The specific gravity of the row house in Kaohsiung area is high in Taiwan. This study collected the completion confirmation drawing of“To-tein house-traditional row house in Taiwan-” (161 housing developments, 6417 units) built in 1982, 1987, 1992, 1997, 2002 and 2007. The research analyzed the building arrangement and dwelling unit plan by year distinction / district distinction / area distinction and access form distinction. As a result, this paper clarified the variety of access form, access space, dining-living room type, stairs form and stairs position was increasing and this selectivity was rising. Also, with the change to the year distinction this paper clarified the difference by the access form (enter directly type / arcade type / front yard type) was remarkable.
The Full Service School serves many kinds of services on learning and life to solve many schools and family problems. The health and counseling services are one of the most important services in life support for students at The Full Service School. This study aims to clarify how to use the health and counseling room and how to support the student at those rooms. The results are as follow. 1) The service organization and school prepare the health and counseling room by repairing the vacant space at many case of existing school. 2) The site planning of these rooms consider the relativity with school based service center, class room and sport facilities etc. 3) The health staffs are nurse, reception staff and support staff of service organization. The counseling staffs are counselor and coordinator of service organization with counseling skill. 4) The health room has some function such as medical examination, rest and nurse office. The counseling room has few functions such as counseling space and counselor office. 5) Integration types share the few staffs and functions with reception and counseling etc.
The aim of this study is to clarify planning principle of convalescent rehabilitation wards which are based on the aspect that the entire patients' stay in their ward is for the purpose of rehabilitation training. The observational researches were carried out in three hospitals. The followings are the results of the study. 1. The space for a certain kind of rehabilitation training is composed by the combination of ”Elements", i.e. the groups of tools equipped with certain characters, which will lead to the difference of the training space in each hospital. 2. The space for patients who are spending out of bed was clarified. 3. The characters of the rehabilitation in each hospital were different, and the environmental necessities for rehabilitating should be considered not only from the training viewpoint, but also from the entire patients' stay in their ward, especially during their behavior out of the bed.
The aim of the study is to investigate relationship between Spatial Cognition and space characteristics in space in well-hole style. We also try to clarify the psychological evaluation. The present study mainly analyzes sketch maps drawn by subjects on paper with grids, each of which stands for scale(it is called grid maps). Subjects are also asked to evaluate some psychological items in questionnaires. Analysis involved comparing the grid maps, concentrating on width, length or height. The main conclusion is as follows. Firstly, it is found that height tends to be overestimated. Secondly, a narrow space in plan or in section, tends to be recognized as space in propotion of square. Lastly, the relationship between psychological evaluation and Spatial Cognition has also been clarified.
The purpose of this study is to bear out the claim that the spread of ubiquitous society is improving our behaviors in architectural and urban space. Specifically, the current situation of working mobility over time and space is investigated through the log analysis of e-mail access by discretionary labor. For 81 workers of a certain organization, the each number of real and cyber workplaces is tallied from the 3,241,805 records of e-mail access log files from Sep 1, 2007 to Feb 29, 2008. The percentages of local and remote works are evaluated from the recorded IP addresses and protocol types (POP and IMAP). The percentages of working hour, overtime, and holiday works are also evaluated from time stamps of these records. Then, cluster analysis is performed on the 4 variables; number of workplaces, percentage of remote works, percentage of extra works, summation time of working. As the result, the workers of discretionary labor are categorized into the following 4 working styles; conservative type, temporally-modulated type, spatially-distributed type, and post sedentary type.
In this study we investigate the construction and maintenance of CHOGA roofs in Korean Peninsula. The constitution of the roofs may contain soil or may not contain soil, while the materials used in different regions may be slightly different. For maintaining the roofs, reproofing is performed every one, two or three years, with many different kinds of construction methods pertaining to different regions. However, with the introduction of modern technologies and materials for the construction and maintenance of the roofs, the roofs are getting more different from the genuine roofs. The purpose of this study is to identify the regionalization of the construction methods of CHOGA roofs in Korean Peninsula, to record the reproofing techniques for maintenance, and to keep track of the regional characteristics of the roofs so as to find out the future direction of maintaining CHOGA.
This study aims to clarify how impressive scenes during vertical travel by stairs are experienced. We quantified the impressions and studied the relations with spatial composition of the stairs. Experiment participants were asked to take photographs of scenes that attracted attention while traveling along stairs and filled a questionnaire on their impressions. The photographed scenes were classified in 21 types by an impressiveness-measuring scale, differences of impression by direction, type and number of elements indicated to contribute to the experience. Effects of spatial composition on experiences were examined by analyzing relations between sequence of scenes and evaluations of attractiveness. Results showed that both impressions of individual scenes and the sequential composition of them were important in forming attractiveness.
