Evacuation ability and characteristics of aged people living in high rise collective housing has been studied through questionnaire to wardens in "SILVER PEER", collective housings for aged people supported by Tokyo Metropolitan Government. The investigation suggests strong relation between the outdoor mobility and the evacuation ability of an aged resident and significant decay of the evacuation ability from a high rise collective house over the age of around 80. It also indicates needs of the development of evacuation drills for aged residents and a refuge on each floor for the establishment of the life safety of aged residents in fire.
The diffusion index of a plate vibration is introduced as a means of evaluating the frequency response of a plate. Through the present study, it has been theoretically clarified that the dynamic response of a plate can be represented as a simple and unified equation, absorbing various conditions of the plate, by means of adopting the diffusion index, and not frequency, as a parameter of vibration. That is, the ratio of vibration velocity against the infinite plate depends solely on the damping ratio and the aspect ratio of a plate. In addition, the vibration velocity of a plate at the two end cases of the diffusion index; at zero and unity, are determined from the theoretical study, and the overall characteristic based on the diffusion index is shown to be an unity.
The purpose of this study is to define the area effect for the wall colors quantitatively. In Experiment I and II, subjects were asked to make a comparison between buildings wall colors and color scales from distances of three and twenty meters. In Experiment III, ten colors were examined to define the distortion of perceived color and impression using small color chips and two sizes of colored panels. The results revealed a systematic distortion of wall colors perception on the Munsell's dimensions of value and chroma. The area effect can be predicted from the results of multiple regression analysis.
The objective of this experiment is to validate and confirm, by field evaluation, the results of the previous report. The experiment was conducted in an underground shopping mall, department store, and station. All of these places were connected, and the walking course was approximately 500m long. Subjects simulated a typical walk that a commuter or shopper might take in their daily life. Instead of entering a chamber room, subjects stopped at 18 points and evaluated. 15 subjects wore same clothing ensembles and were polled for thermal sensation and skin temperatures measured at 18 points along the walking course. The experiment was conducted in summer, fall, and winter. As a result, 'Relative Evaluation Tendency' was shown same to chamber at the field also. And skin temperature of back of hand in the final point and an overall thermal sensation to the entire course showed a positive correlation. Same to chamber experiment, temperature variance is an important factor to evaluate thermal sensation. Small temperature variance makes a difficult decision of thermal sensation.
A calculation method combined with measurements for predicting convective heat transfer coefficient at skin surface of thermal manikin under solar radiation is proposed. Present method is based on a calculation of steady state heat balance on skin surface of thermal manikin by the numerical simulation of solar radiation and thermal radiation combined with measurements of indoor climate and thermal manikin. Convective heat transfer coefficient at skin surface of thermal manikin is predicted in air-cooling conditions including the insulation effect of solar radiation on thermal manikin in an experimental atrium. As results, (1)it is considered convective heat transfer coefficient at each skin surface is affected by the velocity distribution of the thermal manikin. (2)No significant difference is found in convective heat transfer coefficient at each skin surface whether direct solar radiation reaches the thermal manikin or not. (3)Mean air velocity derived by convective heat transfer coefficient of whole body almost corresponds weigted mean measured velocity, and ratio of mean air velocity also corresponds to that of the supply air velocity in each case.
Computational fluid dynamics for analysis of the indoor/outdoor flow distribution becomes one of the main design techniques in the environmental engineering field. As a numerical solution of the flow in the design stage, there are many cases in which SIMPLE Algorithms has been adopted from the engineering practicability. In SIMPLE Algorithms, the relaxation coefficient has been introduced in order to stabilize the calculation. However, the applicable range of relaxation factor in the flow field has not been clarified. So, it seems to be possible to avoid unnecessary trial and error, if the guideline for applicable range is obtained. In this study, we examined that the calculation stability effect of relaxation factor in SIMPLE and SIMPLEC on two- or three-dimensional isothermal flow fields. The results of simulation confirmed that SIMPLEC is correspondent to the case in which the relaxation factor of SIMPLE is optimized, and the applicable range of relaxation factor in SIMPLEC was clarified.
