goichi Takeda. This pavilion was reported to have the harmony between the building and its Japanese-style garden in the official report published by the Japanese government at that time. This paper reports that Goichi Takeda designed not only the building but also the garden. The most important point of the harmony is facing of the building on the pond of the garden. The idea was based on the principle of the harmony of the Kinkaku-ji temple between its building and its garden. In 1915 Goichi Takeda a Japanese architect, who studied Western architecture, were achieved to create the total beauty of the Japanese-style building with Japanese-style garden.
The main point of this paper is as follows: 1. When the Kagoshima cotton mill was erected in 1867, the Satsuma was involved in the cotton trade of British merchants owing to the world shortage caused by American Civil war. 2. Some plates of cotton mills in overseas bring 3 types of structure: spinning and weaving shed, multi-story spinning mill and multi-story spinning mill with weaving shed. 3. The structure of the Kagoshima cotton mill in the blueprint is new type of cotton mill at that time, small in a scale and similar to that in colonies. 4. Until the Osaka mill built in 1888, cotton mills-type in Japan could not have ranked with that in overseas except the Kagoshima cotton mill. 5. Kagoshima cotton mill seemed to be only experimental project for British firms but also a good teaching for Japanese cotton industries.
The roof on the Tokyo Station, with its original form, is one of the most distinctive features on the building and it is the slate that is mostly used on the roof among various kinds of materials. The design of the slate roof, however, has not been analyzed enough, and its tendency of the design and technique also have not been clear enough. This paper is going to clarify the design of the Tokyo Station, based on the usage of slate roof, and also clarify the position of the building among other buildings designed by Kingo Tatsuno and other architects in those days.
This study aims to clarify the correspondence between Raumplan (space plan) by Adolf Loos (1870-1933) and twelve tone composition by Arnold Schonberg (1874-1951). Descriptions on "musical space" in various writings on twelve tone composition, including "New Music, Outmoded Music, Style and Idea", show how Schonberg's "musical idea" from "within" was influenced by Loos's architectural theories at the time. As a result, it became clear that the concept of Raumplan by Adolf Loos was realized in the musical space of twelve tone composition by Arnold Schonberg.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the theories of body culture for Le Corbusier and Pierre Winter, his collaborator, and the relation between them and their architectural theories. This paper analyzes housing works of Le Corbusier in the 1920's from the view point of body culture. Body culture for him was a way obeying hygiene for health in the first expression. But at once a room for sports was created. In his works after 1925, a room for sports was placed outside below the sun. This room is suitable for Pierre Winter's concept'le Corps Nouveau'.
Astudy of the spatial use of Machiya (town houses) in Okayama district from the viewpoint of the initiation ceremonies and annual events: (1) In both districts, space for Hare (holy) and Kegare (uncleanness), that is character of Japanese folkloristic space, is not separated but some spaces for initiation ceremonies and annual events are separated. (2) In Shimotsui district, each space for initiation and annual events is separated from other spaces. On the other hand in Yakage district, the space for maternity ward and the space for wedding ceremony is separated from other spaces, and other spaces are combined. In Minka (farmer's house) in both districts, the characteristic of spatial use is the same as the characteristic in Machiya in Yakage district. (3) The space for maternity ward is separated from other spaces of initiation ceremonies and annual events, that is the same as Okayama district and all parts of the country. (4) The space for wedding ceremony is separated from other spaces for initiation ceremony and annual events in Machiya. On the other hand in Minka (farmer's house), the space for wedding ceremony is combined with other spaces for initiation ceremony and annual events. This difference of spatial use for wedding ceremony is connected with the change of wedding ceremony. It is thought that the space for wedding ceremony spread widely in Okayama district after the Meiji period, and many Zashiki spaces on the first floor in Machiya were made for wedding ceremony.
In the present paper, we studied the Japanese emotional expression in modern Japanese poems using KADOKAWA TANKA prize winning poetting works. Japanese living environment has greatly changed after the Second World War. In our investigation of Japanese spatial emotion, we found that The Japanese use of nature in poetical themes have not changed. Furthermore, even artificial articles have been metaphorised and appreciated in form of nature.
This paper aims to clarify the meaning of the invenzione and disegno in Vincenzo Scamozzi's architectural theory. Scamozzi attached the great importance to four words in his theory. They were scienza, invenzione, disegno, and peritia dell'arte, which words linked the various architectural methods that characterize his architectural theory. Invenzione and disegno are, above all, the most important concepts in those four words. These two words were connected with the various architectural methods, and in this paper the architectural methods of the forma naturale and of the forma mathematica are mainly discussed, which methods were always very important in the Renaissance architecture. And moreover, the two words invenzione and disegno are compared with Vasari's invenzione and disegno in order to make the characters of Scamozzi's concepts clear.