A model for urban evacuation in multiple disasters of earthquake, fire and tsunami was proposed. This model is an extension of existing model only for urban fire in which the effect of wind-blown fire plumes on evacuation behavior is formulated by introducing a potential concept. Evacuation simulation for coastal densely-built urban area was conducted to verify the model's predictive functions through two thousand trials in which multiple disasters following the Nankai Trough Earthquake were assumed.
In order to understand structure of factors in installing smoke alarms in ordinary houses, we constructed a structural equation model by simultaneous analysis of several groups to interpret and give consideration. For the analysis we used existing survey data which was obtained on a previous work by a questionnaire on residents in detached and owned houses in Joso city, Moriya city, Kasumigaura city and Ishioka city, Ibaraki prefecture. Investigating signs and values of the path coefficients, we found that features of the models on each city were mostly similar except for the factors of support measures by the municipal authorities. And, the model showed that "fear image of smoke alarms" had the largest influence upon whether the respondents had installed them or not. The result suggest that measures to sweep residents' negative impressions of smoke alarms are more important to promote installing them than uplifting people's fire risk perception and announcing effectiveness of the equipment.
A toilet of commercial building is used as a safe and clean public toilet when going out, because it is well maintained in order to lead to the pulling in customers. In this article, the author researches on H station building. For continuation of the comfort of its toilet, employees, cleaning staffs and a designer are united, and perform an action of the improvement during 20 years. Through the results of annual questionnaire of users and the record of 66 times of maintenance meetings meantime, problems and evaluation of the toilet design and the cleaning management are clarified and a design method of the commercial building toilet is proposed.
The purpose of this study is to discuss the validity of junior high school districts as the basis for setting official senior care service areas. The results of a survey of one hundred and seventy-five (175) senior people show that the actual living spheres of elderly people match, on average, two or three elementary school districts and that local organizations take responsibility in these elementary school districts. Therefore, it can be argued that junior high school districts are meaningful as the standard for official care service area settings, because they are group units of a few elementary school districts.
This study aims to reveal traditional measures developed as response against Tsunamis and their impact on the spatial composition of a fishing village previously affected by four Tsunamis since the Meiji era. In order to understand the specific details of each Tsunami event, the study divides and analyzes the village into three areas: "Around the Sea Area " "Around the Houses Area " "Mountain- forest Area". The study reveals the importance not only of the dependence on actual measures but also the importance of taking into account land use strategies derived from the experience of local residents.
After the tsunami of the Great East Japan Earthquake, various projects have been pushed forward for early restoration while they don't necessarily restore former town-scapes which was entirely transformed. Some local people are worried about losing their memories of hometown in course of recovery. This essay examines, how they could retrive and transmit memories of their lost towns to next generations through the workshops to build 1:500 restoration models on the central districts (Machikata area) at Otsuchi town in Iwate prefecture. The result enables us to explore memories of town space and means to share and utilize them.
This study aims at clarifying the relations of soundscape and smellscape with the elements constituting urban space in residential area. To this end, this study compared the characteristics of sounds and smells with those of urban space elements in each area, street, and building. The result shows that sounds or smells connected with the life and overflowing from a building had a strong relation with the seven elements, namely, the width and the direction of the street, ventilation fans, plants overlapping with windows, direction of the entrance and the porch, structure of the building and plants in the garden.
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to clarify the historical transformation of the urban park in mountain foot areas of Dalian City in China. Dalian is famous sea-side city, having beautiful mountains as a background of city. Therefore, how to preserve the mountain scenery is one of the essential issues of Dalian. We chose Laodong Park as a study site, since it has a long history from the end of the 19th century. The following three points are clarified. The first is the planning principle of the park differed, based on the political reasons. In Russian era, the park was a buffer zone between Chinese people and European people. In Japanese era, the extensive park plan was implemented, and basically it has been succeeded after the Chinese revolution. Secondly, however, there exist the strong principles related to the geography and landscape. We analyzed three landscape units and these units succeeded more than one hundred years. Thirdly, the various needs to the park have been solved by changing and adding the facilities within the landscape units. We conclude based on the fundamental principles caused from these landscape units, it becomes possible to manage and preserve mountain foot landscapes in Dalian.