This study examines the group activities at Kominkan, a community center, and key persons in a community. Investigations revealed the following. Many group activities consist of a network between friends. Members of these group activities place a greater emphasis on friendship than on the activities themselves. More than 30 key persons act as steering members of the community events and activities of the residents' association. These key persons connect community members who would not otherwise come into contact with one another. Most key persons are currently or were formerly members of group activities at Kominkan.
The bulk of urban housing units in Dhaka city are being built with piecemeal construction process and supplied for rent by small-scale private landlords. This paper draws on longitudinal studies and examines the process of housing construction among this category of producers using case study of a typical middle income settlement in Dhaka city. The study revealed the predominant role of small building firms in the construction process and landlords deploy them for maintaining operational flexibility and cost saving. Invasion of manufactured building materials and utilization of modern equipments are traced in contemporary self-help construction. Due to public and private initiatives, landlords are gradually trained in construction skills; promote self-help construction, and making notable contribution to the settlement's consolidation process and housing supply.
This study is mainly considered in the points that follow, through the housing stock data of the Housing Survey, conducted every 5 years. 1. Calculations of “half life” by stock groups classified every 10 years constructed and by the administrative divisions through the housing stock data. 2. The examinations of the results through the correlation analyses with the average of “half life” and the wooden house rate or the others of the housing stocks by the administrative divisions. 3. The principal component analyses by 10 variables and by 14 variables of “half life” calculated in case of all housing stock and wooden housing stock, and the examinations of the results.
The purpose of this study is to show the possibility of preservation and revitalization method of the shopping side alley which located in the old town Tokyo. 17 neighborhood shopping streets were selected in the Tokyo wards areas which have above 20% of share for aged residents in the population. 17 streets were categorized into 6 pattern of shopping street space structure systems. Inherent characteristics are showed that shopping side alleys which called Yokochou-shoutengai are served daily necessaries to residents especially aged peoples who live in the convenient walking distance to the alleys. It is necessary to maintain the inherent characteristics of the Yokochou side alley that residents cultivate the alley space as their communication space for the community.
The aim of this study is to make clear the spatial composition and formative process of reclaimed villages by a case study on Ashikari Area facing the Ariake Coast in Ogi City. In the early-modern times the reclaimed works were developped by the initiative of Saga domain in Ashikari Area. We take notice of the reclamation policy and the formation of settlement in the earlymodern times. In addition, we attempt to clarify the relationship between development of reclaimed works and transformation of spatial composition of reclaimed villages on Asikari area.
Authors have been conducting the field research under the title ‘Origin, Transformation, Alteration and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial cities’since 1999. Through the analysis of the colonial maps, authors discuss the urban process and the space formation of the city of Santo Domingo. In the period of the Spanish urbanism in America, the city of Santo Domingo was the first European city founded in the American continent by a grid form. This study on Santo Domingo has been accomplished based on the analysis of old maps corresponding to colonial Spanish period. As cartographic database, 916 images and maps from AGI (The Archive of the Indies in Seville- Archivo de Indias de Sevilla), are used for analysis. In the analysis of the colonial maps and the fieldwork, we clarify the urban formation and the process of Santo Domingo until the present days, and we discuss their characteristics.
In order to devise an appropriate tsunami management plan, it is essential for local governments to understand the level of awareness that residents have regarding the danger of tsunamis. The authors surveyed the residents in Onjuku Town, Chiba, focusing the questionnaire on the residents' risk perception and on their most likely evacuation options and examined the answers using spatial data. The result shows the following: 1) risk perception is strongly related to spatial factors, 2) timing of evacuation by the residents is not so much related to the residential locations, and 3) some residents intend to choose dangerous routes to evacuate.
In Japan, the sky exposure criterion regulation has been introduced in 2003. According to the regulation, the rate computed for the proposed building layout has to be greater than the regulated rate determined by the site shape and the road space. First we derive analytical expressions for two types of building sky exposure rates. Then we demonstrate that the sky exposure rate regulation leads to higher buildings, separate buildings, split sites and central placement positions. We also discuss the justification of the other regulation such as height limit regulation and landscape plan.
Taking the formulation of “Urasoe Landscape Plan” and “Nakama Landscape Criteria” as research subjects, it was found out that investigation into the reasons of modification of the draft landscape criteria and issues on the coordination process, method between citizen and administration is necessary. Thus, this paper is aiming at the following purposes: 1. To clarify the process for Nakama landscape district designation and the formulation of landscape criteria, Urasoe and the connections between the criteria and citizens'opinions. 2. To clarify the grounds for setting and modification of landscape criteria, and discuss the issues on the coordination between citizen and administration.
