This study is aimed at clarifying the existence of common facilities, the scale and the arrangement of them in terms of 38housing complex in Daegu metropolitan city, Republic of Korea. Results of this study are as follows; 1) Many common facilities are installed in the housing complex which does not need to be installed. 2) Administration centers, senior citizen centers, libraries, and residence common facilities are installed on a far larger scale than the standard specified in the law. 3) Some common facilities, such as nursery school and a playlot are arranged functionally.
The purpose of this paper is to make clear the living environment and daily activities that affect the related factors to chronic low back pain. Based on the questionnaire survey that was conducted with adult women with a medical history of chronic low back pain, two analyses were performed (n=4,040). First, it was found some motions that a lot of people felt the burden of low back at activities of daily living. Those results were compared with ergonomic value of lumbar load of each motion. These characteristics of the motions of the lumbar load were not only greater. There was also a small load in the case of long working hours. Next, the χ-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed for each room bathroom, kitchen, liveing room. People who have felt the heavy burden of low back after housework in kitchen were more likely to be lower worktop (OR 2.27). Environmental factors in the living room was not associated with low back pain symptoms, but associated with the subjective health, fatigue and stress. These results suggested that the effect of the living environment reduce stress and it may be related to symptoms of low back.
This study highlights the transformation of space composition of Kang in conjunction with home renovation and extension influenced by recent lifestyle changes. Pinpointing a cold district in northeast China, the research aims to explore sustainable development within a village and its farmhouses. A key transformation is the shift in Kang usage from a multifunctional space to a mono-functional one. Another included the establishment of entertaining and eating space influenced by changing cooking space with Kamado. In addition, the study uncovered multi-functional differentiation, more specifically, the flexibility to adapt to recent lifestyle while sustaining Kang-centred living.
Frequency and patterns of use of shared multi-purpose spaces in open-plan schools were studied. Effects of environmental conditions categorized in two kinds, given conditions individual teachers do not have control over and user-set conditions teachers as building users determine, were analyzed. Purposes of and ways of arranging the use of multi-purpose spaces differed between teachers using the space more/less frequently. Teachers who used the space more often used the space not only for activities that require larger spaces but also to break down class sizes. Multi-purpose spaces were used less when there were more classes sharing the space. There was a strong correlation between furniture layout and frequency of use. When the furniture was set to articulate the space and provide more affordances, the space was used more often. Use of multi-purpose spaces was affected by the given conditions and in turn, user-set conditions and habitual use patterns within the given situation reciprocally encouraged (or discouraged) the use of spaces.
Deterioration by aging goes ahead through the restroom of school, but improvement has not advanced because of a large number. As a result, comfort is spoiled, and some students are reported not to have excretion at school. A purpose of this study is how to lead quick and effective restroom renewal through the project of Setagaya-ku having 94 schools, which was started in 1998, and inspecting an effect and evaluation for 14 years until 2011. After grasping problems and demands, design concept and common specifications document for model school was summarized. Expert performed a model design, and then standard common specifications document is made in consideration for term of works and the cost, performing a periodical revision based on the inspection. This paper summarizes the effect and subject and has proposed the possibility of future quick school restroom renewal.
In this study, we experimentally evaluated impressions of facility users on existing buildings of N university to clarify the influence of the design of seismic retrofitting braces on their impressions. We conducted the impression evaluation experiment using two methods: in a questionnaire survey, we examined the influence of the presence of antiseismic reinforcement and whether users had received information regarding them on their impression of a building; and in an observation survey, we compared impressions between different arrangements and designs of seismic retrofitting braces. The questionnaire survey results showed that the presence of antiseismic reinforcement influenced the impression of the building more than knowledge of reinforcement. However, for those who had received information, antiseismic reinforcement influenced their comfort factor regarding building impressions. The observation survey identified negative impressions from windows being blocked and a positive sense of security from strong structural elements. These contradicting factors determine the impression of a building and are important considerations in the design of seismic retrofitting braces.
