Apartment interior works by residents have become familiarized 1990s in Beijing. Referring issues of law and ordinance of architecture and investigating 50 interior works, conclusions are as follows. The periods of transformation of developers' completion standards can be classified into four: period of "strict regulation", "relaxed one", "free one", "full completion by developers are advocated". Furthermore, with the transformation of Resident's Apartment Interior Works Management Regulation, places of constructed not by developers in a residential unit became less. I.e. removal or replacement of parts and material were reduced, addition of them increases. And those regulations were not observed strictly.
Recently, it is not rare that a house has information infrastructure which leads users to information activities. This paper aims to clarify the actual condition, especially regarding the use of space and time by living in urban housing with high speed information infrastructure. The research was directed by the questionnaire and fieldwork. As a result, it is clear that mainly a living room and a study room are the center of information activities. Also it is interesting to look at that personal computers and wireless LAN leads residents to new life style without binding them to a space and functions of use. For example, even the information activities invade the kitchen such as a resident cooks with looking at the window of the computer. This paper shows the directions to the future planning of urban housing with information infrastructure.
This study analyzes the effects by outgoing behavior on the mental aspect of the institutionalized elderly with dementia by comparing their state before and after practicing commute between a satellite day room and the institution. Following are the results: Outgoing behavior 1) activates their behaviors, and 2) enhances the chances to interact with the environmental elements. This study found two ways in generating the interaction; one is the behavior-leading interaction and the other is the elements-inducing interaction. Outgoing behavior on foot decreases the deseased-related behaviors and the unidentified behaviors which are out of the context of behaviors but improves their behaviors and the intercation with the environemental elements and activates their mental state.
The purpose of this study is, as the elderly living in urban housing complex is the subject of this study, to reveal the change of their living activities and the process of transition. As a conclusion, not only the ko (=individual life style) is expanded in the elderly period, but also it observed the change of their ko centered living activities As they get more older, the identity is established and ko becomes the center of their lives. The important thing is actively inviting kyaku (=the guests to their lives) and having a balance between ko and kyaku in their lives.
The purpose of this study is to understand the role of rehearsal rooms and stages in creation of a stage drama. For this study, we investigated the entire creation of the play, from the first rehearsal to the public performance. In fact, the actors and staff spent most of their time in the rehearsal room until the play was completed. Therefore, the rehearsal room has to be the same size as the stage and backstage areas to provide the same width and height, as well as all essential facilities. Furthermore, it is also important to plan the rehearsal room comfortable, because sometimes actors and staff may use it to take breaks.
The aim of this study was to make clear the aspect of the double structure in the use spheres of assembly facilities for community and the efficiency of the double facility distribution system. The findings of this study were as follows. The use spheres of assembly facilities for community expand over the school districts which are planned as the use spheres for those facilities. Especially there is remarkable expansion at the facilities in the midtown area, the sub-center district and the urban-type housing area. That expansion is basically caused by the expansion of the relation ship among circle members. Also specialization and scarcity of circles are the factors of that expansion. As background of that expansion, there are the orientation toward functionality, anonymity and mass communication in the behavioral characteristic of modern citizen. The efficiency of the double facility distribution system which is composed of assembly facilities for community and assembly facility for wider area use was demonstrated through the case study in Kitakyushu city.
This paper aims to clarify influences of institutional living circumstances on behaviors of the aged with high degree of ADL by analysis of time use in an institutional living comparing at home. For it, we utilized the records of time use filled in by themselves and the data by steps and walking rate recording device. A conclusion is as follows. Uniformly providing meals lead them to increase time of passive behaviors instead of behaviors related to meals, and it could deprive them of opportunities of hobbies or communications. Choices of activities, which depend on the support system including living circumstances, bring active behaviors.
This study aims at finding an improvement scheme of community facilities based on elderly residents' use conditions and evaluation and in Senri New Town. Use conditions of community facilities are influenced by geographical factors such as distances to Neighborhood Centers and District Centers and locations of facilities surround New Town. The elderly, especially 75 years old and over use post offices, markets, grocery stores, clinic and beauty shops in Neighborhood Centers more frequently than other generations. Therefore, improving Neighborhood Centers becomes more important for elderly residents to live permanently in their familiar houses, considering residents' complaints and requests of community facilities.
