This study is focusing on race structure and space structure of Japantown, the role of Japanese American business and Japanese American community in San Jose, northern California. Japantown in San Jose was formed from 1890, along Southern Pacific Railroad and Chinatown. In Japantown center, the building owners and tenants were Japanese, Chinese and other races. Japanese buildings were the most and space segregation by races has been shown. Japanese group like Hawaiian Japanese American, Shin Issei and Japanese American companies were developed in Japantown. Many Chinese were flowing out and other races like Filipino, Vietnamese and Korean were flowing in. Japanese Americans who closed their business are renting tenants to Hawaiian Japanese American, Shin Issei and other races. To maintain Japantown, to understand and participate in Japanese American business and community are necessary. How Japanese American and association will accept Hawaiian Japanese American, Shin Issei and other races is the future problem.
The purpose of this study is to investigate about effect of space composition on convalescence rehabilitation patients in wards. In particular, this study focuses on the difference in positional relationship between two wards in Nagano Prefecture. First, we observe the line (2 days) of convalescence rehabilitation patients at each ward in 7am to 7pm. And then, we interview them with a questionnaire. The results of the analysis are as follows; 1. In case, a sickroom is near the room for rehabilitation training, the inpatients work on rehabilitation. On the other hand, they spend a long time in the cafeteria and do not work on rehabilitation in the opposite circumstances. They adjust the amount of exercise. 2. The inpatient's out-of-bed behavior is classified by a floor plan of ward. Therefore, a designer should be conscious of positional relationship between sickroom and the room for rehabilitation training.
This study aims to identify the characteristics of the locations of bicycle parking lots in the central areas of Sapporo city through an analysis of their location in terms of geographical and social conditions of the immediate surrounding facilities and physical elements of its neighboring environment. As a result of analysis, although the preferred general location for bicycle parking lots is influenced by the type of facility that people want to travel to, they are usually placed on sidewalks where there are few buildings rather than close to the facilities themselves. Furthermore, it was also observed that open spaces with no structures such as benches or streets lined with trees were avoided.
This paper aims at considering the environment design of the playgarden of the day-care facility before entering school, and it's influence for children's aspects of playing. We performed observational servey in the child-care facilities before entering school in Adachi-ku, Tokyo. It was showed that playing aspects are defferent from each other with playgrounds' environment such as relationship of activity zones or play equipments. And the combination of the play environment elements had effects for playing aspects. However, development of the play was less a general facility. we examined the examples of “IS facility” and “M facility.” We divided the play gardens in these facilities according to certain areas, and I summarized the distribution of play and relationship of play. And we confirmed that children's play is induced by the arrangement of elements. Future work would be to a similar study for facilities of distinctive playground.
The reorganization of public facilities owned by Japan's municipalities is becoming a major issue. The purpose of this study is to understand the state of the establishment of public facility reorganization plans by municipalities nationwide, extract precedent examples of reorganization plans already established, and compare and discuss their structures and the criteria used to formulate the plans. The method of investigation was gathering documents and materials, which are related to reorganization plans of public facilities, from the websites of municipalities.
The aim of this study is to grasp functions of metaphors in architectural design. Especially, we focus on the concept, “frame” in this paper. To clarify the relation between frames and metaphors, we transform protocols which we get in the design experiment we conduct, to semantic networks using the theory of conceptual graph, which is developed by J. F. Sowa. At the same time, we define the concept of frame as a knowledge which has network-like structure. After we transform the protocols, we apply graph theory to the semantic networks and analyze the structures of the frames as graph. Through the analysis, we found some aspect of metaphors being related to micro- and macro frames as below. First, metaphors make the micro-frames of each important concept in design process complex and designers start to discuss about them together. Second, metaphors make their community of concepts and fulfill a function as intermediary of knowledge as macro-frame.
This study investigates the factors that effect of human body shape on the pedestrian's specific flow rate at openings. The results of our experiment show that the mean pedestrian specific flow rates were appendix more than 2.0 person/m/s. Furthermore, the flow late increases with the opening width not linearly but in form of a step function. The participants often twisted their shoulder when they entered to the opening in particular if they passed near the opening edge through. This action makes their projected body width against the opening smaller so that they could enter into spatial gaps that were smaller than their actual body width.
