This study aims clarifing the origin of Family Room and the formative process of Dual Living Plan in American house. The findings are as follows. It is said by several researchers of the house history in USA that Family Room first appeared in Parents' Magazine in 1947. However We could not find that story in Parents' Magazine in 1947. We found only similar name which is Rumpus Room, Play Room and so on instead of Family Room. We discovered the name of Family Room in certain house plan on the Better Home and Gardens in 1948. Also the similar concept of Family Room already had appeared as Play Room in 1920's or Multipurpose Room in1930's. It suppose Dual Living Plan which is composed of Living Room and Family Room had been established by early 1960's by way of the embryo period and the trial period.
This paper aims to clarify the relationships between the spatial composition (such as presence and that layout of bedrooms, dayroom, lavatory and so on) and the residents' living aspects (staying places, ambulation, implication of staff etc.) in the severe motor and intellectual disabilities facilities with nursing home with small group units. In the result, if the place used is concluded in livelihood in the unit, livelihood is concluded in the unit. It has the possibility to bring the cooped-up feeling simultaneously with stability. On the other hand, if the livelihood domain was wide, the tendency with low relations density with the staff was seen though there were a lot of stable stay places. These differences are not the discussions that either is excellent as the spatial composition. I think that it means an advantage or a disadvantageous point is generated in each spatial composition.
This study aims at clarifying sexual difference of behavioral characteristic in common space in group house for the aged. The findings are as follows. Female residents often use common space, however male residents moderately do it. Female and male residents act on the difference zone in common space. Female residents tend to act collectively, however male residents act individually. Female residents tend to act widely in common space, however male residents act limitedly. Male residents tend to interest in group work by female residents, however they seldom participate in that group. Female residents can adapt easily to community life, however male residents can not do it.
The purpose of this research relevance is evaluated using correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis about the actual condition of different age interaction and indoor composition by indoor play of a nursery school. Five nursery schools where the special use and environment of the room differ were chosen. All day, the situation of the life of children was observed and recorded. Children's interaction situation and the relation between indoor play, the spatial relationship in the room, a corner, and furniture and fixtures was totaled and analyzed using correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. The result of analysis. Corner is a factor which induces exchange of different age. But Even if there is no corner, exchange of different age is generated. The constituent factor which is useful for exchange of the different age common to all the nursery schools was discovered.
This study clarifies the characteristics of citizen space and its transition over time based on a questionnaire survey conducted regarding citizen space and positional relationship. In addition, the types of citizen space as a place of communication are discussed. The following are the findings of this study. 1. The common type of citizen space that was established as a place of "communication" has changed from "surrounded type" to "tandem type", further changed to "front type I", independent type," "front type II," and "wedged type." 2. The size of citizen space has increased over time. The purpose of citizen space has changed from a space of "rest" to a space of "exhibition." 3. Events are held more often at newer city office buildings. 4. At city office buildings where the borderline between office space and citizen space is unclear, citizens can use such spaces only on week days. In order to enrich the function of citizen space as a place of communication among citizens, the shapes of citizen space as well as the administrative policies are important.
Guided by town planning regulations, Paris has maintained its townscape characterized by the continuity of building facades. They show similarity but are not homogeneous as they are based on various generations. Comparing with characheristic facades of urban-blocks, this paper analyses the design of surface-layers of individual buildings infilled in urban-blocks (Block-Infill Architecture). The characteristics of facades of urban-blocks is classified into 4 types by focusing on arrangements of additions such as balcons, louvers and slabs. The design of surface-layers of Block-Infill Architecture is classified into 11 types by focusing on types of the windows, their arrangements and their sectional compositions. As the result, 5 typical relationships are pointed out between Block-Infill Architectures and urban-blocks. It indicates that the surface-layers of Block-Infill Architecture are in line of harmonizing with the surrounding facades incorporating with some of the characteristics of the urban-blocks.
The relationship between routine snow removal area and several factors related to the site planning was studied by the case of residential area in Takasu Town in Hokkaido. Analyzed results will be basic information for the planning of detached houses considering snow removal. The following results have been obtained. 1) Both a distance of approach due to the site condition and a way of parking affect on the routine snow removal area. 2) The routine snow removal area of detached houses which have a enough space in a garage or a carport are less than 20m2. 3) Most part of routine snow removal area is the approach to the main entrance door. 4) Since installing a canopy or a covered walk along the approach is to increase the building-to-land ratio, the road heating system is usually taken measures for removing snow.
The balance of the sexes affects economic and social relationships within a community. The imbalances in the number of men and women may affect marriages and fertility patterns, labor force participation and the sex roles within the society. Therefore, many types of regional and urban planning such as community services requires sex ratios. First, we show the quantitative procedure to evaluate such imbalance based on a test of statistical hypothesis. Then, we measure such an imbalance of prefectures and cities in Japan.
