The goal of this study is to develop a simple and practical model for predicting an overall convective heat transfer coefficient in compartment fires. Experiments using a small scale (500mm cube) and a medium scale (1500mm cube) compartments were conducted to investigate the convective heat transfer coefficient in the early stage of fires. It is found that dimensionless heat release rate Q^* which is defined using heat release rate of fire source and height of compartment as characteristic length can provide a fair scaling parameter for convective heat transfer coefficient with different heat release rate and scale of compartment in the early stage of fire in which the flow induced by fire source is considered to be dominant.
The purpose of this paper is to know the difference of response between the subjects with normal hearing and hearing impaired in reverberate sound fields. Experiments were carried on the subjects either with normal hearing or hearing impaired by tri-syllable articulation tests under the conditions of 0,1,2,4,6[sec] reverberation time. The result of this paper is as follows; 1. The articulation score of the aged is 25% less than the normal hearing in reverberante sound field. 2. Reverberation has disturbance and contribution to the 2nd and the 3rd syllable articulation score, 3. The result of tri-syllable articulation test cannot distinguish the difference among the experiment fields with above 2 second reverberation time, but the confusion rate of vowels in scores of the aged increase by reverberation time.
The relationship among syllable articulation ,sentence intelligibility and physical indicator in rooms has not been discussed. And the contribution of context effect on speech intelligibility has not been estimated. So, we carried out speech intelligibility tests in experimental sound fields under noise and reverberation. The result of this paper are as follows ; l) The tendency of speech intelligibility is different from syllable articulation in noise and reverberation fields. 2) There is possibility of using sentence material evaluating better than syllable one. 3) Speech Transmission Index is unsuitable for evaluating speech intelligibility.
The purpose of this study is to analyze indoor thermal environment of a highly insulated airtight house in seasonal hot-humid area. In this paper, shelter performance, indoor thermal environment, and energy consumption of a highly insulated airtight house installed with central ventilation system and ordinary houses were investigated in Kitakyushu. The major conclusions of this measurement are as follows. l)This house is excellent in heat insulating and airtightness compared with the ordinary houses. The heat loss coefficient per floor area of the house is 2.53 W/(m^2・K) and equivalent leakage area per floor area of the house is 0.94 cm^2/m^2 measured by the pressrization method. (0.56 cm^2/m^2 by the depressurization method) 2)There is a room for improvement in the indoor thermal environment on air-conditioning during the summer, because this house had no consideration for solar shading and there are some problems about the position of thermosensor for air-conditioning and the balance of the air-flow below the floor level. 3)It is efficient to use the ventilation system installed with a sensible and latent heat exchanger at a highly insulated airtight house diring both summer and winter.
The Ross'es model is one of the most excellent ones that estimate a radiation field within a plant community. It is, however, expressed by an integro-differential equation for radiance. A five-dimensional computing domain is necessary to solve a three-dimensional radiation field such as a tree-radiation. So, it is difficult to exactly compute the Ross'es equation, even if we use any super computer. In this report, we discuss the Diffusion Approximation, which seems most adequate to approximately calculate the Ross'es equation for two- and three-dimensional radiation fields. We extend the Diffusi on A pproximation of gas-transfer-equation to the Ross'es equation.
The project was focused on concrete multiple dwellings in cold region. The temperature and humidity of limited parts, such as on the comer in the closet or under the carpet, were measured on 4 multiple dwellings. Then influences of the way of ventilation and insulation were discussed through measurements and simulations. As a result, the temperature was low and relative humidity was high at limited parts for long period in the house with inside insulation. Outside insulation method showed the efficiency in keeping limited parts dry.
To obtain efficient humidity regulation effects in buildings, development of porous materials impregnated with chlorides was attempted. In a series of experiments, two types of calcium silicate boards and three types of building stones were used as base materials. For impregnated chemicals not only lithium chloride which was already confirmed its effectiveness in a former paper but also magnesium chloride and calcium chloride were tested. Results indicated that calcium silicate boards were more suitable than building stones for the base materials impregnated with chlorides. In addition, a high correlation between the impregnated content of chlorides and adsorption/desorption coefficient was obtained in the same manner of former experiment using lithium chloride.