In this research, the effect and the problem of the community participation are arranged from the aspect of the spreading effect of the facility based on the anecdotal survey. Consideration to which the citizens give priority to the community planning activity and the system more than the facilities building improves. In the citizen's participation, the process where the agreement of the citizens who are not participating can be obtained is necessary. The proof experiment is effective as the process where the effect of the facilities is improved. And the reaction method of the public organization and the consultant influence the effect of the community participation.
The purpose of this study is to clarify actual situations of "open garden" activity from the perspectives of how participants start and how long they engage in the activity, and to examine the activity's continuity. As a result of questionnaire surveys conducted at 55 "open garden" activity sites, it was revealed that: (1) The longer the period a group of flower enthusiasts is involved in the activity, the more actively they engage in activities for exchange and information gathering as a regular hobby; (2) If the activity is encouraged by administration, the shorter the period of activity, the more administrative support is received to increase the number of visitors and participants as an activity for a limited time; and (3) While cooperative activities between administration and participants are increasing, the role administration plays in the continuation of the activity is becoming increasingly important.
Teiji Uchida, a doctor in Hamamatsu City during the Meiji period wrote fourteen volumes of diary named “Meiji-nenchu-zatsuroku” (thirteen exist today). This paper describes the process of the construction of his clinic facilities including the gardens by looking up the whole volume of the documents. 1. Five buildings and accompanying gardens were constructed at the start of the clinic around 20th year of Meiji. Construction of the buildings and gardens seems to be done in the same period. 2. Kuwakichi Takahashi was in charge of the construction. He was also commissioned of “wood construction” of the local temple. He expanded business to real estate area and was concerned with the later expansion of the premises. 3. Niwahei was in charge of gardens. He was a well-known gardener of the district. He dedicated himself to the project making trips with the client seeking the desirable trees.
The educational museum included the office and the library in time of opening of 1877. The plan in 1881 is an exhibition room the entire building, and seems a finished type. The plan of The Kyoto museum exists as a museum project plan planned to a simultaneous period, The educational museum and The Kyoto museum are the flow plannings based on the same idea. It is thought that The plan of The Kyoto museum is transmitted from Makimura to Tanaka through Kido is high, and The educational museum was planned based on The plan of The Kyoto museum.
This paper is the second report of a series of research on the transition of the official residence of Japanese National Railways. In this paper, we especially clarify transitions of the official residence in around 1900. The result can be summarized as follows : 1. For Japanese National Railways, the time of around 1900 is one of turning points. The establishment is reorganized corresponding to rapid extension to the whole country of a railroad. The organization is made centralization. Various technical standards begin to be provided, too. 2.If we focus on floor planning of the official residence, we can see two kinds of changes. One is the reconsideration of the relation between the floor planning and the classes. The chance of extension or rebuilding of residences makes this visible. And the other is application of certain floor plan in some places where the jurisdictional district is exceeded, although we can see only one example. 3.It is possible to say that previous two kinds of changes are the germ of a new stage of the official residence. But these were not consistent in the entire organization necessarily. We can see the floor planning of the official residence is kept studying in each place as well as previous age, too.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the process of the construction project of the Taiwanese Pavilion in the Fifth National Industrial Exhibition 1903 in Osaka by mainly referring the articles of Japanese newspapers issued in Taiwan and public documents of the Government General in Taiwan. The Taiwanese Pavilion, which was designed by architects of the Government General in Taiwan, was complex including four buildings which were conveyed from Taiwan to Osaka. The government regarded that the design of the pavilion was an obvious Taiwanese style as important.
This paper is to clear the style of method of restoration of Hondou (main hall of temple) of Kumihama Honganji temple in 1910. The first,this paper clear the early method of restoration by Kameoka from 30's years of Meiji and compare the method of another engineer. And then,this paper clear the method of restoration of Kumihama Honganji temple.Kameoka's restoration in 30's years of Meiji is especial method because it includes reconstructive restoration of original style,complement of sacred enclosed area and so on. Besides he concerned first complement of removal restoration of modern age. The method of restoration of Kumihama Honganji temple in 1910 is compilation of restoration method in 30's years of Meiji .The method was moving the building from previous place,exchanging many old materials for new one,exchanging the statue which was added after building for the statue which is original from Kameoka's research, and reconstruction Gohai(the front stair). Kameoka claimed for the beauty of architecture to restoration. The method of restoration was valued twice, but it was no valuation.