This paper attempts to clarify multi-layered aspects of urban space in central Tokyo from the point of view of complexity of spaces surrounding station buildings. Initially, the characteristic mode and conditions of teritories of multi-layered space surrounding station buildings are determined by collating the sectional construction of viewpoints on it. Secondly, the characters of multi-layered spaces are categorized in terms of models determinded by forms of networks and modes of teritories. Finally, one paradigm and two fundamental modes were isolated by deploying the above-mentioned data, which may be said to represent one aspect of the urban form of contemporary Tokyo.
This paper aims to clarify the standard shape character of Yato-topography by classifying the small valleys whose small administrative unit name includes “Ya” that means valley. In the case study area, there are most Yato-topography with following characteristics, the reclaimable fields area is about 1 ha, the forest area is about 3 ha, the entrance width of vale is about 60m, and the distance from the entrance to the end is about 200m. This study declares that basic Yato that is social units units have these characteristics. In other words, Yato is a unit that has fields for mainly agriculture, whose area is about 1 ha, have forest as the water source whose area is three times larger than the fields. In the conventional method for extracting ato that uses the stream order, the areas of Yato units varies widely because of the influence by the fractal form of vales. In the method using small administrative unit for extracting Yato, the areas of Yato units are certain. Therefore, it is considered that the method in this paper is more appropriate.
This is the second article of the series study named Formulation Method of Conservation Planning on Historic Town (Village) in Southwest of P.R.China. In the first article, from aspects of policy, main method, and primary research, the transition of Chinese historic heritage which focuses on Plain Protection after 1980 is reorganized. And model conservation planning cases are analyzed to explain the specific protection approach of three protection systems. In this article, taking Lizhuang Town in Yibin City for example, conservation development related to three protection systems is explored. Then method and contents in conservation planning formulation and situation of implementation process are analyzed.
Purpose of this study is to clarify the whole pictures of the Fireproof Building Promotion Law (1952) and the characters of the Local Cities to which this law was applied. The results are as follows: 1. Total number of the applied cities was 92. 2. To construction Fireproof Buildings on the Fireproof Building Belt was the city fireproof service for the Ministry of Construction. However meanwhile, it had also both characters of reconstruction from the war damage and city planning. 3. The Fireproof Building Belt of Fukushima City was built with reference to those of Numazu City and Utsunomiya City. 4. The enactment method of the wall surface line of the building on the Fireproof Building Belt of Fukushima City refers to that of Yokohama City
After the first designation as a planned city by the City Planning Act, Gifu City had quickly expanded its limits during the early Showa era. In the first stage of Gifu City Planning Project, it was aimed to be grown as the city of manufacturing industry. According this vision the main street network was planned. The suburban parts of this street network were, however, decided to construct as the Land Readjustment Projects to save the public construction costs. After all, the landowners of the Land Readjustment Project's sites seemed not to follow the initial vision of the City Planning, but to intend to develop their lands for ideal residential areas. As the result, Gifu City experienced the major change of its planning vision from the modern industrial city to the modern city of residence and tourism at this moment. It corresponds to the fact that mayor, Kunimatsu Matsuo, with rising bureaucrats set the policy of creating such type of city as a reasonable means for arbitrating conflict with emerging middle class and traditional landowners.
Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR) is composed of a Mega-capital city and vicinity area and it shows the effect from the rapid urbanization with weak land use control. This research focuses the expanding residential development that transforms agricultural land into residential land that result in the large sprawl phenomenon in suburban and vicinity area. Through understanding of the characteristics of distribution of land uses classify an urban sprawl into four categories with unique characteristics in each the main type of residential development, a gated housing development, with great impact on the land use in BMR. It is necessary for gated housing projects to be addressed with specific solution base on characteristic of sprawling type in different areas.
The purpose of this research is to make the measures of narrow street arrangement clear from a practical side, and to discuss the direction of measures according as the district feature of a city area. The acquired knowledge is as follows. (1) In a sprawl area and the area of Edo, "construction-standards methods" are the basis of narrow street arrangement measures; moreover, the chief measures are to improve the major road by influence of a site unit. (2) Also in narrow street arrangement measures of a community rearrangement work area, various planned approaches are possible in a circumference ward by making "city planning methods" precede in whole ward. A future subject is investigating the solution of the problem which still remains after priority arrangement route completion, and considering a relation with the district characteristic.