A numerical method based on a general multiblock structured g,id system is presented for the simulation of wind flows around complex buildings. The basic equations are transformed into a generalized coordinate system and discretized with a finite volume method. To achieve continuous distribution of the physical variables at grid singularities, we introduced the correction process for right-hand side terms of the governing equations among the connected blocks. The method of artificial compressibility is applied to avoid the decoupling of the pressure variable from the velocity field. The computations of the laminar flow over a circular cylinder and the turbulent flow around a dome structure are presented for a validation of the solution algorithm. To demonstrate the capability of the developed method, a flow simulation over a complicated marine structure is also included.
A three - dimensional turbulent flowfield around a cube placed in a surface boundary layer is predicted using Algebraic Stress Model (ASM) and Differential Stress Model (DSM). The results from these models are compared with those of wind tunnel tests conducted by the authors, and Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The overestimation of turbulent energy values around the frontal corner occurred in the k-e model are corrected by ASM. But ASM cannot reproduce anisotropic properties of each component of normal stresses in the area above the frontal corner while these discrepancies do not appear in the results of DSM. The differences between the results from two models are derived from the expression of convection and diffusion terms of transport equation of <u_i'u_j'>. Algebraic approximation in the case of ASM is examined precisely by the numerical data given by LES.
It is well known that fungi may scarcely germinate or grow in the house with sufficient ventilation. This effect may be a rule of thumb because scientific background such as experimental data or field test data are not shown. This study aims to clarify the ventilation effectiveness against prevention of fungal outbreaks in dwellings on the basis of full scale tests. A method of pair comparisons between a room with proper ventilation and a room without ventilation were adopted. In these rooms, building materials such as tatami mat. which is the Japanese traditional flooring, made of straw mat. plywood, wallpaper and so on were placed in order to observe germination or colony forming. Germination or colony forming on the building materials, set in the room with sufficient ventilation, were not confirmed although fingal contamination occurred in the room without ventilation. Measuring data of temperature and relative humidity in both rooms were compared with the thermal conditions preventing the growth of 4 kinds of hygrophile fungi, as was reported in the former paper. Measuring data in the room without ventilation were overlapped with the specified thermal region, nevertheless thermal condition in the room with proper ventilation was beyond the specified thermal region.
Thermal storage tanks are used to store thermal energy that is considered to be used up on the following day. However if heat is stored excessively, some of it will be lost due to heat transfer through walls and slabs surrounding the tank. To avoid the energy loss related to thermal storage tanks, predicted air-conditioning load required for the following day can be one of the indispensable information because rational operation of a heat source system with thermal storage tanks can be achieved utilizing the information. In this paper the method to predict the air-conditioning load is proposed. The method consists of two stages; weather data prediction and load prediction. The method was applied for the operation of the heat source system of a real building and the measured results are shown here. The error of the prediction was about 12 % for winter and 29 % for summer. The low accuracy for summer should be improved, however, it is also due to the highly unpredictable summer weather when the trial was made.
Seasonal acclimatization in optimum temperature based on some field investigations has been analyzed. Because, if seasonal acclimatization is confirmed to exist, it will expand the width of optimum temperature between summer and winter in air conditioned rooms, which contributes to reduce the global environment load through decreasing air conditioning load for buildings. Four items such as an office bulding, a school and two kinds of dwellings were chosen among field investigations. Analysis has shown that seasonal difference of optimum temperature is minus in the office room, null in the school room and over 4K in both dwellings respectively excluding the effect of clothing insulation. Appearance of seasonal acclimatization in dwellings is evident in a great difference such as 4K of optimum temperature.
Numerical evaluation of seasonal acclimatization of human body on the neutral temperature of environment was examined by using a thermoregulatory model. Basal metabolic rate, skin conductance and vasodilation factor were introduced as elements to effect on seasonal acclimatization. The results of calculation are as follows. Change of basal metabolic rate has the most significant effect between these three pararmeters on the neutral temperature of environment. Values of the neutral temperature of environment are estimated to be 0.9-2.6 K higher in summer than in winter, when basal metabolic rate changes by 10-30 %. They rise 4.4-6.1 K when garment insulation value also changes from 0.9 clo in winter to 0.3 clo in sumrner.