The purpose of this study is to grasp the relationship between next-door neighbors in the linear rural settlement aiming at passages on the site, Yoko-michi in Tondenhei-mura, and to comprehend effects of spatial structure in community of today. The results are as follows; 1) Inhabitants make their residential environment effective by arranging the passage "Yoko-michi" to promote communication with next-door neighbors. 2) The farmer and non-farmer relationship has coming and going to borrow or lend farmlands and agricultural facilities. 3) Spatial structure as the linear rural settlement has positive effects that inhabitants form their environment in community of today.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the influence of building arrangement and site composition of Javanese traditional residence on the process of rebuilding the dwelling enviornment in the case of Plembutan sub-village. Through the combination of temporary houses and permanent houses, earthquake victims rebuilt their dwelling environment in a similar configuration before the earthquake. Permanent housing that was built late in the recovery process disrupted the organizaition of the site and caused separation within families. In the case of a village, it is important that building recovery should occur through a gradual incremental process to create a diverse dwelling environment.
This study clarified the following points on the relationship between dwelling and manufacturing function for textile industry buildings located in Sumida ward, Tokyo. 1) The door plate survey showed that 68% of the buildings included dwelling function, and 29% shared dwelling and manufacturing function. 2) 62% of the buildings was found to have dwelling function from the questionnaire survey. 89% of the results showed agreement with the door plate survey. 3) Only 50% of the land use investigation results showed agreement with the actual situation on the mixed function of buildings. Reliance of the land use investigation was found to be poor.
The purpose of this study is to consider the way of effective utilization of the historic constructions in Italy. To investigate how the spaces have been transformed to be adapted for the public use, this research focuses on the spatial composition in the re-utilized curtyards in the historic area in Milan. Analyzing typologically the ways of arranging such spatial compositions, 6 types of spatial compositions are identified. In conclusion, the courtyards with continuities of streets are used for commercial shops or exhibition space. On the other hand, the courtyards composed internally without connection of street are used for educational activities or offices.
The purpose of this study is to clarify changes in location of large-scale retail stores in Tokushima prefecture and the shopping behavior of consumers. First, change in location of large-scale retail stores in suburban areas is observed. Second, after the change of shopping behavior is analyzed, the relationship between changes in shopping behavior and the large-scale retail stores is explained. Third, importance of factors which influence shopping behavior is clarified using the shopping behavioral model. As a result, it was found that the mechanism of shopping demand to the large-scale retail stores in suburbs increased in recent years.
In this paper, which focuses on several source books of the Ming Period, we aim to elucidate the “three great trunk dragons” view of geography in Chinese history and to determine it's meaning with regard to location planning. Our purpose can be summarized as follows: 1. To determine the origins of the “three great trunk dragons” view of geography. 2. To inscribe the “three great trunk dragons” on maps. 3. To analyze the relationship between the “three great trunk dragons” and water systems. 4. To study the relationship between the “three great trunk dragons” and the location of capital cities in history.
The result of part 1 in this study is that the enterprises which adopted ‘agency system’ went well by developping pre-designed house. The purpose of part 2 is to clarify what happened to industrialized house during the changes housing market in the 1990's. The results are as follows: (1) Housing market had expanded from the 1980's, but has reduced from 1997. (2) The request for floor plans, interior and exterior design and equipments of industrialized house has been deversified. Therefore, the enterpises which adopted ‘direct system’ and sold customized house mainly went well while the enterpises which adopted ‘agency system’ did not. Therefore, they changed their sales-construction system from ‘agency system’ to ‘direct system’ in the early 2000's.
In the transition to a matured society, each housing builders are required to create their own originality in order to increase market competitiveness. In Japan there are many small housing builders, a lot of which build wooden custom-built houses as principal contractor. Therefore we are going to draw the blueprint for them through the results of the questionnaire survey and the hearing investigation. These researches were carried out with the purpose of gaining present conditions and characteristics of small housing builders which are supposed to lead their own originality. This study led that small housing builders have the followings characteristics; 1) to manage building projects, 2) to utilize highly external resources, 3) to accumulate know-how and 4) to run a business with an initiative of a representative.
The purpose of this research is to reveal what changes have taken place in the life-style of aged single-person households after their dwellings were renovated from 2K to 1DK. The changes indicate that 80% of the dwellers chose to have their meals in the DK room and sleep in the traditional Japanese- style 6 mat tatami room (about 9.96 m2). Due to preferences developed over a long life-time, and due to the DK room's usually being small, many single living elders use tables only without accompanying chairs in the DK in their daily lives. On the other hand, 20% of the single living elders mainly live in the Japanese-style room without using the DK room at all. The research also shows that the single elderly people disposed of part of the furniture possessed by the family when they moved to the renovated house. The single elders who spend their daily lives mainly in one room tend to place a lot furniture in the other room. This is a remarkable feature witnessed in the survey.
