Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) method is utilized to investigate the vibration energy of structure-borne sound. This method analyses the complex connected structures with many vibration modes received stationary random vibration in broad-band excitation, if the natural frequencies within the frequency bandwidth are statistically distributed. The present paper describes equations of power balances and coupling loss factors between coupled systems from theoretical perspective. The paper also discusses the diffuse vibration field of plates and the transmission efficiency of junctions in detail. Moreover, the author calculated the "average" transmission efficiency using reciprocity relations by three incident bending, longitudinal, transverse waves. A series of experimental investigation was conducted by using the "average" transmission efficiency.
The properties of moisture content in a porous material attached on outer walls of heating room of multiple dwelling house was examined under the condition of winter surrounding weather. It was appeared that moisture content in a porous material gradually increased at first, and reached the maximum value in midseason, and finally decreased. The properties of moisture content greatly differed with the direction of outer walls. The maximum value of moisture content in a porous material occurred in wintertime could be estimated with enough accuracy by using the average temperature and humidity of the period.
This paper describes the relationship between the exergy balance of human body and the associated thermal sensation. The purpose of investigating such balance is to understand exergetic behaviors of human body in relation to the exergy-entropy process of HVAC-systems with various passive means, in which he or she has thermal sensation such as cold or hot. We found that the "warm" exergy and "wet" exergy produced within the human body under cool environment are larger than those under warm environment. As, the environmental condition turns out to be colder, the thermal exergy produced by the metabolism and its consumption rate within the human body become larger. This increase is due to shivering of the human body. The exergy consumption rate under the condition that one feels hot is a little larger than that under the neutral condition. This is considered due to sweating. "Wet" exergy contained by sweat is consumed in the course of evaporation from the skin surface to the environment so that he or she can dispose effectively of the entropy generated due to exergy consumption within the human body.
The purpose of this study is to examine the accuracy and reliability of the numerical simulation of plumes in corner walls from the view point of practical use of simulation for fire safety planning. Plumes in corner walls are numerically simulated with the standard κ-ε model and the results are compared with the basic experiments conducted by three positions of fire sources, (a) adjacent to the corner, (b) close to the comer and (c) apart from the corner. The dependence on mesh dividing system, the differences between incompressible and compressible model and the sensibility in results with the differences of initial κ, ε values are examined. The entrainment of plumes in corner walls is able to be practically predicted through the simulation.
This paper describes the experimental study of ventilation efficiency for commercial kitchens. We investigated an air conditioning and ventilation system which has high efficiency and can maintain a comfortable environment in the working space with a minimum amount of necessary ventilation air. The results are as follows: (1) In the case of outdoor air being supplied from the bottom of the hood, 60-70% of the outdoor air is exhausted by the hood. (2) Airflow distribution above the gas range is comparatively stable in summer and intermediate seasons, updraft above the gas range goes straight to the exhaust hood when outdoor air is supplied from the top of the gas range. In winter, updraft above the gas range is strongly effected by the outdoor air from the hood, and there is dispersion in the updraft direction. (3) The capture ratio of the combustion gas by the exhaust hood is over 80% in summer and intermediate seasons. The capture ratio becomes higher when the output heat from the gas range is larger.
In this research, in order to evaluate a local ventilation effectiveness, Visitation Frequency (VF; time for contaminant to return back to an objective domain), Tp (average time of contaminant staying in an objective domain) and Purging Flow Rate (PFR; air flow rate for defining domain averaged concentration) are introduced. VF, Tp and PFR of a local domain in the model room are analyzed by particle tracing method based on LES (Large Eddy Simulation). To examine the value of VF, Tp and PFR, 3 kinds of objective domains are set up in the model room (1500(x)×300(y)×1000(z) mm) ; (1) occupant space (1/2 volume of model room), (2) 1/4 volume of occupant space, (3) 1/9 volume of occupant space (Breathing zone). The relative position of the particle generating point and the objective domain (volume) in the model room are changed and the property of VF, Tp and PFR are analyzed. VF and its standard deviation become largest value in the case where the particle generating point is located at the center of the model room, comparing to other cases. It means that the particles generated at the center of the model room, are transported only by turbulent motion and are not likely to be smoothly exhausted from the room. Tp becomes low in the case where particles are generated near the inlet, the outlet or the floor, since the particle generated from these points are transported by the flow in the same stream lines. For cases where particle are generated at the center of the model room, the value of Tp becomes high, due to the closed re-circulation. In PFR analysis, when the local domain becomes smaller, PFR becomes higher for all cases. When particles are generated near the inlet or the outlet, PFR is always bigger than 1.0 in this study.