Malaysian society has been experiencing drastic social and economic development during past decades which reflects multi-ethnic settlements as well as housing estates in the State of Johor where gained higher demand for estates housing by investors from domestic and abroad. Author explores revising field research year 2012 to compare with year 1993 to analyze physical and social changes in suburban SS housing estate. Remarkable changes are appeared as segregation was observed on the neighborhood level. Long year's experiences in housing estate brought more mutual ties among residents which comprises a variety of ethnic groups.
This paper clarifies the competitive structure of traditional retail stores, where sales of goods are characterized, and retail chains such as convenient stores, where goods are assorted but are standardized, by applying a mathematical model. In general, convenient stores have better drawing power for its efficiency. However, traditional ones become more effective in locations where convenient stores are aggregated and attract consumers with their diversity. Therefore, this paper formulates the complexity of traditional versus convenient stores by utilizing the Nested Logit Model and creates a model to show transformation processes, then, examines numerically and analytically the behaviors of the model.
Fishery management in Hokkaido (Ezochi) underwent radical transformation after the foundation of Kaitakushi (Hokkaido Development Bureau) in 1869. Atsuta Basho, which used to be one of the 85 fisheries in Ezochi (Hokkaido) in Edo Era, came to be under the direct control of Kaitakushi, which established its branch office in Oshorkot, making use of old Unjoya, trading house equipped with accommodation for fishermen. Construction of housing facilities for officials started in 1870. Examination of remaining documents enables the schematic reconstruction of Unjoya, which was renamed into Honjin (official inn) in late 1869, and several houses for officials as well as their transformation process. After the abolition of Kaitakushi branch office in 1875, all these official buildings were to be demolished, reused as a temple or relocated to another town by government property disposal procedure. This research based on the analysis of old documents and drawings executed by Kaitakushi leads to the clarification of facility and housing planning in Oshorkot and Kotanbet, which started from an indigenous ainu settlement, at the early phase of Kaitakushi rule.
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport has conducted “The Lead Model Project for Long-term Quality Housing” since 2008. This project is intended to promote to develop a technology of house durability, to create the new relating business collaboration (support system), and to enlighten the public' value system. The applicants of project are not only homebuilders, but also various companies and organizations supporting the homebuilders. This paper analyzes the collaboration management for the improvement of the house durability, and the typology of support system.
Faith of Hikawa means Shinto religion for Hikawa God and Goddess, which is originated from the syncretization of Susanoo-no-Mikoto and his family with the deities of Minuma Lake and Arakawa River. Hikawa Shrines are spread around the basin of Arakawa and Motoarakawa Rivers. This research is on the construction of Hikawa Nyotai Shrine in Midori Ward of Saitama City, which is dedicated for Kushinadahime-no-Mikoto (Hikawa Goddess). The main shrine (Honden) is said to have been constructed in 1667 with the evidence of Munafuda noting the date of construction. Its front shrine (Haiden) and hall of offerings (Heiden), however, were not determined of their construction date, because of the architectural details and historical documents written in 1688-89. In 2011 and 2012, dismantling repair construction of the Shrine was carried out, and some facts became clear. Analyzing historical documents and pictures with these newly-revealed facts, this study estimated their most possible construction age.
This paper examined Hideto Kishida's Formative ideas in Architecture Design in the early Showa period by analyzing the principles and various aspects, found from his lecture manuscripts, comments to Cyureito (the monumental tower to the faithful died in battle) and works of tombstone and pedestals of bronze statues in the same period. Strong feeling to the elementary geometry can be felt with use of aesthetics principles, such as symmetry, balance and repetition, and by quoting trials of advanced arrange theory (“Dynamic Symmetry” advocated by Jay Hambidge) to the three‐dimensional and expression of modernism architecture, the attitude to apply those to the architecture can be recognized. A technical point of view was insufficient in explanations of modernism. Also Kishida did not reject the continuity from the past, and he intended to exchange with tradition. Against “Kochiku”, emphasis on “Kosei” came to the surface, and most of the ideas for architecture matched with Le Corbusier's statement in “Toward an Architecture” (1923).