Authors investigated the relationship between new shopping centers and their nearest railway stations considering the distance between them, the size of the shopping centers, and the generation of community facilities around the shopping centers. The conclusions derived from this investigation are as follows;(1)The densities of community facilities around each shopping center are classified into four categories according to the size of the shopping center and the distance from the nearest railway station. (2)Some shops or services which are not available in the shopping centers are found near the entrances of the shopping centers.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the types of the mutual use network with different service area at public libraries.The results are as follows;There are some libraries with many network users at each network. The factors of their use are the distance from libraries,the location of library which is convenient for use and the attraction of books or facilities. The types and their service area of the mutual network are determined by those factors.As for the type of distance factor, network users come from 1.2km-1.5km and the ratio of registrant range from10% to 25% of the area. For the attractive factor, they come from the distance of 3km by car and the ratio of registrant is only 5%.As for the convenient factor,they come from as far as 5km by train and 9km by car and the ratio of registrant range higher by train than by car.
This study makes clear the effects of level difference and ceiling height on spatial impression, function, and observed behavior of participants. In Experiment I subjects experienced the space that has level difference, and answered the impression and sense of volume. In experiment 2 subjects experienced the space freely, and their behavior (sit/ stand, and position) was observed. The results were summarized as follows; 1) Level difference under 180 (mm) had no effects on the evaluation of the space. 2) The answer of preference of sitting on and the observed behavior of sit-on increased at the level difference of 450. 3) Heightening of ceiling height decreased the under estimation of the volume and the feeling of oppression that are caused by heightening of level difference.
In this study, we consider a parallel relation of architectural plane description by Sight-Depth which was proposed by front manuscript and psychological quantity. Simulator was used with point which calibration Sight-Depth and they went along psychological experiment according to SD method. A factor analysis was performed and the description by 3 factor pieces. As the result the description by Sight-Depth and psychological quantity was parallelism, it understood comfort, the discontinuous length largest value simplicity of a surface as for Sight-Depth-Area. The mental implications which Sight-Depth has conformed and a computation of clearness and a precise architectural plane became possible.
This paper analizes the structural relations between farmhouses and the farMland, between fermers and farming intention from the viewpoint of settlement location, and the problems to conserve each farmland for a long time. The results are as follows: 1) In spite of the settlement location the farmhouses can be structured by the basic conditions, the applying conditions and the succeeding conditions of agriculture. That clarifies the directions to lead agricultural management of farmhouses. 2) There are 4 groups in the farmhouses. The 1st is stable in the basic and the succeeding conditions of agriculture in spite of the settlement location. The 2nd that manages agriculture as main business is stable in the basic and the applying conditions of agriculture, but it has common difficulties in the succeeding condition of agriculture. The 3rd that includes many farmhouses in plain area manages minimum farmland essential. The 4th that includes many in plain and mountainous area can't escape abandonment of agriculture under the present conditions. 3) About farming intention, the 1st's intention is reflected in the locality; farmers in suburban area hope to depend on agriculture, in plain area to cut down on size of farming, in mountainous area not to succeed agriculture. The 3rd and 4th's intention is reflected in not the locality but the characteristic of farmhouses; the former has high consciousness, the latter low to conserve the farmland. The 2nd's intention is reflected in both the locality and the characteristic of farmhouses; farmers in suburban area think much of agricultural production under the present conditions, in plain area succession of farmland. It is necessary that the group to conserve regional agriculture should be given the disadvantageous groups' farmland and grown as the core of farm management.
This study attempts to compare community and individuality of the way how people behave in the lift of meals and cooking in dwelling, in different peoples and regions cross-culturally. It regards the concept of the postural habits .as the index of measuring common culture, and it pursues to define the types and systems in the way of the dwelling life. Moreover, this study attempts to seek cultured regions of dwelling from the view point of behavioral patterns in dwelling life. The data of this study are collected from published photographic data. Before the change of life, which have continued until today, advances, in the way of dwelling life of peoples, the one based on the postural habits of making the bodies low coexists with that of making the bodies high, The two contrasted systems of the way of physical behavior, which was found in the behavior of meals, form regionally a couple of cultural region.