The results of the field measurement on the heat load and indoor environment of a large air-conditioned factory space in comparison with the simulation results are described together with the results of the questionnaire to the workers. It was found that the air conditioning effectively cooled the work space in summer and that the cold air was spread from the west part to the heated working zone of east and central parts in winter. The vertical temperature gradient obviously appeared in the space above 3m from the floor in summer, while the space above was heated to be at higher uniform temperature in winter. Although a greater amount of heat load was resulted with simulation than measurement, it could be judged that the simulation expressed the heat load of this factory quite well except for the start up period both in summer and winter. The results of CFD analysis turned out quite similar to the measured results with regard to the distribution patterns of air temperature and air flow. The workers of the factory were slightly satisfied with the indoor environment in summer and winter as found from the questionnaire and seemed to be accustomed to rather low temperature in winter.
In 1965,the national average for Japan's residential energy consumption per household was 21.3 GJ/household/year. By 1999,it had increased 2.2-fold to 47.0 GJ/household/year, showing an average annual growth rate 2.4% over the past 34 years. This means that trends in residential energy consumption in Japan run counter to the trends in other developed countries, where their residential energy consumption is almost stable or decreasing. The main reason for this is that Japanese living standards have been and still is logging behind those of developed nations. Other factors, which explain differences in household energy use, are climatic conditions, traditional lifestyles, relative energy prices, differences in building stock and so on. These differences affect mainly space heating energy consumption. Space heating method in Japan differs from that of developed nations. Analysis on energy consumption structure and its diversified factors is sine qua non when arguing the energy conservation measures. In addition to this, the measures to curtail the stand-by electricity recently focused should be taken. A significant amount of electricity is wasted while appliances are in the stand-by mode. This waste should make us reconsider our notions of convenience, and comfort. The forecast by the econometrics model reveals that the residential useful energy consumption per household will slightly increase in spite of decreasing number of household and increasing insulation level of house stock.
In this study, the Typical Weather Day data for the simulations of buildings were developed following the previous study on the Typical Weather Year data for some main Chinese cities. Using the date-base of interpolated observation weather data, the heating degree-days and cooling degree-hours were calculated for the main cities in China. It was proved that the air-conditioning loads of a residence can be calculated by the average elements like dry bulb temperature, humidity, solar radiation, wind speed and cloud amount. The monthly average weather data for each hour were defined as the typical weather data for the month by the authors. The Typical Weather Day data for the main cities in China were given. Finally, the weather data for the thermal design of buildings were developed with the TACs of 2.5% and 5.0%.
In this study, using the Typical Weather Year data developed by the authors, the annual sensible and latent cooling loads of 46 Chinese cities were calculated. Regression equations were made to estimate the annual cooling loads using the simulation results. The regional characteristics of the annual sensible and latent loads were made clear by development of maps with isometric lines of sensible or latent cooling loads. In the west part of China, the latent cooling loads are small because that the absolute humidity is very low in the Qingzang Plateau due to the low ambient temperature, and the existence of deserts in Xinjian district. The area where the cooling load is larger than 100 MJ/m^2 is about 25% of the China's territory. Considering about 60% of the whole Chinese population is living in this area, the energy consumption will grow significantly with the wide spread of air-conditioning equipment.
This paper describes the energy and cost performance of an underground thermal energy storage system that consists of high efficiency heat pump and Borehole-Heat-Exchangers (BHE). The energy conservation concept of this system is operation of the heat pump at higher efficiency using the Water-Source-Heat-Pump coupled to BHE. This paper provides the simulation model and the energy and cost analysis of various parameters. A series of simulation was carried out for office buildings. As the results it was made clear that this system could decrease the energy consumption of the HVAC primary system about 15% compared with that of conventional system using Air-Source-Heat-Pump.
This research aims to clarify the effects of building's energy-demand characteristics on the operating method and scale of a cogeneration system (CGS). To this end, we first construct a CGS model that uses a Hamiltonian algorithm for optimizing the operation and scale of constituent equipment. We then used this model to evaluate the effects of building energy-demand characteristics on CGS. We report that gas-engine scale increases as power demand characteristics level off, and method of CGS operation differs greatly according to demand characteristics.