Through the comparative study of 20 extant remaining buildings and thier description in historical sources, this article proposes the following categories for the connecting method between plural buildings seen in Hue Nguyen Dynasty architectural remains; (1) The "Triêu Tô Miêu type" defines the method by which the space of "Thùa Luu" between the front building and the back building is enclosed by the "Thuòng giai", therefore creating a "Trùng Diêm style" roof. This type includes 11 standard examples and 4 particular examples. (2) The "Du Khiêm Ta type" does not include the space of "Thùa Luu", connecting directly each building's column by a "Tren". This type includes 2 remaining examples.
This article presents six types of "Trùg-Luog" configurations that were applied to highest class architecture during Hue's Dynasty. Through the study of the construction process of 21 exsisting buildings, this article suggests that each type was applied according to their construction period, except for the Hung-Miêu Type, which was not defined as "Trùg-Luog" at the time. (1)Triêu-Miêu Type corresponds to Gia-Long and early Minh-M.ng periods, (2)Sùg-Ân-Diên Type corresponds to middle Minh-Meng and Thiêu-Tri periods, (3)Hòa-Khiêm-Dien Type corresponds to middle Tu-Dúc period, (4)Thái-Hòa-Dien Type corresponds to Thành-Thái and Khai-Dinh periods, (5)Long-An-Diên Type corresponds to Duy-Tân and Khai-Dinh periods.
The purpose of this paper is to make clear the concept of work on ‘GARDENS FOR UNESCO’ project. In interpreting the concept, “a sculptor's world,” which is main literature of Noguchi is chosen as basic literature. And we hold interview with Touemon Sano, who was Japanese gardener and collaborator of the project. The research is advanced by analyzing two sides; one is the external side: social and political issues, the other is internal side: Noguchi's words regarding his garden thought. In conclusion, we suggested that Noguchi was able to create epoch-making garden by grasping deeply spirit of Japanese nature's thought.
This paper aims to grasp the reformation process of the block in front of Shinjuku east station-square during postwar recovery from the viewpoint of formation of black markets and land ownerships. In immediate postwar years, Matsujiro Nohara and Kinosuke Ozu each built black market that was both unlawful occupation at the object region. Nohara's market survived until the beginning of 1960. However Ozu's market was removed from 1948. Nohara's market and Ozu's market are different as regards to land ownerships. They were a street stall keeper. Notwithstanding, after that Ozu acquired four lot of land on the object region. The fact is worthy of note.
This paper aims to analyze the formation of residential area of the naval city Kure between 1890 and 1930. Spatial characteristics of them are clarified focusing on drought compensation caused by the construction for waterworks of The Naval Station and municipal water supply system. Irrigated agriculture had suffered shortages in irrigation water after the construction of the waterworks. Drought compensation among The Naval Station and land owners had influenced land use in irrigated area. Market of house for rent depending on land rent defined as Kokudai had changed agricultural land use into residential land development.
This research attempted to make clear the introduction of the Ritsudo-Shiki (standing work style) from Meiji to early Showa period, and to examine the height of the worktop of cooking equipment in the home kitchen, analyzing various descriptions about kitchen in the authorized textbooks on domestic science for girls' high school. As the results, the introduction of the Ritsudo-Shiki was firstly shown from 1909, describing without precise purpose. In 1924, the efficiency for the Ritsudo-Shiki was shown, and took form gradually related to form. The height of the worktop was examined with a concept of the efficiency through early Showa period.
It is shown that design can be formulated as satisfiability problem solving, or SAT, if we regard design as a purposive activity to solve a problem. Some characteristics of design computation are disccued on the basis of Cook's Theorem saying that SAT is NP-complete problem and the characteristics of NP-complete problem. It is possible to determine whether a certain design product is actually a solution of a design problem or not in polynomial time. This implies that generate and test is one of pragmatic approaches to solve a design problem if the computational complexity of the algorithm of generating a design product is in the class of pronominal time. It is an important task for design computing study to find such a generation algorithm and to construct a computational model of design thinking where promising design products are created.