This study looks at an assisted living that is the first case to have private rooms and units. It focuses on the residents' space-use and behavior at common spaces inside their own units. 1) Residents spent more time at dining rooms than other spaces. Providing a kitchen that residents can use brings their active involvement. 2) At Koagari spaces they spent time chatting with others, smoking and being idle. They spent more time there from which they could view the whole unit, especially dining rooms. 3) There are some built-in wooden benches in the corridor. As with the Koagari spaces, if residents could feel the atmosphere of the unit, they preferred to stay there.
In recent design process, not only systematic methods but also heuristic methods are thought to be required. The objective of this paper is to clarify the properties of the decision making process in design by model experiment. In the experiment, 465 protocol data were obtained. The results of the study are as follows: 1) Decision making process was classified into 7 types. 2) Decision making process in the restricted condition is considered to promote creativity and trial-and-error solution 3) Properties of decision making process differ greatly according to the test subject and its difference has a strong influence on the spatial configuration.
The objective of this study is to explain formally the logical gaps in design thinking. It is assumed that design thinking is combination of logical/conscious thinking such as reasoning and non-logical/unconscious process. The latter may cause the phenomena that are observed as the logical gap in design. On the other hand, the latter may play ah important role to make a designer perform creative activities. The author proposes a hypothetical model to explain the relation between the logical thinking, which is performed by using the languages or symbol systems, and the non-logical activities, which does not necessarly require the languages or symbol systems. The models are inspired by the relation between a formal language and its mathematical structure. This paper explains the structure of the hypothetical model and show how the model works to represent a typical phenomena in design process.
In this study, we aim at the characterization of "Space/Image" of film, which changes dramatically with the passage of the scene in two-dimensional images in particular. As well as we investigate how the historical architects or urbanists have treated the climate, the religion, the politics, the society, the current of the times in architecture and city and how film directors or cameramen design space in movie with various resources and compositions. There are many components of movies that create the images in the films. The components include natural materials, artificial materials, inside and outside settings of living creatures as well as other creatures, colors, and Depth on Images. In this paper, we emphasize the field of Depth that is the main factor of the difference between actual three-dimensional space and two-dimensional images from an architectural point of view. The subjects of this paper are two films, "Summer Time" and "Death in Venice."
This paper aimed to deepen the consideration of our previous paper about the environment of group living and the selection of individual resident's 'Particular Place,' based on the results of a series of five researches conducted once a year through 4 years. Consequently we gained the knowledge as follows; 1) The residents leave GH (the group home) in a little less than one and a half years on the average although the period of time considerably varies. During their stay in GH, their ADL (activities of daily living) and dementia gradually deteriorate. 2) The change of residents by entering and leaving and that of residents' ADL or dementia level cause frequent transforming.of interpersonal relationship and room allotting in GH. 3) Each resident has a 'Particular Place', or some 'Particular Places' which are more meaningful than other places for themselves. Although 'Particular Places' are often situated at common spaces, each of them is to be said to be selected by each resident influenced by various environmental elements. 4) The number of 'Particular Places' of a resident and the rate at which some element becomes the factor of the selection of 'Particular Place' have a certain relation to residents' ADL or dementia level. 5) The changes are seen in 'Particular Places' and the aspects of being there for long-term residents in the GH. The transformation in the settings, interpersonal relationship, and attributes of residents strongly influence those changes. Above all, interpersonal relationship is influential in both of the selection of 'Particular Place' and the aspects of being there.
This study is, for examination of the supporting method using volunteers, green tourists, and persons receiving pay from 'land conservation subsidy' as maintenance workers and, for constructing the new rural spatial maintenance plan. The analysis was derived from the survey of hearings, mappings at Okumeiji village, and at Oojimasan village. As a result, resident families could be classified by combining the area of farm fields and the hours of maintenance work. The attributive characteristics of each class are explained by numbers of person being always in the village and numbers of person joining maintenance activities, and age of elders.