Three indices of ventilation effectiveness are introduced to evaluate a local flow field and contaminant distribution. These are Visitation Frequency (VF; frequency of contaminant returning back to an objective domain), Tp (average time of contaminant staying in an objective domain) and Local Purging Flow Rate (L-PFR; air flow rate of a local domain based on the domain averaged concentration). The relationship between VF, Tp, L-PFR and SVEs (Scale for Ventilation Effectiveness) proposed by Kato et al. are theoretically analyzed. Though numerical methods are useful for analysis of VF, Tp and L-PFR, numerical methods are required to validate the results by experimental data since they are based on simplified model of turbulent flow. In order to provide experimental data to validate numerical simulation, measurement of flow fields in a model room was conducted using a LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) system. 10 cases of measurement were conducted where the boundary conditions (CD inlet and outlet position, (2) partitions in the occupied space, (3) temperature condition) are changed. In the measurement, changes in the property of flow fields and temperature distribution are measured in detail. A re-circulating flow (closed- curve mean streamline) was generated in all the cases of the room model. In the cases where the partitions were set in occupied space, mean velocity and the turbulent velocity became larger at the upper part of the cavity and the flow fields became laminar at the lower part of it.
This paper describes the simulation method of the indoor humidity and temperature distributions that is important to study the wet area in rooms. (1) Buoyancy Effect of Humidity Ratio The air density depends not only on temperature but on mass concentration such as humidity, therefore the buoyancy effect of humidity may be appeared in some spaces where the spatial distribution of humidity is very large. The treatment method of this effect into the k-ε turbulence model was discussed in this paper. (2) Near Wall Mass Transfer In order to study the airflow and humidity distributions near wall region, the two-dimensional cavity flows was simulated based on the Low-Reynolds number k-ε model.
A simplified model to estimate the evaporation rate from soil surface was proposed. That was developed to establish one of the sub-models for Architecture-Urban-Soil Simultaneous Simulation Model (AUSSSM) which was formerly proposed by the authors. One of the most effective features is that the model can consider easily the dynamic variation of water content rate of the soil surface. Therefore, this model has a certain possibility to apply to not only AUSSSM but also other urban climatology models. Requisite characteristics for several kinds of soils related to evaporation efficiency, hydraulic transmittance, moisture diffusivity and so forth were obtained experimentally, and presented graphically for the convenience.
In order to design a living environment that satisfies dwellers' various demands, an understanding of the nuances of each individual's qualitative evaluation is essential. The words used in a questionnaire for the evaluation of a living environment should accurately reflect the individual's viewpoint and state of mind. The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of evaluative words used to describe living environments in order to enable the efficient selection of appropriate evaluative words for a questionnaire survey. A questionnaire using the word-choice method was handed out to adults living in detached houses or multiple-dwelling houses. Words expressing "comfort", "discomfort", "good house" or "bad house" were selected from one hundred evaluative words and each individual's house was evaluated by the words. The results of this study revealed that the concept of words expressing "comfort", "discomfort", "good house" and "bad house" differed according to individual's age and sex as well as neighborhood and type of house. The words selected for the evaluation of each individual's house differed according to the individual's satisfaction level, and words expressing feeling or sensation tended to be selected to express satisfaction.
It is quite difficult to define a high-quality luminous environment, because quality judgements on luminous environment vary diversely in individuals, although those judgements shoud be the base of quality definition. Experience is appropriately one of the most influential factor of this difference. Therefore the authors firstly propose the means to measure cognitive difference on lighting in individuals. Secondly authors conducted an experiment to estimate the effect of experience on cognition of the luminous environment. With the result of the experiment, the authors conclude that general public people has the cognition scale light-dark, and natural-artificial, although after experience, these scales will be divide into several parts, which seem to be generally accepted.