This paper aims to investigate the relation between the raft's size and common heights of town house's eaves in Kyoto under Tokugawa regime. The Standard of town house's eaves were 4242 mm or 4545 mm called “joshi” or “jogo”. In precede studies, these size were come from rafts size flowing on the Hotsu-river (Ooi-river or Katsura-river). But, these rafts were made by timbers adjusted by “Rokushakusao” (1818 mm measure) and town houses were made by timbers adjusted in “Kyoma” (1965.5 mm measure). After all, there was no evidence about direct participation.
This paper, I analyze how the Improvement Discussions at Meiji era influence the Ireko style Noh Theater. For the case study, I pick up Architecture Yamazaki Seitaro who is well known for an authority of Noh. He designed Hosokawa and Umewaka Noh Theater. From these two examples, using Yamazaki's design summary and the first discovered plan of Hosokawa Noh Theater, I inspect how Improvement Discussions on Noh Theater influenced the formation of Ireko style Noh Theater.
This paper discuss about the tea firing places in foreign settlements. The main points are as follows : - • The structural style of tea firing place in the three foreign settlements, Nagasaki, Yokohama and Kobe, were commonly one-storied building, surrounded by stone block, plastered or wooden wall, and covered with pan-tiles in its roof having a raised section of louver in order to take heat and moisture, although there were some small differences in the shape of roof, and the layout of each properties. • The way of preparing and firing in these places was transferred from that in China, but different in the point that the former establishments were arranged to be enlarged and intensive manufacture employing hundreds of labours and pans in closed building. • These tea firing places, the one-storied structure and the louver in the roof of which was influenced and restricted by pans and hand manipulation, were regarded as “behind the age” by the Indian tea planter, who, although also originally transferred from China, operated modern tea factories which, in contrast, was arranged to be rational plan by availing tea preparing machines and trams. • It is considered that, comparing with other examples, Glover & Co.'s establishment, which was superior in facilities but could not make use of fully, seemed to be adventurous and experimental project.
The purpose of this research is to clarify the actual conditions of the building and a historic background about the dormitory in the old system national high school. The architectural features of the lodging block in a dormitory are as follows. 1) The number of the blocks is increased and fixed in about 6 blocks. 2) The architectural area is made small-scale. 3) In the arrangement of the blocks, “parallel type” and “half parallel type” are the majority. 4) The form of the corridor shifts from an inside corridor to the one side corridor.
It was "Register of ministry-owned assets" that it was made in 1891. It is this report that it tried for elucidation of the perspective of official residences for ministerial officials during the mid-Meiji Period through the "Register of ministry-owned assets" with the only thing along perspective of enormous official residences supply. The compiled document has gap in precision between each ministries, and I cannot assert completely cover all the perspective of official residences for ministerial officials during the mid-Meiji Period, but thinks that it has important value to have clarified the jurisdiction range of each ministry. From "Register of ministry-owned assets", The official residences supply was not performed integrally as of the mid-Meiji Period and understood that mainly entrusted to the discretion of each ministry. At the official residences for senior government officials, around minister official residences the positive introduction of "residences with Japanese and European houses adjacent to each other" which made the mainstream of the residence of the upper class after the Meiji era was seen. The official residences of the general government official followed most of the usual models and official residences for ministerial officials during the mid-Meiji Period had a big gap in official residences for senior government officials and the official dwelling of the general government official.
This study is on the “Nikko Ryuzu Yama no Ie(Lodge at Ryuzu in Nikko)” designed by architect Tsuyoshi Ichiura in 1940. The author clarified several points through analysis of its construction process and the people who took part in this work. These points are: 1. Style of this is clearly influenced by Antonin Raymond's design. There is few works directly influenced by Raymond's design, except those by his disciples. In this sense, this work has significant meanings on the architectural world in Japan. 2. One of the reasons of Raymond's influence on interior of this work might be the existence of Tokichi Akasaka who took charge in the construction of “Natsu no Ie(Architect's Summer Quarters in Karuizawa)” designed by Raymond. 3. The author clarified the curriculum vitae of Tokichi Akasaka. According to the research, Akasaka turned out to be a contractor, not a carpenter. 4. Change in Raymond's design style of wooden architecture began from late 1920s. Through the research, the reason might also be from the existence of Japanese contractors and carpenters, not only of Raymond's Japanese design stuffs.