The aim of this study is to clarify the characteristics and consciousness structure of residents in surrounding by evaluating the temporary used open spaces works in case of built up area in Kobe city. Therefore, space is defined as the community planning spot project, and 12 spots fundamental data are collected based on questionnaire to the community leader and people who live around the districts. As the results of this study, it was cleared that the spatial characteristics of spot (area, arrangement etc), indicate a few highrating points as space and some problems which should be solved in the future. By applying the factor analysis, the regression analysis and the potential structure which is composed of "the enhancement feeling", "the ploblem of manners" and "the returned effect" are analyzed from the data obtained the questionnaire results.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of adopt-a-park-program on factors in fear of crime in parks and show how these factors are related to fear of crime. The analysis of the questionnaire shows that 17 of 18 factors picked up from complaints to Itabashi ward office significantly relate to fear of crime and that parks with adopt-program are significantly superior in 15 factors. It concludes that adopt-a-park-program contributes to sense of security in parks, since surveillance and territoriality in parks enhance it and correlate with litter in parks, which brings vandalism and undesirable acts.
Da-Dao-Cheng district, with various kinds of historic shop-houses, is located in Metropolis of Taipei. The conservation movement by the citizens, NPOs, and experts began with the road-widening urban plan on the main street, Di-Hwa Street, and led to the change of policies to conservation. The conservation plan was officially announced in 2000 after various discussions, by designated as a special district with the use of system of Transfer of Development Rights. This paper discusses the achievement and issues of the conservation plan, by analyzing the process of pran making, changing of conservation proposals, and the current operations.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the eye fixation behavior and the relation between eye fixation tendency for space characteristics of street with emphasis on the eye fixation tendency of the surrounding information based on the spatial cognition of Venezia. From the experiments, the following can be concluded: 1) The eye fixation subject with low degree of the spatial cognition focuses on the facade of buildings and the subject with high degree of the spatial cognition focuses on the pedestrians. Furthermore, the eye fixation subject with low degree of the spatial cognition notices the walls of the first floor and the sign boards, whereas, the subject with high degree of cognition observes show window and pillars of buildings. 2) In order to grasp the information, the eye fixation frequency is high for the subject with low degree of spatial cognition. Furthermore, the eye fixation frequency is relatively high for the guidance signs and is considered to be an effective means for path finding.
At the West Historic Quarter in Hakodate, the color of the townscape has been keeping a harmony though many western style houses have been used various paint colors and their color has often changed. This study aims to clarify the formation mechanism of this color of the townscape. As a result, we found that many residents have selected the color considering the relationship among of them, their houses and surrounding environment. In the background, there were several characteristics of the western style houses with ornaments, the port city, symbolic historical buildings, etc., in the quarter, where the interaction between paint colors and residents' life has occured. And residents have understood and felt strong attachment for the characteristics through their houses painting.
In the field of urban planning, building lots are an important subject area for consideration since the individual lot forms the fundamental basic unit of land use. Lots consolidation should be promoted from the viewpoint of environmental planning and disaster prevention planning, specifically in the established city area in which subdivision of standard lots has been often observed. In this paper, we construct a stochastic model which describes the possibility and the probability that lots will be consolidated and form larger spatial unit. The unknown parameters of the model are estimated using the GIS data compiled by a local government ward in Tokyo. It is shown that the probability of lots consolidation is mainly dependent on the relationships with neighboring lots and location, as well as the properties of lots themselves. The spatial distribution of the probability of lots consolidation is shown using the estimated model.
The present study is performed to clarify the structure, explanatory elements, trends and references of campus master plans. The campus master plans studied were from 42 universities in the U.S., Canada and Australia. The results were as follows; 1) Campus master plans consist of an introduction, discussion of the existing setting, targets/policies, plans and application, and can be classified into expansion, element-oriented and task-oriented types. 2) Master plan components can be classified into ten categories: existing setting, land use, space, access, campus image, infrastructure, community relations, facilities, environment and other. It is campus image and access that there is much appearance in Campus master plans.