Modern silkworm house was specially built to control its inner temperature, humidity, daylight, and fresh air to meet the delicate condition of the silkworm rearing in Meiji Period. This study is based on more than 2,500 sericultural books published in Meiji Period. These tutorial books have detailed explanation of architectural elements, but have never been analyzed. The purpose of this study is to clarify the mechanism and its elements through the analyzation of the sericultural books in relation with two ways to rear the silkworms, cool rearing and warm rearing.
This paper explains the relation of road system and provincial city in Joseon dynasty. In 1871, Pak jeong yang wrote an account of journey, and the title of this book is Poswaeilgi. The object of this paper is seven provincial cities that are Jiksan, Roseong, Ryeosan, Eumjuk, Sangju, Chungju, Hwasung in Poswaeilgi. Using historical document and maps, this paper clarifies the characteristics of the connection of road system and provincial city in Joseon dynasty. Provincial cities in Poswaeilgi were enclosed to the mountain. Generally, provincial city was linked with high road by the connection road. But, Hwasung was pierced with Highroad. This is an important location characteristic of 18 century's new city Hwasung that was differentiated with other previous city in Joseon dynasty.
This study discusses the transformation of stupas in the Gandhara Buddhist temples focusing plinth forms and masonry techniques. The third article takes up the remains of three archaeological sites, Butkara I, Saidu Sharif I and Nimogram, located in Swat where is the north region of Gandhara in the broad meaning. This article covers the field survey of stupas which was conducted based on the excavations researches carried out at Swat by the Italian Team, IsMEO and the Department of Archaeologiy and Museums, Pakistan. Consequently, same as Central Gandhara's and Taxila's three types of features were found in Swat i.e. one-story type, two-story type and step-down type. The Swat's characteristic features are as follows: one-story type is majorority, few step-down type, a use of green schist only for decoration parts, engraved stone, reuse or diversion of stone members.
The Doric Temple of Messene at ancient Messene, Peloponnesos, was located in the southwest part of the agora. It had been excavated by the Society of Messenian Archaeological Studies from 2003 to 2006. The authors participated in its field research and measured the site and blocks of the temple to make their drawings. In the previous paper, the authors certified that the temple had six columns on the ends and twelve on the sides. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the plan of the cella walls of this temple with detailed study of the shape and dimensions of the blocks. Consequently, the authors reached the conclusion that the dimensions of the cella might have been restored in 6.141×14.270m including pronaos and opisthodomos, either of which had two columns, between their antae.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the spatial composition of landscape paintings drawn as hanging scroll by Sesshu. The elements that compose landscapes are divided into topographical, arboreal and artificial. The landscapes are analyzed by considering the arrangement of these elements transformed into the three-dimensional frame. In consequence, these can be divided into five types, and each spatial composition is illustrated with isometric projection: 1)Curving by one side, 2)Curving by both sides, 3)Zigzag line, 4)Intermitting and Rising, and 5)Contrast of near and far. And the spatial relation of these types is cleared in view of the spatial vector.
The chair which Mackintosh designed was examined in detail researching the constitution of every component, concerning the height and color etc. It is thought that feature of designing can be roughly classified from the data. (1) From around 1894 to around 1900: On the basis of traditional form, designed the front and the rear etc. (2) From around 1900 to around 1903: Designated Art Nouveau curved line and the flower etc as motif, was usually painted white and a time when the high back chair was common. (3) From around 1903 to around 1905: Time of the geometric constitution where the lattice and the vertical line become motif. (4) After 1906: Time of the Art Deco tendency which the geometric constitution and decoration kept unified. The Mackintosh chair design as described above it is considered from the differentiations the standards.
This paper studies about the naming of inner part of town blocks in early Edo period. Cadastral registers at the end of the 16th century show that Oku(interior) was related to the scale of town block, Ura(back) was referred to the adjacent boundary and the neighboring boundary. On the title deeds were various at the first half of 17th century. It was represented as Ura, and as Oku, and written with size, and written without size. And it was represented as Ura at the 2nd half of 17th century. It is because the boundary can be done at inner part in town blocks by then.
On the former paper (Part 1), the appearance of balconies in Catalonia was cleared by analyzing the historical change of the style of urban palaces. Then, in this paper, the formative process of the urban scenery in the old town of Barcelona is analyzed by focusing on the history of balconies on the urban apartments. The transition of balconies in the evolving process of the old town is studied from the 17th century to the first half of the 19th century. In the 17th century, balconies began to be added to windows making the windows sizes larger. In the 18th century, the growth of projecting extension of existing buildings on the streets made the urban environment worse. In the 19th century, the urban remodeling and the new urbanization generated the unified urban façades. Finally through the transition of the regulations which control balconies the influence on the urban scenery are considered.