The study make it clear that the activities of Taiwan Architecture Institute in Japanese Governance, which was the first organization in Taiwan architectural history. It existed from 1929 to 1945. It issued the Journal of Taiwan Architectural Institute. Almost of Taiwan Architecture Institute's members were the people who worked in Taiwan Sotokufu. In order to find Taiwan's Architecture Identity, they approached the technique and culture. During the World War II, they studied about Southeast Asia.
This paper focuses some previous discussions around Khmer monuments at Koh Ker in the Preah Vihear province, Cambodia. Architectural style of these monuments was once explained as "Art of the North-Eastern School," contrasted with that of Angkor or the North-Western region, especially caused by its triangular pediments with remarquable spiral scrolls at borth ends. However, this hypothesis was denied when a new chronology of Khmer arts was proposed. Through these discussions, this paper points out some unsolved problems around the architectural characteristics of Khmer monuments at Koh Ker and in the "North-East region."
This paper examined the proposals of National Monuments in Budapest and classified them into following three types: 1. A graveyard or a temple to mourn the dead great figures, placed in calm mountains. Historical or religious significance of their sites serves to enhance the value of the proposed monuments. 2. Mausoleums in honor to the national heroes, located on the top of a high and steep mountain. They offer impressive views especially to the tourists approaching the city. 3. Pavilions on the hilltop to show important historic moments of the nation to visitors. They were planned with consideration for the relationship with the city center or a certain adjacent district. The first proposal of the monument in 1841 by Széchenyi István belongs to the type 1. In the Pantheon competition held in 1882, all of the three types were presented. The type 3 gained popularity in 1890s when an exhibition and new bridges were proposed near Gellért-hill.
The intention of this paper is to make a thematic explication of William Morris's theory of creation through inquiring into his concepts of “house-building” which he thought was one of crafts and “gardening” which he thought was related to the homestead. The analysis consists of three chapters as follows: Chapter 2 illustrates the practical aspect of “house-building”. Similarly, Chapter 3 illustrates the practical aspect of “gardening”. In Chapter 4, the ethical aspect of “house-building” and “gardening” will be analized following the concept of “pleasure”.
This paper deals with the formation process of neighboring boundary. Kyoto had a variety of neighboring boundaries at Edo period. This paper classified the neighboring boundary into three kinds based on fixation. The main current was vague neighboring boundaries, and bending neighboring boundaries without boundary devices, before urbanization of the 17th century. The block changed a vague neighboring boundary to a lucid device, by the process of modenization. The neighboring boundary with the ruggedness in an architectural scale was maintained as it used to be, or was replaced by a straight line neighboring boundary.
Protection of twentieth century architectural heritage is recent world wide concern. This paper concerns the cases in Finland, one of the leading countries in this matter, and especially the heritage of Alvar Aalto, the architect. First, this article introduces the interest for twentieth century heritage in Finland. Second, it researches for the conservation of Alvar Aalto's heritage in the Finnish architectural review “Arkkitehti”. So the paper covers also the activity of Alvar Aalto Foundation, the practical cases of restoration of Finlandia Hall, one of his masterpieces and also international project of restoration of Library of Viipuri, Russia.
This paper examines the community recovery assistance and reconstruction process after the 921 earthquake in Taiwan. The Tuniu district in Shiukang village was used as a case study to investigate the reconstruction process, and indicated that there are distinct phases; (i) state of confusion after the earthquake, (ii) building trusting relationships among residents and experts and creating incentives for the reconstruction, (iii) searching ways to community reconstructing by residents and experts, (iv) building networks and infiltrating residents, and (v) community management by residents' reliance. The implications of these findings for recovery assistance and reconstruction planning are discussed.
We assessed the daily emergency characteristics of external causes taken to hospital in Osaka using the call-out records of the Osaka City Emergency Service for the year 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005. According to the occurrence and spread of the daily emergency in these areas for elementary school administrative districts with consideration to time of day, place of occurrence and ages, following 3 aspects were obtained. 1. The elderly, especially over 75 years old are most dangerous and twice as much as 1990. 2. Domestic accidents are relatively correlative to the elderly, especially without their family (by themselves) and old housing constructed before 1980. 3. Accidents of outside home relatively have correlation with the commercial buildings and day time population.
Housing reconstruction projects supported with foreign agencies such as JICA and USAID are under process in Banda Aceh, Indonesia, the most damaged area due to the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. As of March 2008, there are still some problems with regard to city and village planning in the post recovery process from the viewpoint of disaster management. The authors conducted a field survey in March 2008 to understand the recovery conditions, and had interview to JICA, BRR, and the victims about livelihood condition at new resettlement sites. This paper demonstrates the recovery process of affected people, and clarifies the problems of the reconstruction and rehabilitation project managed by BRR using structural chart of post-disaster recovery process.