It is a very important matter today to come to grips with the aging of society. In this paper I turn my attention to the "Value of Aging". I study its significance and meaning, and possibilities for community development. I. It analyzes by newses items and hearing surveys about each activity that is related. II. Three activities carried on by the inhabitants were examined from the viewpoint of "Aging Value". From these activities I learned that elderly persons' reasons for living are improving little by little, how the communities are becoming revitalized, and so on.
This paper analyses the influence of Balinese Hindu principle on the urban formation of Gianyar, one of the traditional towns founded in 18th century in Bali Island. Even though Balinese towns and villages have common house compounds as a fundamental unit, the structure of the settlements make several significant differences between towns and villages. In contrast with the linear composition of villages, urban structure of Gianyar rather has its focus in the center of the town. The analysis on caste distribution also illustrates the importance of the center. The emergence of urban blocks in Gianyar brought about several plot division patterns as opposed to the simple back-to-back plot division in the villages. However the analysis has revealed that the variety of plot division patterns in Gianyar is regulated by the sole principle i.e. the avoidance of building the gate for each house compound toward the north direction. The well-known Balinese cosmological concept of Nawasanga not only influences the planning of the house compound but also the urban formation.
Authors have been conducting the field research under the title 'Origin, Transformation, Alteration and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial cities' since 1999. The cities we carried out field studies are Cape Town (South Africa), Cochin (India), Galle (Sri Lanka), Malacca (Malaysia), Jakarata, Surabaya (Indonesia), Elmina (Ghana), Recife (Brazil), Paramaribo (Suriname), Willemstad (Dutch Antilles) etc.. We had grasped almost all the factories, forts and cities constructed by VOC and WIC, collecting old Maps, documents and literatures from ARA (Algemeen Rijksarchief), KB (Koninklijke Bibliotheek) and KITLV (Koninklijk Institut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde). This paper discusses typology of the form of Dutch colonial cities mainly based on the analysis of historical maps. We got the maps of 157 trading posts, 38 among which had been occupied by Dutch more than some years. We select 17 cities with which we have detail maps, and classify them according to duration, location, and morphology. Dutch colonial cities are basically classified into the categories, lodge, factory, fortified factory, for+settlement, fort+city, castle and castle+city.
Authors have been conducting the field research under the title 'Origin, Transformation, Alteration and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial cities' since 1999. The cities where we carried out field studies are Cape Town (South Africa), Cochin (India), Galle (Sri Lanka), Malacca (Malaysia), Jakarata, Surabaya (Indonesia), Elmina (Ghana), Recife (Brazil), Paramaribo (Suriname), Willemstad (Dutch Antilles) etc.. We had grasped almost all the factories, forts and cities constructed by VOC and WIC, collecting old maps, documents and literatures from ARA (Algemeen Rijksarchief), KB (Koninklijke Bibliotheek) in Den Haag and KITLV (Koninklijk Institut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde) in Leiden. Batavia was the capital of VOC which was called 'Queen of Asia'. The plan of Batavia is thought to follow the plans of cities in mother country as Amsterdam, Delft and so on. Among many architects and engineers who were active in 16^<th> century, Simon Stevin attracts us as a theorist of urban planning. This paper discusses the relationship between the spatial form of Batavia and S. Stevin's 'Ideal City'.
The study aims to analyze the demand and the effect for the barrier-free house from the economical viewpoint. Firstly, the questionnaire for inhabitant is executed to investigate the willingness to pay for each level of barrier-free: Using these data, the following analysis is executed. The Cobb-Duglass function is used as the demand function. The willingness to pay is used to analyze the effect of reduction of burden. From the results of the analysis related to the effect of the subsidy, regardless of the subsidy level, the demand of the arrangement of handrail was high, and the average of willingness to pay was nearly 1,100,000 yen.
