We attempt to examine the relationships between area characteristics and the changes of street-facing land uses by apartments. We, in particular, examine the issues of parking space mechanism in detail. The results can be summarized; 1) the differences in street-facing land uses derive mainly from original city blocks and site conditions. 2) In city blocks of smaller lots, smaller apartments have much parking space and less green. 3) In city blocks with larger lots, larger apartments have much green space and less parking although it varies diversely how these parking spaces are exposed to the streets.
After World War II, the Ministry of Education newly planned the construction of a national university to the region in which the empire university had not set it up. This plan assumed the national universities to be a highest educational institution, and aimed at the educational base formation in the location and the system in various places. The attracting movement of national universities by the activity group was done in the major city in the Chugoku region and the Hokuriku region that had become a candidate site. In the national universities attracting movement, the age immediately after end of the war, the feasibility of university establishment and the public opinion are attached to importance in the movement.
In this study, staff involved in aquarium breeding were surveyed with regard to their work protocols in breeding-related rooms where they manage the breeding and display of aquatic life. The purpose of this study is to acquire basic knowledge for planning aquarium construction. Survey of the working protocols of breeding staff by work type using tracking data and discussions on working protocols and hours to clarify the work of breeding staff in breeding-related rooms. Comparison of the work type of breeding staff and the categories of breeding-related rooms to clarify the work in each room from the viewpoint of both working protocols and hours. Analysis of the walking routes of breeding staff while working and their frequency of movement, movement distance, and ordering of workrooms in order to acquire knowledge for planning of the layout of breeding-related rooms. From the working protocols of breeding staff, we consider it necessary to plan breeding-related rooms in an aquarium based on convenience and efficiency for the daily work routines of breeding staff from feed preparation to feeding. By reviewing the basic layout of five rooms with this in mind, we found that the highest priority should be given to arranging the breeding room, the feed preparation room, and the refrigerated room as close, to each other as possible. It was concluded that in addition to these three rooms it would also be desirable to design the two rooms for keepers and viewers to allow smooth passing without affecting the function of the room for breeding.
The importance of the pharmacy services at the inpatient wards has been more and more recognized through the progress of team approach in medical care as well as by the increasing awareness of the prevention of the malpractice. In line with these changes, it is necessary to reconsider the services of the pharmacy department to meet with the new needs. This report is the 1st part of a series of reports on the study of the planning of satellite pharmacy as the base of pharmacy services at the inpatient wards in hospital buildings. This paper describes the results compiled from the answers from 55 hospitals to the questionaires on the pharmacy services. All the hospitals have some kind of functions doing SPD services. From this study, we could clarify the following 3 points. 1) Of the various services performed by the pharmacy department, workload ratio for the dispensing work has been reduced due to the decreased ratio of dispensing for the outpatients. On the other hand, workload ratio for the management and guidance services on the Pharmaceuticals has been increased. 2) The management and guidance services on the pharmaceuticals has become part of the main services of pharmacy department. 3) Some of the tasks of the pharmacy department, for instance, material handling and management, are done not by pharmacists or nurses but by the SPD staffs or staffs from the contracted service companies. Pharmacy services are conducted at satellite pharmacies on the inpatient wards, in addition to such conventional areas as nursing stations and patient care rooms.
The purpose of this study is consideration about junior high school as living space through investigation into student's remembarance of image scenery and selection of space. Main result shows as follows. 1) Space composition have a great influence on student's remembarance of image scenery and selection of space. 2) Student's favorite space is difference from space where they really stay. 3) Various space acd equipment make student's living activity diverse.
This paper deals with the frame of Japanese premodern farmhouses and considers which roof frame they adopted, post-framing or sasu (similar to principal rafter) framing. Analyzing the transitional forms of the roof frame between post-framing and sasu-framing, the process of transformation of the framework is clarified including the frame with ridge-supporting posts which was undifferentiated roof frame from main frame. It's revealed that post-framing systems were superior in the western Japan, and that the several forms consisted of both a ridge-supporting post and slanting members such as sasu or nobori-bari were appeared in the eastern Japan in the beginning of premodern times.
There are little studies of public lavatories. So this study deals with them. The purpose of this study is to get materials for designing public lavatories. Experiments based on evaluations of booths that have different floor spaces. Changing the floor space of a booth, we evaluate impressions on booths. The results of the experiments were summarized as follows: 1) We can grasp the volume, but we can't feel correct dimensions. 2) We calm down, so be satisfied with the booth. 3) It is low that evaluations of the spred, calm, a sense of opening, and satisfaction in square booths. 4) It is the highest evaluation that the calm and the content in the booth (900〜1000mm×1500mm).
This study aims to elucidate the relationship between the sense of anticipation, the space constitution and the visual effect of a sloping street. Field surveys were conducted along with tests regarding the strength of anticipation and the visual effect of sloping streets using photographs. The test results led to an estimation equation for anticipation and the following conclusions: Anticipation is stronger uphill than downhill; it is strongest with curved slopes, followed by cornered slopes, and straight slopes; stronger when there is an extended street farther ahead; and stronger with distinctive and comfortable slopes.
This paper aims to analyze the distribution and placement of settlements (Shuraku) on Taketomi Island, Yaeyama, Okinawa. The settlements of Taketomi Island consist of living areas (Kyoju-iki) and sanctuaries, known as Wons or Utaki. The zones of residence are in an approximately central location with a number of defined sacred areas dotted around them. In order to clarify the relationship between the living areas and the sacred areas, a detailed analysis of the location, construction, and composition of the ritual function was carried out through a review of the organization and planning of the "Pui" harvest ritual. Data were collected and recorded from a series of field studies and reference review.