The intensification of the global environmental problems is raised as one of the subject that the mankind have now in the 21st century. The global warming by the discharge of carbon dioxide and energy use, as an urgent subject, has resulted in a global interest as been seen in the World Environment Kyoto Conference etc, that was held in December, 1997. On this kind of background, the distributed combined heat and power generation has been expected to improve the energy and environment problem. Combined heat and power generation allows to reach efficiencies which can be as high as 85-90% for both products and result in substantial energy and CO_2 savings. There is yet little research that is how much the influence to the contamination, heat, wind environment become, although the research are carried out numerously with regard to such an economic and efficiency face with introducing combined heat and power generation system conventionally. This study is to evaluate the influence to the environment by the introduction of combined heat and power generation system by the simulation of the heat and atmosphere environment. A case study has been made in the Kokura area of Kitakyushu-shi.
The energy flow which consists of inflow, conversion, consumption and discharge of energy is estimated for the region of Osaka Prefecture. To estimate energy flow in commercial and residential sector, we used not only the statistic but also our field survey results. We classified the phase of anthropogenic heat into sensible, latent and hot water discharge and examined the accuracy of the classification. The estimated energy flow is evaluated from the viewpoint of environmental impacts such as heat island, global warming and local/global atmospheric environment. Energy saving potential of heat cascading is also evaluated. In the final part of this paper, the impact of diffusion of DHC with cogeneration system in residential and commercial sector on total anthropogenic heat and emission is evaluated.
The purpose of this study is to clarify effects of lighting and the existence of a stranger on conversational sound levels. The first experiment was to let subjects estimate the sound level from photo stimuli and then the second was to measure conversational sound levels in the laboratory where experimental variables; three lighting conditions and the existence of a stranger were implemented. It was shown that the conversational sound level was higher in the highly illuminated areas (e.g. general lighting) more than in the areas where there was low illunination (e.g. candle lighting). The results in the localized lighting (e.g. spot lighting) depended on the score of the Locus of Control scale. The subjects who were internally controlled tended to speak more loudly than the subjects who were externally controlled. As a whole, the existence of a stranger made the conversational sound level lower with the exception of the subjects who were internally controlled in the localized lighting.
In this study, a theoretical model of an urban canyon was developed to investigate the effects of canyon structure and street trees on the thermal environment. The numerical model includes the amount of sunlight that falls on the canyon surface, and the effect of the wind field in the canyon. The results show that the model has a good agreement with measured thermal data. The urban canyon structure has a significant effect on the thermal environment, especially around H/D=0.6(building height/road width). Both the field study and the modeling study confirm street trees can improve the thermal environment of the urban canyon by lowering the air temperature and the surface temperature. About a 2℃ decrease of the maximum air temperature was been obtained in the field measurement and the simulation for north-south urban canyon with a higher trees. In addition, the effect of the street trees become much more effective with an increase of the road width. Street with a ratio of H/D around 0.6 has a good shading effect in summer as well as a good solar gain effect in winter. Wider streets are recommended in order to provide a good sun access in winter; however higher trees are necessary during summer to prevent the urban canyon from absorbing excessive solar irradiance
Building parts companies have already developed some recyclable products but the recycling activity for houses hasn't developed adequately yet. To make a house recyclable, it has to be designed that way from an early stage of planning. So we developed a model of the 'Recyclable House' to evaluate it's recycling performance. Main 3 points to design the 'Recyclable House' are : (1) Every part should be designed to last longer life for reducing industrial wastes. (2) Building parts and joints should be detachable using no adhesives and should be collected by type. (3) Mixing of different kinds of materials should be avoided to keep the recycle rate high. To prove the validity of that model, we constructed a case study house of this model in Kitakyusyu and took it to parts, and re-constructed it again in the same site. From findings out of this experiment, we made a proof that the 'Recyclable House' model can contribute to reduce waste of residencial houses.
Within subtask C of International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Heating&Cooling (SH&C), Task 23,there is an activity to develop a method and tool that will help design teams select one design alternative from two or three being proposed during the design process aiming-more sustainable buildings. The method called MCDM (Multi-Criteria Decision-Making) and the associated computer aided tool, MCDM-23,have been developed to aid a design team at the critical point in the design process or to aid judges in making a decision in a design competition. Under the Task activity, the authors have devoted great effort to develop both MCDM and MCDM-23 backing a couple of years. In this paper, the wholistic frame of MCDM method and MCDM-23 procedure are reported to let Japanese Architects and engineers know.