The objective of this article is to develop a method to analyze characteristics of land use agglomeration based on grid data. To this end, a method which uses the average ratio of edges of each grid with the same land use (called as Same Edge Ratio : SER) are formulated. First, SER is formulated based on JOIN-COUNT statistics and on ASEN ( the average number of edges of each grid with the same land use) . Second, the expected value and the variance of SER of a study area of arbitrary shape are calculated on random land use maps. Third, statistical tests of SER are formulated based on Monte-Carlo Simulation.
This paper aims to identify the planning method of the inner moat of the Japanese castle ,Echizen Fukui castle in the age of civil wars, about A.D. 1600. The conclusions are as follows, 1. The planning of the inner moat in the age of civil wars was carried out owing to the precise drawings by the geometrical method. 2. The principal planning methods for the planning were the right angled triangle by Pythagoras's number (3:4:5), the magic square and the perpendicular.
After 1990, there has been many studies about international comparison of building cost on houses. First, we surveyed some typical studies which compared them between Japan and USA, and analyzed the results by using 'purchasing power parity'(PPP). Second, we pointed out the difficulty for international comparison in this field, and proposed to develop a new comparison method using popular cost publications of each two countries. In summing up, we adopted 'G-K method' commonly used in ICP. It would be said that it is a new general model in international comparison of building cost.
This paper aims to analyze the regional characteristics of the structure of households with the elderly by the time trends, using census data. The conclusions are as follows; 1. The proportion of stem family have been decreasing and that of the old single and the elderly couple have been increasing in all prefectures, 2. The number of the elderly in large city have been increasing rapidly. And so do the number of stem family. 3. The regional differences in the structure of households with the elderly tend to extend.
In this paper, we apply household movement model to two major metropolitan areas and clarify the characteristics of household movements that are caused by the housing supply in the areas. The characteristics we found out are follows: The rate of household movements in contrast with the supply of detached owned houses has high correlation to household movement from the same area to newly built detached owned houses. There is a few households that move toward used detached houses in the city center of Tokyo, but many households from rented house move to used condominium. On the other hand newly built condominiums in the city center of Kinki get many households from areas around the city. New condominiums supplied in the suburban area of Tokyo get household movements from the same and the other areas, but the condominiums supplied in the suburban area of Kinki get household movement almost from the same area.
The purpose of this study is to present current concerns of the housing lot with its leasehold placed thereon and of its transaction values at the early stage of the leasehold system. For that purpose, we have collected sales transactional data of the housing lot and transaction value thereof throughout Tokyo area which includes Metropolitan Tokyo, Saitama, Chiba and Kanagawa prefectures respectively. Eventually we have systematically explained its transactional system and prevailing issues on the housing lot and its transaction value.
The purpose of this study is to consider how the castle town was developed during the beginning years of castle town Kubota. The investigation of this paper is as follows. (1)The value of one old map of the castle town Kubota in the early years of Edo period, that was not used in a study until now. (2)The composition of dwellers in residential districts, in terms of social positions and duties in castle town Kubota. The conclusion is as follows. (1)The old map entitled "Gojyokazu" was drawn in the 9th or 10th year of Keityo (A.D 1604 or 1605), including the valuable data on the study of the castle town Kubota, (2)In the beginning year Kubota was planned the straight street using of the natural grand , and a few retainers migrated from Hitachi were arranged in districts according to their social positions, but blocks of trading class_ were not developed at all.
This paper traces the modernization of urban area from the relation between land and buildings. A matter of four was changed by HAIBUTSU-KISHAKU in the former quarter of MEIJI period at Castle-town MATSUMOTO.The prefecture dismissed Buddist temple's power and planned the conversion of Buddist temple. Land : Zi-Chi was converted to land of prefecture. Building : Main hall of Buddist temple was converted to a school building. Act : Buddist act was converted to the modem education. Operating cost : A offering from a supporter of a Buddhist temple was converted to a contribution from a volunteer. Buddist temple was antecede to school at Castle-town MATSUMOTO.
Shichimen-Goddess is said to be a guardian deity of Kuonji-Temple of Nichiren-Sect. Main shrine of Shichimen-Goddess is situated near the top of Ht. Shichimen, south-west to the Mt. Minobu. The style for main shrine of Mt. Shichimen is called "Shichimen-Zukuri" , one of variations derived from "Sengen Zukuri" In Edo Period, after the middle of the 18th Century, Shichimendo-halls which were dedicated to the Shichimen-Goddess, were built in villages along Fuji-River, in Minami-Koma County, Yamanashi Prefecture. The forms of these village Shichimendo-Halls, however, are not exactly the same as the "Shichimen-Zukuri" This paper focuses on statements of the present forms of Shichimendo-Hall examples, and their reconstruction forms, deduced from their reform-traces. Moreover, the aim of this paper is to clarify a tendency of plan transition of village Shichimendo-Halls.