The results of CFD analyses of mesoscale climate in the Tokyo area are presented. Here, the urban climate in the Tokyo area is analyzed with various land-use conditions in order to examine their effects on velocity and temperature fields. Furthermore, climatic change from the end of the Japanese Medieval Period (Tempo period in the Tokugawa Dynasty: 1830-1844) to the present is also analyzed. By comparing the results of these analyses, the effects of urbanization on the local climate in the Tokyo area are investigated.
A floor heating system was equipped at Japanese style room in 1931. This first installation was designed by Yanagimachi, a building services engineer. At the same time Kondo developed Honetsu-tatami(Tatami with hot water coil). Following those trials Yamakoshi, an architect, applied the floor heating system to his own house DOMO DINAMIKA in 1933. Yanagimachi and Yamakoshi and Imai collaborated designing and construction with Imai, a company engineer. Some of architects followed them and used the floor heating/ceiling panel heating in their designed houses. There were two kinds of utilization of the floor heating, i.e. installation in Japanese style room and western style room. Tsuchiura and Murata tried a ceiling panel heating system. Taniguchi compared two types of floor heating systems in the same house. Fujioka, Yoishi, Yamawaki and Amido adopted the floor heating systems. However, they did not necessarily become popular in housing design before the world war II.
This is the first report of the study on the planning of material supply department in hospital buildings. This paper describes the investigation on floor planning of material supply departments in 190 hospitals (with 100 beds or more and complection from the 1975th year on) from view point of supply, processing and distribution system. As the results, I was able to propose that the types of floor plan of material supply department in hospital buildings categorized to four types, and the hospital with "SPD" or "semi-SPD" department is highly efficient in the planning of hospital buildings from view point of material distribution system.
This study was designed to develop "A scale of cognition of the stress of living environments at institutions" using the elderly at health institutions for the aged subjects. Investigations were made at 9 of 37 institutions in Gunma Prefecture. As a result of statistical analysis, the status of cognition of the stress in the elderly at the aforementioned institutions was supposed to be a factor structure model (validity of contents), which consisted of the linear and the quadratic factors. The linear factor included "the stress factor of institution environment" (5 items), "the stress factor of freedom of living" (7 items), and "the stress factor of health administration" (2 items), and the quadratic factor included "cognition of the stress of the stress of living environments at institutions". It was also clarified that fit to the data (validity of constructs), the validity related to the standard, and reliability coefficient meets adequately the statistical tolerance level. From these results, the above-described scale was estimated to be beneficial to the future preparation of bases of health institutions for the aged in an aging society.
The hypothesis of four factors on pedestrian path choice (l. space distance, 2. visual information of the object, 3. the colour of the floor, 4. centripetal-centrifugal characteristics), were investigated in an experiment by simulation. Four sites with different characters were planned in the experiment. The analysis of the result indicates that pedestrian path choice is not always decided by the space distance; that the visual information and the colour of the floor affect the choice! and that the centripetal-centrifugal characteristics are kinds of walking behavior. The factors affecting pedestrian path choice are divided into two groups which are the effects from the environment, and personal characteristics.
We asked Slchildren (4-8 years old) to draw his/her house and to make one by using the model house kit. The children drew their houses in 3 ways (top plan view, sectional view and disposition). The way of drawing showed the children's concern about their houses. Some children drew the floor plan at the early stage of development and express the concept of a house, which is composed by rooms. Infants drew the out line of a house and distinguished a house from the outside. The house models were suitable for children to express their knowledge about the layout of the rooms in his/her house.
After recession, economic environment is becoming severe. So prediction of customer's entry number and to grasp their demand are very important for the planning of amusement facilities . This report tries to research on Demand and supply model and the attraction degree of amusement facilities. To research on theory of the prediction of customer's entry we put importance on the following 3 aspects. 1) Demand and supply model of facilities. 2) Reseach on attraction degree of amusement facilities. 3) Method of making the prediction model from the standpoint of urban economc view and human behaviour side.