This study intends to show what presentation methods for architectural proposal can draw out the client's latent desires. A series of interviews were conducted in the experiment. First, subjects were asked to talk freely of their desires for the living room. Secondly, they were presented three different living rooms, each by three different methods : architectural drawings, perspectives, and scale models. Finally, they visited real living rooms. The subjects were asked to state their desires after each presentation. The words used by the subjects were classified into twelve categories, with which the characteristics of each presentation methods were clarified. The result of the experiment indicated that there were two different types of response : one subject's group changed their attitude according to the methods of presentation and the other remained unchanged. Therefore, architects should consider these differences to draw the client's latent desires.
The purpose of this research is to clarify the characteristics of architectural composition of old inner-city neighborhoods in Beijing where rapid modernization has been blamed for the destruction of many traditional neighborhoods called 'hutong'. We carried out a detailed survey of physical and social conditions of a selected neighborhood composed of traditional court-houses in the inner city area. Through this investigation, we have concluded that each court-house in the neighborhood is built appropriately according to the scale of its site and the spatial order of the neighborhood has been formed gradually in the long term.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the influence of the elements in Green Ways to person's activities and attachments to them. The research method is to compare those of 4 types of Green Ways divided by characters of the elements. Main findings are as follows : As rich elements the spaces have, they can allow people to have various activities. But, in order to allow people to have the group activities through which they might be intimate with each other, and to have deep attachment to the spaces, any elements cannot substitute the elements that have essential of nature.
The purpose of this paper is to study about conditions of housing environments for people with congenital upper limb disabilities, focusing on pains that have been happened to their bodies when they manage activities of daily lives in pre-built environments for able-body people. The subject of this study is the people with Thalidomideinduced upper limb disabilities both in Japan and Sweden. From the results of this study, it become clear that frequencies of occurrence of pains with feet, back, hands and fingers are high in Japan. Though those frequencies are low in Sweden, pains with neck and back of neck happen frequently.
In Seishin Minami New Town, community facilities have been introduced into the residential areas through three methods; "planed invitation", "leading" and "natural development". The aim of this paper is to inspect the introduction plan by investigating the actual condition of the location of the facilities and residents' opinions. The results of this study are as follows : 1) Compared with Senri New Town and Semboku New Town, Seishin Minami New Town has more community facilities in the residential areas; which proves the effect of the introducing methods. 2) Many of the residents who hope to live in more lively town point out that the facilities also have some undesirable influence upon their daily life.
This paper aims to clarify the fundamental subjects about the planning, improvement of the national university campus, about the activity and the facilities of Cooperative Research Center. (1) The analysis of the number of joint research of 49 national universities which have center facilities in 1999. (2) The pattern analysis to grasp the characteristics of each center. (3) The interview of facilities and problems concerning with research cooperation. (4) A consideration about the facilities improvement and management about the internal-campus center and off-campus center.
This study is intended to clarify the characteristics of openness of houses and continuity of indoor spaces by analyzing the composition of functional spaces in California modern houses. The continuity of the indoor spaces are described by the composition of the movable and visible relation between functional spaces. The characteristics of openness of house are classified in combination of the continuity of indoor spaces and the relation between indoor and outdoor spaces. As the result of the classification, 8 types of scheme of openness are identified among the houses of R.M. Schindler and R.J. Neutra. The typical schemes share an opening from the living room toward backside. In Schindler' houses, some schemes tend to have some directions of opening for articulate the house into characteristic places. In Neutra' houses, the prevaring scheme is to have openings to one direction and the continuity of indoor spaces for archiving unity of the houses.