Multi-dimensional network should be established by activists, educational organizations, etc., in addition to the local members, in order to renovate community. This study focused upon intermediary organization as an agent to facilitate such network. It observed a community learning program, “Nagomin Yokocho”, operated by Okazaki Community Design Center LITA, and concluded that such a program had effects to intensify the network, and that the following matters are effective onto the facilitation: 1) The organization attends to the concept of program: 2) It takes the advantage of facility manager: 3) It utilizes its own relationships over several facilities for the program in turns.
This study aims at evaluating living convenience by accessibility on foot from dwelling units of super high-rise residential buildings to facilities. It chose Musashikosugi, Hashimoto and Musashikoganei as target areas. The analysis was based on the following two working hypotheses: remoteness of facilities is caused by public open spaces and movement in the buildings; in spite of the apparent convenience by locating facilities in the lower floors, the choice is limited. The result shows that the way and scale of redevelopment caused difference in convenience, and that the facility numbers and the distances to nearest facilities had a different property.
This paper aims at clarifying the factors in residents' sense of security in detached house remodeling project. A questionnaire survey to the residents was conducted in suburban housing areas.With the factor analysis, five potential factors in the sense of security were founded: understanding of the project, evaluation of the professional, third-party participation, continuous relationship with the professional and the documentation. The attitude toward the factors becomes negative with aging. And the attitude differs from residents' attribute such as age, place to live, experience and positiveness of house maintenance and the continuous relationship with the professionals.
There are a lot of unexpected design changes which can occur during a construction project at the request of various participants. Factors such as initial cause, requestor, change content and occurrence timing further complicate matters which can lead to positive or negative effects accordingly. Therefore it is important to understand the character of design changes made during each project by classifying and defining these factors, in order to make adequate decisions to control future design changes. This paper deals with design change from initial request to response, including the decision making process, and is based upon 2 steel fabrication projects. Projects were selected based upon different delivery methods: as design-bid-build (DBB) or design-build (DB), in order to compare the difference of delivery method to design change. Firstly, the project organization and general work process of each project, as well as production design processes, are introduced. Also, detailed information of design change response process is analyzed, focusing on the decision making and response cost of design changes. Finally, the scenario based simulation is performed, in order to clarify the increasing tendency of response cost of design changes on steel fabrication projects.
This is a study on the needs for the management service during building project for clients. Plenty of track records executed by a CM company is investigated and analyzed on the client characteristics. In this paper, three findings are presented.1. Architectural consultant and CM company have to perform their service, after they understand the client characteristics clearly.2. There are three important client characteristics for the management services, "the purpose of a building investment" , "the human skill" and "the project formation."3. The three important client characteristics have big influence on client needs.
“Diary of Masakiyo Mishima, Shogun's Vassal” is a fine historical text, wrote by one adopted Samurai, Masakiyo Natsume who was one of the cadences in Natsume Family, inherited Mishima Family even after Mishima Family suffering from lapse of the official heirship, which is called “Matsugo-youshi” in the inheritance process of Samurai class in the Edo Era. The diary covers the years of ending Edo Era up to the beginning of Meiji Era with very detailed descriptions in the form of time-series. Because Mishima Family was classified as one of middle-class clans of Shogun's Vassal, thus had a main manor (Kami-yashiki) as well as a sub manor (Shimo-yashiki), we can follow how he did with the manors stipulated by the conventions of that time on household, family system as well as estate, which were all impacted with the revolutionary changing happened with the collapse of Tokugawa-House (Tokugawa-Bakufu). We abstract several interesting issues from the architectural (or social scientific if we like to say broadly) point of view, and discuss on those.
This paper is part of the study that analyzes the acceptance of French architectural theories in Modern Japan through Jumpei Nakamura, Japanese Professor Architect, and his theory and his educational practice. It is mainly organized in the analysis about:- Education when Jumpei Nakamura received at the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris (ENSBA).- Education and impact on Jumpei Nakamura by Edouard Arnaud.Theory and educational practice of Edouard Arnaud, French Professor Architect-Engineer, teaching "Construction" lecture at the ENSBA, had great impact on Jumpei Nakamura's theory and educational practice.
This article examines the initial plan for new Korean Governor-General Building and then Gyeonbokgung based on the comparative review of Illustrated Plan for Keijo City and Site Plan for Gyeonbokgung. The site plan was developed somewhere between November and December of 1912 and the illustrated plan from June to December the same year. Also, the similarities drawn between the illustrated plans of new Korean Governor-General Building and previous Gyeonbokgung are deemed related to Georg de Lalande's Site Plan for Gyeonbokgung.