In this paper, from the viewpoint of the life-stage and sex distinction of young generation (high-school students, young adults) in intermediate and mountainous area and suburban area, we analyzed next two matters. One is the relation between evaluation of living environment and factor of attribute, the other is the comparison between young generations and other generation in environmental evaluation. The main contents of this paper are as follows. 1) The evaluation of environment in high-school students is not always influenced by regional characteristics. 2) By the age-group and life-stage, the evaluation about interchange of same generation, information and the environment of facilities will change in young generation. This tendency is remarkable in mountain area. 3) Young generation have two-peculiarity compared with other generation in evaluation of environment. One is its characteristic evaluation about the environment of facilities, the other is the common evaluation about the interchange of personnel with other generation.
In this paper, We considered about the border space of housing lot in rural settlement on mountain area. We made field survey about elements offence and gardenspace (hedge, garden plant, form of garden etc.), and carried out survey of questionnaire about evaluation of border space of housing lot. First we analyzed the direction of front space of housing lot. Next we classified front space of housing lot from 2 viewpoints. One is the condition of front space, the other is the condition of location. The main contents of this paper are as follows. 1) When it does based on the condition of front space and location, the view of front space of housing lot can be classified 8 types. 2) These types become the concrete composition pattern by the detailed elements (materials of hedge, form of garden etc.) being added. 3) The form of these pattern are influenced by the location and the road in front of the housing lot.
This paper analyzes the "Master Plan of Open Space in Nagoya" which was aimed to establish a green belt in 1940, through its relationship with the geography and the city planning. The plan attempted to preserve the landscape of riversides and hills on the outskirts of Nagoya City and to create center cores on a network of recreation areas connected by hiking courses. Since all of the open spaces were covered with the "Master Plan of Scenic Zone in Nagoya" in 1942, they proved to be conceived as the scattered fragments of a green belt continuously surrounding Nagoya City.
The rapid spread of the bicycle in recent years has caused the problems of leaving bicycles around the stations. This paper discussed the problems of bicycle use. Author conducted surveys on the present situation of leaving bicycle and the policy and expenditure of local governments on them. The results were as follows. Almost local governments adopted three countermeasures as the control system against leaving bicycles: 1) pay bicycle-parking lot, 2) no bicycle-parking areas and 3) enforced removal of leaving bicycle. This system worked partly, but simultaneously some by-products have occurred. For example, about 22,000 yen was needed to manage one parking space per year and the number of removed bicycles per year was one thirteenth to one seventh of the number of their households.
Our previous studies constructed the theory for standard of the performance for an urban improvement plan from the viewpoint of the prevention from urban fire spread. The theory is applicable to the urbanized area where the buildings distribute on the square lattice, the triangle lattice and the Poisson distribution. In this study, we defined the distribution, which has the character between the discrete and the Poisson distribution and is closer to the real urbanized area, and we constructed the theory for this model. Moreover, we demonstrated that our theory would be able to be applied to the real data of Tokyo Metropolitan and evaluate the performance of the urbanized area
This paper discusses the present deterioration in 1997 of the historical 'European Quarter' in Alexandria, in comparison with the 'Insurance Plan' in 1905. The European Quarter is analyzed according to the criteria of 1) urban structure, 2) building ownership and function, and 3) insurance and taxation policies. The street pattern and buildings in 1905 were defined by the regulation of 1834 and the bylaws in 1891, as well as kept maintained by the insurance against a various items of building. After the nationalization in 1952, the quarter has been forced to the deterioration by the 'Rent Control' policy and the change of the bylaws related to urban planning and building.
The purpose of this paper is to study on Public Health Nurse that facilitate community making by participation and partnership. I carried out a questionnaire survey that correspond to Public Health Nurse everyone of Hokkaido from a view point of community making. As a result, a Public Health Nurse have a strong interest for community making, but that the interest is not done sufficient with a jab. I understood that other sorts of occupations and besides that have scarcely comprehension and recognition to a Public Helth Nurse. And the coordinator who coordinates the work of public health nurse and other works is necessary, and so on.