This study is mainly considered in the points that follow, through a questionnaire survey to elderly residents who have chances of housing improvement and repair work by themselves, so-called do-it-yourself. 1. Enormously many handrails, especially of staircase are set as to housing improvement and repair work for aging of them. 2. The most period of a work ranges from 2 to 5 hours. The most cost for each work ranges generally from 2 to 5 thousands yen, but it for wall or equipment work from 20 to 50 thousands yen. 3. Average cost for each work by an hour is about 2 thousands yen. 4. Even experienced residents commission professionals to a work in case not only that it demands many kinds of craftsman but also that they feel more easy about doing it by professionals than themselves. 5. Cheaper materials, clear materials of qualification, or proposals equal to them promote the work more popular.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the pedestrian space with time series interfering area model. The model illustrates the interference of pedestrian's area in the several directions. And the coordinates of pedestrians are sensed and used for evaluation of the space. Pedestrian movement was recorded by the VCR camera and coded individual frames at sampling intervals of 0.5 seconds. The records were projected and corrected for foreshortened perspective. Then the coordinates of pedestrians in each frame were calculated. The pedestrian area is defined as the circle 0.9 meters in diameter in which pedestrian can avoid and pass others. When someone approaches another in pedestrian area, the conflict between two pedestrians occurs. The term "interfering load" can be defined as a load which pedestrians take in such a situation. There are two types of interfering load. One is a load between pedestrians in the same direction and the other is a load between pedestrians in the opposite direction. We only concerned with the Interfering load between bidirectional pedestrians, because monodirectional pedestrians reduce their walking load by forming groups in the same direction. The "time series interfering area model" describes the load between pedestrians in the several directions. This model's advantage is as follows; (1) The characteristics of pedestrian loads in a time series are grasped and comprehended with it. (2) As the congestion in the observation area in a time series is observed, and the area is evaluated particularly. (3) The situations of intersecting pedestrians in the several directions are grasped.
To clarify key points of human behavior through virtual spaces by using a keyboard and flat screen, the same experiment was conducted in both a real and virtual subway station. Subjects wearing an eye camera got off the train and tried to find a specified exit. Four significant characteristics of virtual space were found : 1) short duration fixations hardly occurred, 2) subjects found it difficult to determine the distances between themselves and other objects, 3) passive and delayed fixations, not found in real space, were found, and 4) some activities easily done in a real space were difficult in virtual.
The purpose of this study is creating the design guideline of the facilities in privately managed housing for the elderly. We drew the kinds of activity rooms which fit the activities carried out well. And then, we calculated the suitable floor area of each activity room by analysis of the number of persons who use the activity room. As a result, the facilities for leisure of privately managed housing for the elderly were summarized in five activity room that performance was different. They were conference room, multi-purpose hole, music room, game room and atelier.
The purpose of this paper is to comprehend the community of new residents' association by the analysis of questionnaire survey. As a result, We got next 3 points. 1. The characteristics of the trend of residents, the management of the residents' association, community activity, community consciousness and the evaluation of living environment. 2. The relationship between inhabitants, attribute and community activity and community consciousness. We placed the result as the promotional condition of the community. 3. The adaptation of the promotional condition of the community in typical cases.
The purpose of this study is to detect the way to activate the community management for the active planning of settlement by making use of regional resources, in rural settlement. Then, we studied on each settlement's own way residents in each age group take part in maintaining its regional resources. As a result, to take part in each resident's community management independently by having many parts has an effect on him by making his mind to settle down in his settlement. In conclusion, the important things for active planning of settlement are as follows : To reconfirm the value of the existing regional resources. To considerate carefully for make the best of the regional resources. To make young people and children take part in the community management.
This study aims to examine how the planning doctrine has contributed to the growth management in Amsterdam since the beginning of the Twentieth Century. For this purpose, we clarify the process of urban formation in Amsterdam by dividing the period of time and explore the concept and background of the planning doctrines which have been adopted in respective period .The Netherlands has been developing the concept of planning doctrine through the implementation of the land reclamation for last several hundred years. This planning heritage has been transferred in the Amsterdam planning system as so called systematic growth policy, concentrated growth policy, compact-city policy and so on. This paper confirms that these policies have played a great role in the growth management in Amsterdam.
The objective of this paper is to discuss the spatial formation of Cape Town focusing on non-white quarters. We pick up the area called "Bokaap" next to the central district of Cape Town which was developed in the 18th century as a case study area. The ancestors of the inhabitants are those who were brought from Asia such as India, Indonesia, Malaysia and so on. The area was classified as one of colored area under the apartheid social system. How western town planning theories had been applied to Cape Town is one of the major concerns of the study. Segregation of residential areas is the main topic which is very clearly seen in South African cities. Bokaap preserves the original grid because it was segregated as old malay quarter. We firstly clarify the history of the area and discuss the spatial patterns of the street blocks and building types based on the field survey. Most of the inhabitants are still Muslim and we can see many mosques distributed in the area. But the houses are very different from those in Dutch colonial cities in Asia. This paper clarifies the block patterns and classifies the courtyard houses in the area into several types which is well designed fitted to block formation. It is a little bit ironical that Bokaap is designated as a conserved area of National Monuments.