This paper is considered on the possibility of social structure of TOSA port in the Middle Ages viewed from the restoration of the dug standing pillar buildings. The results are as follows. 1) There was thin concept on the individual ownership of land in TOSA port. 2) The population of residents in TOSA port was very much different by the seasons, because that it might be left during winter. 3) There were no standard courtesy spaces in TOSA port.
The purpose of this study is to reveal the status of folk houses that have been relocated from their original sites. In this paper, the quantity and regional characteristics of moved residences in Tokyo and Kanagawa Prefectures have been clarified. It became clear that of the 2,259 folk houses investigated in the given area, 284 structures had been dismantled, moved, and reconstructed, constituting a ratio of at least 13%.
In this document, I studied the regulations on applications for buildings of Hagi Clan Samurai residences for the period mentioned above, pointing out the following: 1. The applications were screened in three ways in Hagi Clan. One was by the leading members of the clan, and the second one was by Metsukegata, the clan's construction administration section, and the third one was the one that applications for buildings were not screened if those were less than 1 tsubo ones. 2. Metsukegata proceeded with law judgment and construction administration, consulting leading clan members whenever a decision could not be reached.
By this study, We paid our attention to an intention of the public presentation in the Marine Biological Station Aquarium attached to Kyoto Imperial University. The water tank room before an Imperial visit (1921-1929) consisted of it than an overlook type water tank, view water tank and a desk water tank. The enlargement was done after an Imperial visit (1930-1935). In addition to a large-sized view water tank, the point that the medium size water tanks which reflected taxology increased attracts attention. This constitution resembles it with it of Plymouth marine biological station. IKEDA, KOMAI, NAGASE and OKURA were active. In particular, KOMAI has clear exhibition thought, and it is thought that the thought gave institution preparation of taxology influence.
The purpose of this research is clarifying manifestation of a suburban residential section for "Sumiyoshi-mura" located in the Hanshin area where the suburban residential section's developed in modernization. "Sumiyoshi-mura" is reconstructed and developed in early 20th century. Several points were revealed. "Sumiyoshi-mura" made the land of a village housing site in 1900. Moreover, the many businessmen of Osaka bought the land of Sumiyoshi-mura. "Mototaro Abe" borrowed and developed land from the village. These were before generating of the residential suburbs in Japan.
This study examines the background where the architectural design planning concept was established in the housing study, based on the concept of the housing sector that came to be discussed in early Meiji era with the Western sanitation concept incorporated into the traditional thought of Japanese regimen, under the philosophy that "women should produce a residential floor plan" in response to the demand of the society that a household should be managed by women, and the role of the modern housing study in the field of architectural design planning.
"CLASSICAL STYLE" of architecture in Europe can be formalized logically based on "symmetry of reflection". In this paper I give a definition of procedure to make two types of graph, called M1&M2, from the forms of architectures called "CLASSICAL STYLE" in Europe, to analyze the features of the forms of the architectures of renaissance, mannerism, baroque, rococo and neo-classiccism, namely "CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURES". In this "PART 1", I give a series of definitions to abstract two types of logical models (graphs) M1&M2, and explain a little the meaning of these models (graphs) to continue on "PART 2".
The German Pavilion at the Barcelona International Exposition in 1929, designed by Mies van der Rohe, is an early example of minimum architecture which lessened the elements of construction to the limit. There are five schemes of this building, which have changed little by little. The purpose of this paper is to show that the grid system was used in early drawings and the form of the main composition elements and their arrangement were determined according to this grid. The conclusions of this study are as follows: 1) Although grid lines were not drawn in the early schemes, it is strongly thought that the grid system was used. 2) The grid lines which equally divide 12m, the inside measurement of the east-and-west wall of the pavilion change as follows: in the first scheme there are nine grids at intervals of 1.333m, in the second there are twelve at intervals of 1m, in the third and fourth are eleven girds at intervals of 1.09m, and in the fifth at intervals of 1.1m. 3) Most of the positioning of the walls and the glass screens have been based a grid system, but some have been based on their specific size (12m and 7m, for instance). 4) It is thought that the fourth scheme drawn with an even grid system was preferred by Mies. However, an irregular grid system was used, partially to correspond to the site in the fifth scheme.