Citizen participation in community planning is becoming more important. The purpose of this study is to clarify the issues of administration on citizen participation through making the general plan of Naha city. The issues are summarized as follows. 1. To practice citizen participation in community planning aggressively and to create a new system that materialize the citizens' proposal 2. To become citizens' autonomous activities on the community planning more briskly and to support the activities3. To improve the skill for citizen participation in community planning
As far as city planning is a kind of action by which some values are realized, the problem of value ought to be thought strictly both on the purpose of plan and on the method of realization. In this paper four categories (human, inhuman, epistemological, ontological) are generally set up and especially a distinction between epistemological and ontological is pointed out about the concepts of value. After that two principles of category as hypothesis in axiology are shown through consideration about the simple problems in city planning.
A method for evaluating allocation of hospitals in a region is developed using cost-benefit analysis. This method can be applied to the problem of integrating hospitals for reorganization of regional medical systems. Based on a questionnaire survey, the hospital choice behavior of patients is analyzed with the logit models, in which the distance and travel cost from a residential place to a hospital, the number of beds, and the waiting time are explanatory variables for each type of sickness and injury. The utility of hospital for the patients is converted into monetary term. Relative advantage of alternative sites for allocation of hospitals can be assessed through this result and one such case is exemplified.
The author deduced the estimate households by CENSUS in 1993 from CENSUS in 1990, 1995.And then the author compared them with the statistics households by HOUSING SURVEY in 1993. The results of the comparison of these values are the following: the estimate households are large over the range of sampling errors at owned tenure, at detached owned and semidetached owned tenure, at public rental tenure and at private semidetached rental tenure in 10 large cities in HOUSING SURVEY 1993. The differences between the estimate values in CENSUS and the statistics values in HOUSING SURVEY were scattered between0.9% and 8.3% of each estimate at tenure values in large cities on Oct. 1993. The ratio of households at unknowned tenure over total households is scattered between 0.3% and 6.7% of the statistics values in large cities on Oct. 1993 HOUSING SURVEY. The coefficient of correlation between the differences of CENSUS, HOUSING SURVEY and the unknowned tenure is 0.68. So both values are deeply related.
The first purpose of this paper is to clear the social system of taxation and finances in Denmark, and the second purpose is to clear actual conditions of social services for the elderly in each commune, and the third purpose is to grasp the regional structure by analysing municipal statistics. So we analysed following indexes and examined mutual relations in those indexes: population, percentage of 67+year-olds, children of single-parenthood per 0-15 year-olds, single senior citizens per 65+year-olds, gross income per taxpayer, municipal income tax rate, municipal tax base per inhab., municipal tax base after equalisation per inhab., total tax financed gross operating expenditure per inhab., total financing per inhab., income tax per inhab., general grants and equalisation per inhabi., expenditure need per inhabi., expenditure for the elderly per 67+year-olds, expenditure and total personel on home help schemes per67+year-olds, expenditure and total personel on integrated elderly care schemes per 67+year-olds, expenditure and total personel on institutions for the elderly per 67+year-olds, populatin density, percentage of owner-occupied housing.
In this paper, the tendency of specialty subcontractors' behaviors and that of consideration to "Kyouryoku-kai" are discussed referring to the exclusive relationship and interdependent action of specialty subcontractors. The state of the art of construction industry and the appearance of the change from the period of "bubble economy" to the period of depression were analyzed from the result of investigation of the specialty subcontractors. Based on these results, the change between specialty subcontractors' interdependent action and expansion strategy of the range of the work are found according to the market depression, and the behaviors of the specialty subcontractors and this industry.
In the construction industry various kinds of trades work in the same place at the same time. This causes many problems on the construction site, which reduces efficiency and increases the construction duration. Interior finish and building services works are especially problematic and may affect the entire project. We conducted a field observation to analyze the construction processes at a site in order to aquire finishing and building services work data. The process analysis is useful to aquire work process data that indicate bottlenecks in field work. In the paper, current problems, application of process analysis, the outline of the project, and the results of observations are explained.
This is an estimation of the life cycle cost (LCC) of Japanese wooden detached houses. From a questionnaire research, we calculated the survival probability of various part of a house and remaining rate. The years of 50% remaining rate is taken as a standard repair interval to make a simulation model of life cycle refurbishment of a house. The refurbishment cost was estimated from interviews to the professionals or the analysis of real cases. Applying them to the simulation model, LCC of 30 year life is estimated to be 2.16 times of new construction cost, and that of 60 year life is 3.25 times.