Metagame analysis is a process of resolving a conflict problem, by focusing on finding a stable state common to all persons or firms involved in this conflict. This paper aims to valuate the roles of a third party in the conflict, and examine robustness of outcomes of the metagame analysis. In this paper, an actual conflict concerned with the urban development is analyzed with metagame, and thus the final equilibrium results are obtained by using an improved algorithm. The obtained results are compared between a two-person-game and a three-person-game, and the sensitivity of the equilibria related the change of players' criteria is discussed in detail.
Experiments were conducted in two areas with a grid-shaped street pattern, one containing many vacant sites (area 1) and another with few vacant sites(area 2). Subjects were asked to memorize routes by walking the route with the person conducting the experiment. After learning the route, subjects walked it alone. The experiment comprised 65 subjects (32 males and 33 females), 34 of whom walked in area (1), while the other 31 subjects walked in area (2). The results were analyzed for differences among subjects in the two areas. Analysis of the sight behavior questionnaires and cognitive mapping errors revealed that subjects who walked in area (1) showed more intensive sight behavior than those who walked in area (2). There was no difference between the two groups in terms of the number of subjects who successfully reached their destination and the number who could map the route accurately. However, when there were both billboards and open spaces, the subjects showed a tendency to use more open spaces than billboards. We thus found that open spaces were easier to recall than billboards.
The rapid increase of the leaving bicycle around the stations has become a social problem. Not only local government' countermeasures but also the understandings and cooperatives of general public are necessary to solve the bicycle problems. Author developed an incentive questionnaire by presenting information on bicycle problem and conducted a social survey with it. This paper discussed the effects of its enlightenment. As a result, there were clear effects on a lot of the questions. Then it acted especially on some subject groups; for example, the subjects whose age were 30's and 40's.
The report will explain how the construction costs for building frame and piling work are determined assuming that the building conditions are total floor area, standard floor area, number of stories, span length, and load (those are influence coefficient for the building), and subsoil conditions are N value for pile head, N value for pile point and the depth of supporting layer (those are influence coefficient for the subsoil).
This research using the present value method, deals with the economic advantage of detached residential houses, which permit resources circulation for a better sustainable society. We intend to set up a model of renewal cost, which can respond to user's life stages, and to calculate the life cycle costs for 180 and 60 years in a manner to meet the changing effective interest rate and varying rate In cost. The result of this study has convinced us that the resource circulation houses provide an economical advantage, e.g. when the effective interest rate is 2% and the decreasing rate of cost is 0% as prevailing in Japan at this moment, that will give an advantage of 61% over conventional houses for 180 years.
The previous report (Part 1), reported on the survey and analysis of the labor productivity of the reinforced precast concrete frame (RPC) method, with a focus on on-site work. This report is a continuation of the previous report, with a description of a survey and analysis of labor productivity in the member manufacturing process. The following is a summary of this study. 1. Member manufacturing yield in the precast concrete (PCa) member manufacturing process (1)Work yield by member type (2)Work amount by member section shape (3)Relationship between manufacturing conditions and manufacturing yield (4)Manufacturing yield at the temporary on-site plant 2. Labor productivity of all production activities, from PCa member manufacturing to assembly and joining
In recent years, some risk analysis methods were proposed so that the quantitative evaluations of risk have been available. On the other hand, the treatment of the quantified risk has not been considered sufficiently, though it is important for carrying out the effective risk management. In this paper, seismic portfolio analysis method considering the effect of risk transfer such as securitization was proposed and adopted to the portfolio of 73 buildings in Tokyo. Through the application, the following findings are obtained; grid has relatively large effect on the PML (probable maximum loss) though the forfeiture rate of principal does not, risk transfer will be more effective from the viewpoint of investment for risk with smaller grid and higher trigger level that is the minimum magnitude for forfeiture, and some combinations of grid and forfeiture rate can be identical to each other, regardless of principal.
In this study, we considered the block plan of Osaka Uemachi Area through analyzing the block size from "Minyu Chizu" and so on. The block plan of Osaka Uemachi Area was divided into the Osaka Castle construction period, the Sogamae construction period, the Sannomaru construction period. The inside measurements of the block in the first period was 30ken from north and south and 60ken from east and west. The block size in the second period was 30ken from north and south on the centers. The block plan in the third period was based on the site depth of 20ken.