Happiness Village Project (HVP) by Jeollanamdo is one of the representative cases to increase Hanok in recent Korea. This paper appears the characteristics of housing system in HVP, using interviews with contractors, carpenters, architects, lumber mills among others. Most contractors are small-scale and are established after 2000s. At the beginning of HVP, many Hanok were designed by contractors and carpenters, and architects only draw plans for application. However, as the increase of Hanok, contractors and architects were selected and construction costs and design fee are rising. Additionally, lumber supply chains are changing from conventional one.
This paper describes reciprocity improvement of both regional autonomous organization and base facilities by the base formation. This paper deals with regional autonomous organizations has been installed in the old towns and villages unit in Minamiboso city, Chiba prefecture. In this study, we collected about activity places of regional autonomous organizations. And, we extract base facilities from activity places of regional autonomous organizations. We will use the point of view of the support functions and the management morphogenesis process in order to grasp reality of base formation of regional autonomy organization.
The Yato is a landscape unit often seen in hilly zone of South Kanto area. This paper is to clarify topographic characteristics and land use features of Yato in Yokohama City, where numbers of Yato and certain preceding studies of Yato exists. Through the research by GIS and TPI method, statistical measurement and cluster analysis, we found below: 1. Average area of Yato is 4ha and the bottom is almost 1ha that means very compact size of daily walkable environment. 2. The slope angle distributes between 5° - 8° (av. 8.11°) that means not to steep angle good to farming and housing. 3. There are 2 types of Yato ; one is Normal type and the other is Koyato type. Normal type consists of housing at bottom and slope as forest. Koyato type consists of small housing area at bottom and farming fields at gentle slope.
In this paper, we examined actual condition of management of Jizo-bon in the central area of Kyoto-city and analyzed component of participants of Jizo-bon. As the result, we clarified people (ex. apartment residents) who tend to be unfamiliar with community activities also join in Jizo-bon. This result means that Jizo-bon play a role in the creation of a resilient community in terms of improving the "diversity" of community members which is one of the basic characteristics of resilient communities. In addition, we considered about the reason why Jizo-bon play a rore described as above. We pointed out that Jizo-bon has “flexibility” from view of selectivity of events, number of participants and place corresponded to the situation of each communities. These results suggest that community resources like Jizo-bon which has experienced change in the long time and succeeded as “the core” of community is meaningful in local community management in the era of uncertainty.
The present study examined the current status and measures regarding support for outdoor mobility based on regional and individual characteristics and the status of the development of public transportation. The following results were obtained. 1. There are limitations to the current public transport system with respect to securing opportunities for activities. Further, with respect to characteristics of outdoor mobility there are differences between the elderly, and persons with disabilities. 2. An investigation regarding the introduction of the group taxi revealed that it is not just a means of transportation. Rather it contributes to the improvement of a sense of community among participants.
In this paper, we discuss a questionnaire survey concerning stranded commuters in the metropolitan area by approaching the bomb cyclone on April 3, 2012. Based on the results of the survey, when the bomb cyclone approached, nearly 90 percent of commuters recognized arrival of the bomb cyclone beforehand. And nearly 60 percent of commuters received instruction to return home at once from own company. But only 78 percent of people followed the instructions. Many people received the directions about return home rather than the time of the Great East Japan Earthquake. And, 59.9% of respondents answered "There are no plan and training about stranded commuters in our company." It means that there are also many companies which has no plan about stranded commuters.
In this study, we evaluated the level of diversity of street facades using Simpson's diversity index, a measure of diversity frequently utilized in the field of ecology. The following results are provided. (1) We extracted two types of street facades: one represented a type of diversity, where in the composition ratio of each color was almost even for the entire street facade; the other represented a type of unity, such that the dominant material accounted for more than 39% of the composition ratio within the street facade. (2) The physical and psychological values of diversity indicate a correlation. Consequently, the method of evaluating the level of diversity of the street facades using Simpson's diversity index appears to yield useful findings. The results indicate that in order to increase the attractiveness of streetscapes, it is important to recognize a dominant color or material of each street facade.