It is important to put into effect a social support system for the housing management by the dwellers because such a system would keep housing safe, and the dwellers would take responsibility for the environment. The purpose of this study is to find a valid scale for dwellers' D1Y ability, and with this scale to show clearly thecorrelation between their skill and performance in housing management. The results are as follows; The DIY ability of a dweller is classified in seven stages. Among our respondents, the largest number are at stage three, and their goal is advance one more stage in household maintenance to better deal with emergencies, and avoiding contract trouble with a builder. The ones who score high on DIY ability make daily careful inspections in more place and do more frequent repair of their houses by themselves than the ones who score low. Intentional maintenance is effectively for preventing damage.
This study presents the following points: 1) Among ceremonies held in Heian Palace, there were those where Shomeimon was mainly used and where Nikkamon was. 2) Shomeimon was the gate for aristocrats as guest and had been used in case of external ceremonies. 3) Nikkamon was the gate for aristocrats as host and had been used in case of internal ceremonies. 4) Both Shomeimon and Nikkamon had become to change those characters, and the factor was the formation of waiting upon Tenno in Heian Palace by aristocrats.
This paper provides the diachronic view of the Japanese vernacular house from the late medieval to the early modern period. 'Hottate-bashira' is a post with fixed end struck into ground and 'Munamochi-bashira' is a post which supports a ridge beam called 'Munagi'. The archetype of the vernacular house had 'Hottate-bashira' and "Munamochi-bashira'; afterwards, changed into the house with posts on stone bases called 'Ishizue'. It is concluded that the major prototype of Japanese early modern vernacular house has three posts in span direction with fixed end struck into ground and the middle post supports the ridge beam.
In recent years, in the Republic of Korea, the traditional life style has been changing by introduction of the Western culture with high growth of economy. In particular, the traditional culture of floor-sitting style coexists with the culture of chair-sitting style, which is, however, eroding the former. This study aims at clarifying the historical change and development of those two sitting styles in the Korean housing life.
We made the arches of rectangular bricks by using lime mortar for the joints. Lime mortar works as joint adjustment between rectangular bricks. For making strong arch as a kind of shell we removed the centering of arch as soon as bricks were finished to lay and did compression. This way is called a freehand applied construction method. Here this experiment causes questions about the strength of the fresh mortar. This paper concerns to the experiment about the compressive plasticity of lime mortar. Strength of fresh mortar proves to be over 70ton in 1cm joint thickness. Strength proves to get weak when the centering remains to be fixed. So the centering is to be removed for making the strong arch during the fresh and soft condition of mortar. Lime mortar is air-hardening and hardening is very slow. So using lime mortar as compression plasticity, which is called freehand construction method, proves to be very important to making arch.
This paper deals with alterations to villa Reitler by Adolf Loos. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of villa Reitler on the basis of analyzing this work and to suggest how villa Reitler connects .villa Strasser to Loos's later works. In villa Reitler, an external frame surpasses internal parts. And the facade, which overlaps the external frame, becomes independent as a frame that critically intermediates between the interior and the exterior. These characteristics of villa Reitler had prepared the autonomous composition on the facade of Loos's later works.
A study on relations between Zashiki spaces in Machiya houses and alteration in the wedding ceremony, in Okayama district; 1. In Okayama district, "Yomeiri-kon " is the most popular style of wedding ceremony, begun in the Edo period, but in wedding ceremonies, wedding receptions were controled from goverment. 2. After the Meiji period, controls on wedding receptions were abolished. And under the Influence of the developement of transportation, the Yomeiri-kon style wedding ceremony spread widely. 3. In the old wedding ceremony style before the Yomeiri-kon, the engagement ceremony was the most important part in wedding ceremonies, in this style, a big wedding reception was not included. 4. On the other hand, in Yomeiri-kon ceremonies, a big wedding reception was the most important part of wedding ceremony. 5. In Japanese traditional houses, Zasiki spaces were used for wedding ceremonies, in Machiya houses Zashiki spaces on the first floor were used in particular. 6. Many Zashiki spaces on the first floor were made after the Meiji period, and at same period the wedding ceremony spread widery. 7. It is thought that in Machiya houses, Zasiki spaces on the first floor were used widely connected with the wedding ceremony, after Meiji period.