This paper makes out the original urban forms in medieval times of Nara. Medieval Nara which had established on the ancient gridiron plan had the typical residential districts called "Kosatsuki Gou". "Kosatsuki Gou" consisted of small "Gou" which had the wayside shrines at the street comers This type of "Gou" formed their residential area around the crossroads. The paper concludes that medieval Nara made cross-shaped urban area around wayside shrines at the crossroads. This cruciform urban area was different from the form of "Ryougawa-Chou" which stood on the both side of street in Kyoto.
This paper traces some of the linkages between incendiarism and imposition via the example of Kyoto in the latter half of the sixteenth century. When Nobunaga moved into Kyoto in 1568, he began to ensure the feudal landowners their landholding. But he destroyod some area of Kyoto on fire in 1573. This incendiarism changed Kamigyo into the land with no productivity. Then he exempted them from the taxation and permitted town dwellers to rebuild their houses after the fire. The paper concludes that the incendiarism and the exemption made Kamigyo into the area without feudal landholding except by Nobunaga.
The first construction of this timber cantilever bridge across the Kurobe river in the province of Etchu dates back to 1662. The unique technique, in which six slanting timbers in each line cantilever out gradually from each side of the river toward its middle, was then adopted, while the wood-house building skills of carpenters were applied to the smaller parts of the bridge. It was necessary to cut and bring down lots of timbers before the start of the construction. The officials of Sakuji-sho inspected the work. Sotosakuji-bugyo, chief of one of the construction offices, directed the whole necessary work and Ondaiku of the technical section led just the construction.
Many Japanese carpentry guide-books of the Edo Era and the Meiji Era contain explanations of kiku-jutsu, a traditional Japanese method of building guidelines used for wooden construction. In this article, the items of those books are classified into several groups in order to illustrate the transition that kiku-jutsu has made over the Edo and Meiji Periods. Our survey makes it clear that kiku-jutsu in the publications of the Meiji Era emphasizes a geometrical character which is seen not only in the roof shapes of traditional Japanese buildings but also in the roof shapes of the Western style buildings. Yet, though the works vary through the Edo and Meiji Periods, the basic foundation of kiku-jutsu is based on the kiku-jutsu of the Edo Period.
The origin of three image hall pattern of the early Buddhist architecture was often discussed but not clearly identified. The paper intend to criticize a few theories proposed earlier and to establish a new possibility that could be summerized as followings : 1) During the fourth century the inclusion of image halls on each side of the pagada was modeled after the paird buildings of East & West Hall on each side of the Central Hall which was the new development of contemporary palace architecture. 2) This could have resulted the pattern of two image halls as the beginning stage of three image hall pattern as can be traced by the excavated sites of Koguryo such as ChongRung-sa.
The purpose of the study is the public space system in densely clustered sea villages on sloping sites in Japan. The study clarified the special qualities of that specific environment in relation to the exterior public spaces such as the circulation systems and interstitial spaces. The transformations were carried out through rebuilding and construction of annexes. It was possible to establish that the circulation system is independent of the spatial geometrical form. It is possible to state that the there is an autonomy between the space and the function. This phenomenon of spontaneity is rarely found in concepts of the urban planning.
In the field of construction and urban planning, arrangement problems are essential and important, and many methods for them have been studied. However, especially that of urban planning are complicated. If there are many numbers of elements, it may be difficult to discover optimum arrangement in realistic time by former methods. And worse still, the complexity of cities themselves makes systemization very difficult. In recent years, applying Genetic Algorithm (GA), which is a new method imitating the process of the living-thing evolution, to arrangement problems is studied. In this study, the authors try to reproduce urban land use by using GA with two local evaluation functions, i.e., geographical location conditions and degrees of mutual combination. First, a city arrangement model is proposed, and the coding methods of genes are shown. Then the system is applied to the land use of Kobe City. The applicability of this system is proved.