This study aims identify the characteristics of eye fixation of test subjects in order to lay a solid foundation for the urban cityscape analysis from a high elevation. More specifically, from the tendency of eye fixation, the distribution of point of gaze and a target of gaze were analyzed. To achieve this goal, six image samples obtained from Tokyo Sky-tree (Height 350m) and an Eye-Mark Recorder (EMR) were used in order to understand the viewing experience of the urban cityscape from above. The main conclusions of this study are as follows: 1) Subjects tended to view the urban cityscape from a high elevation in a horizontal manner and gaze into the distance rather than nearby. 2) From the aspect of visual focal points, subjects tended to focus on high-rise buildings or a group of high-rise buildings. More specifically the number of focal points increased as the distance of gaze increased and there was also a tendency to focus on symbolic buildings.
This research conducted a questionnaire survey about measures of public participation and the program framework of planning process on the landscape plan in small and medium-scale local governments. And the results are as follows; 1) It was observed that the program framework of planning process constituted by 3 types of meetings, a committee meeting that the members are from many professions, a workshop that half or more of the members are inhabitants, and the internal meeting of the government. Then, the program framework was divided into 3 types based on the degree of public participation. 2) It was observed that the content of the landscape plan such as landscape characteristic, landscape image, could reflect opinion of inhabitants by public participation measures such as public comment or briefing sessions etc. 3) After analyzing the relationships between content of the landscape plan developed with public participation and the program framework, it was observed that the program framework with high degree of the public participation, carried out multiple measures of public participation, and the plan contained higher degree of public opinion.
In this study, we developed the estimating system for future demand and supply of elderly care, in order to prepare for the increase in elderly people who require nursing care, in depopulating and aging society. By using this system, it was found that from 2015 to 2040, both nursing care demand and supply that family or area volunteers provides will increase in Sendai metropolitan area. But the demand outreaches the supply so it is necessary to take some appropriate measures in the early stages. And we made it clear that the utilizing possibility of area volunteers is useful to reduce nursing care demand.
This study examines the current progress of housing reconstruction for disaster victims and issues of reconstruction in Ibaraki Prefecture, as well as issues relating to reconstruction aid. Home reconstruction relies largely on the efforts of the residents themselves ; however, the overwhelming majority of home-owning victims are elderly. This creates difficulties when it comes to state-supported funding. For this reason, there are many examples of returnees who have given up on rebuilding their homes, which is closely connected to victims not feeling that their lifestyles have recovered from the disaster. I examine issues related to reconstruction aid in light of the large number of elderly victims.
COCO Shonandai, Elderly Group Living (EGL) organized by residents realized the resident-centered services for the first time in Japan. Are the following EGLs organized by living space suppliers or supporting service suppliers able to realize the same type of services? The condition for the following EGLs enabling to supply those services are making the communication environment connect the group living residents with the people in the neighborhood, and grasping the needs of the residents through the meeting regularly and building a relationship of mutual trust between the residents and the management body.
With the help of old documents and records, I investigated the houses where shogunal inspectors and their attendants stayed, where the occupation Bashaku or Kaisendoiya have in coastal district of Echizen from Enkyo to Tenpho period. The houses were made a set of the honjin and the one or two shitayado. The honjin was attached conditions to the first room of toilet and bath, second room, third room, forth room, and two toilet, bath, shikidai, mon, kagodai, and two bannsho of the face and the tailes, kuchi-domebansyo, and nitsukekoya. The shitayado was attached conditions two or three rooms and two toilet and two bath. The wall, floor, shoji, fusuma were repaired, and toilet and bath were made temporary in some houses.
The aim of this study is to clarify how contemporary Japanese architects describe the appearance of their housing works in the composition of the text. Initially, terms about the design of houses are categorized into three groups; condition of the project, spatial operation by the architect, and the efficiency as a result of the operation. Secondly, relation of each category is analyzed. Finally, "description form of architectural appearance" and characteristic types of description are extracted.; “responding to condition”, “placing a high premium on spatial operation”, “clarifying rationality of the relation between condition, operation and efficiency”, “clarifying efficiency to condition”.
This paper examines the studies made by the American geographer Robert B. Hall (1896-1975) on Japanese urban settlements during the interwar period. At that time, the academic study of urban settlements was only beginning and different study methods were being tested. The analysis of Hall's writings on Japanese cities has shown that his understanding of settlements as an integral part of the landscape led him to translate the methods of Regional Geography to study cities. This translation shaped his research around five main subjects: (1) distribution, (2) classification, (3) development, (4) functional analysis, and (5) structuring elements.