Giannozzo Manetti (1396-1459) is a famous humanist in an intellectual circle of pope Eugenius IV and Nicholas V. De Secularibus et Pontificalibus Pompis is a detailed description of the consecration of Florence Cathedral in 1436. This text has caught the distinctive features of architectural ekphrases of the fiftteenth century in Italy. I regarded Giannozzo Manetti as an “architect” in the Early Renaissance. Based on my analysis about De Secularibus et Pontificalibus Pompis, it is reasonable to suppose that Giannozzo Manetti is a rival of Alberti in the practice of architecture.
This paper interprets persuasively on side as representational medium in architectural planning of lineamentum in Alberti's architectural theory. We made the interpretation, on the basic nature that our previous paper has clarified of the lineamentum, by analyzing the use of perscriptio among his architectural, picture and sculpture theories. The result is as the following; the side of the lineamentum is, essentially, the representational medium (signum) that represents analogically the geometrical representational medium (perscriptio). It is, so to speak, semi-geometrical figure, more simply, figure. But the figure actualizes with the lineamentum at the two scenes that is meant by limbus.
The intention of this paper is to elucidate the structure of William Morris's essays on books in 1890s and to evaluate it as an origin of the theory of life in the arts and craft s movement. This paper consists of three chapters. In Chapter 2, the position of Morris's essays in his activities is described. In Chapter 3, the concepts of “the epical” and “the ornamental ” that lead Morris's thought in 1890s are analyzed. In Chapter 4, the meaning of the duality of books is dissertated through inquiring into Morris's statements about “love of nature” and “the romantic quality”.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the character of Jørn Utzon's architectural thought from the whole and relative viewpoint. From five writings, 395 important words expressed architectural thought were extracted, and arranged by 76 keywords. They were arranged by 16 middle categories, and also were arranged by five large categories.In conclusion, Utzon's main architectural thought made from [Formal methodology] and [Sensuous methodology] became clear. The other was [Principle] which expressed the idea, and was [View of nature] as a source of the image. On the other hand, there were a few references about [View of the times].
The aim of this study is to clarify the expression of comparing size of spaces by arrangement of room in contemporary architecture. This expression is made by the conbination of ‘parameter’(showing difference of scale) and ‘constant’(showing identity of scale). At first, we clarify ‘direct comparison’ and ‘indirect comparison’ as two method comparing with the size of several rooms, and draw the heirarchy chart which shows how ‘parameter’, ‘constant’ and these method are combined in every expression. Finally 7 types are defined through the combination of some heirarchy chart in one architecture, and as a result, the form is revealed that the combination of these two method bring the diversity and complexity to the expression of comparing size of spaces by arrangement of room in contemporary architecture.
This study clarifies how a Din-a-ka (a roofed walkway), a remarkable characteristic of historical city landscaping in Taiwan, led to problems of control and correspondence in their administration. A Din-a-ka was formed in 1900 by the “Taiwan Building Regulation”. It was put in place in the scope of the City improvement project that was carried out throughout Taiwan, starting in 1905. A Din-a-ka had two aspects: while being private property, it was also public space. This is because a Din-a-ka was the walk way connecting the private properties along commercial streets. A Din-a-ka would often lose its function as a walkway, due to the fact that the owners of the occupied the space with goods and empty boxes and their children rode their bicycles along it. In 1918, the Street control regulation was promulgated. By giving the police a legal basis for managing a Din-a-ka, the consolidation of a Din-a-ka gradually continued. In the street control regulation, a Din-a-ka was recognized as private property but was officially given the status of a public walk way.On the other hand, the aligned perspective of a Din-a-ka itself was considered to be a form of beauty. According to this view, the urban beauty of Taiwan was an extension of the Japanese urban beauty campaign.
This study clarified the characteristics of process in reconstruction of commerce in flood damaged businesses by using “Revival Curve Chart” and “How-to-Repair Survey”. The major results are as following.1. The process of reconstruction can be classified into three types with “steady”, “delayed”, “two stage” as the progress, and with “restoration”, “improvement”, “suitable” as the course, respectively.2. The trend of reconstruction is generally decided depending on nine inner / external factors. Among them, “status of business of pre-disaster” and “age of merchants” work predominantly.3. An altruistic action of struck shops supports the livelihoods reconstructing in the region in no small way.