The purpose of this paper is to propose one of the new indexes of the evaluation of villages' environment and directionality, by analyzing the autonomies stuffs' evaluation of the historical villages, and so on. As a result, autonomies stuffs evaluate especially remaining historical buildings' style and elements in historical townscape formation areas and remaining resident's link and natural environment in the other historical villages. According to the evaluation of spatial aspect, those villages can be classified into 5 categories; building type, nature type, religion type, public structure type and low-evaluation type.
The purpose of this study is to clarify farmland diversion by the Agricutural Land Act and development trend by the City Planning Act 34-8-3 in Hofu-City. We investigated the urbanization control area in Hofu-City which is area divided city, adjoining the seat of prefectual government Yamaguchi-City under the Non-Area Division System. At first, we grasp the present situation of Hofu-city, and how the City Planning Act 34-8-3 is operated. Next, we counted the number of farmland diversion from 2000 to 2004, and explained the relationship with the City Planning Act 34-8-3, According to these results, we pointed out the problem of present legal system before farmland is developed.
This paper reviews the intervention strategy for urban regeneration within the framework of "Area for Integrated Rehabilitation" (A.R.I.), implemented in the historic center of Barcelona from the later years of 1980s, through the precise analysis of the official document of A.R.I.: the first four-year Program for the interventions. The A.R.I. system was created originally in 1983 by the Central Government of Spain, and the city council of Barcelona has developed the original way of management in order to program the urban strategy for improvement of public spaces and infrastructure, and foster the rehabilitation activities of private housings which had been of very poor quality. This study reveals that the interventions during the first four years concentrated its effort on coordinating the land ownership and acquiring the appreciable quantities of land for creating the public spaces at the district level.
本研究では、既稿(ANGELO and DEGUCHI 2004)におけるボリビア・ラパス市の住宅類型の研究とスペイン殖民都市の都市基盤の成り立ちに関する研究(ANGELO, LOPEZ and DEGUCHI 2005)を基に、スペイン殖民都市の歴史的都心地区の例としてラパス市の都心部の地区を対象にして、植民地時代からの伝統的住宅タイプであるコンベンティロとその住宅タイプが多数残る同地区の物的環境の実態と居住者からみた課題や意向の両面を独自に調査した。現状の土地利用からオフィスなどの新規開発の多い東部と老朽化した住宅が多数残存する西部の2つの区域に分かれるが、物的環境と居住者評価の両面から設定した評価指標を用いて両区域の相違点と相違点を明らかとした。一見して、西部区域の方が老朽化による住環境の悪化が進んでいるように見えるが、東部地区の居住者の満足度の方が相対的に低い等の新たな知見が得られた。本研究では、植民地時代に建設された都市基盤と住宅を継承する当該地区とコンベンティロの変容と居住環境の実態を独自の調査により初めて明らかとしている。結論では、当該地区を一体として捉えるのではなく、地区内でも区域によって異なる物的環境の実態と居住者の意識の傾向を十分把握した上で、居住環境改善に取り組む必要がある点を指摘している。
The purposes of this study are to clarify the subjects of the urbanization area of the two different coal mining regions of Chikuho and Sorachi through the evaluation and comparison of the revitalization policies after the coal mining industrial age, and to propose the development method of the public housing sites in these areas. As a result, the differences of the urban environments between both regions were pointed out by figuring out the difference of revitalization policies and financial conditions. Based on the analysis, we suggested the schemes for each of regions; in Chikuho, the public housing sites which are located in convenient urban are to be rebuild to connect with other urban policies like welfare or commercial. In Sorachi, low density public housing sites are to be unified or cleared and to make the efficient urban areas by relocating these areas in linear network.
This study aims at clarifying the effects and significances of acts of developer for community formation, based on the contents of their acts and formation process of local activity in Rokko Island, Kobe city. The results are summarized as follows: The continuous acts of developer, from a beginning of this area, are evaluated considerably with opportunities of community upbringing, of collaborative relationship between local activity groups. As a result, in late years,"Network group", cooperated between local activities groups and companies, is established in taking support of administration.
In Japan, many buildings, especially detached houses and small apartments, are traditionally made by wooden materials. These wooden buildings make up to densely built-up area, and it has been recognized that (here are high risks of fire spreading there. To decrease such risks, the urban renovation projects are carried on as public investments in these areas. Carrying on with limitation of budgets, it is very important to evaluate benefits of these projects, but very few attempts have been made at these evaluations at the moment In this study, therefore, the aim is to develop a simple method to evaluate such risks. In this paper, we construct a basic model to evaluate fire spreading risks in densely built-up area of wooden buildings at the beginning. Secondly, we carry out a rough estimation of such risk using aggregated urban aspect data and validate certainty of the model.
Design competitions to select an architect with residents' participation with an open jury process, composed of a Jury with expert committee and residents that have the opportunity to participate in each stage of the competition are analyzed. Three hundred thirteen applicants completed a questionnaire. 76.0% agreed that an open jury process can make sure of fairness and trustworthy of the competition. Citizens must be a member of the jury committee but they should have enough knowledge to judge. It can be concluded that this is an effective method that has a good possibility to be applied in general.
Winter cities with heavy snow and cold regions, it is important how to apply urban design process to place entrenched within winter climate. In Hokkaido cities, new urban design approaches have to be developed considering to regional climate, snow and cold wind. Authors provided the new approaches with relationship between urban designs and environmental assessments, with the snow and wind simulations using the wind tunnel. Two kinds of "positive" and "negative" urban design guidelines are provided for the new Wakkanai station district redevelopment program. Those guidelines depend on the environmental assessments are useful for reflection to the new urban design process
This work intends to disclose the ordering system for actual firefighting in Kyoto city under the Tokugawa regime (Tokugawa era), In this paper, it will be clarified the detail of Firehouse of Kyoto-hikeshi and Kyoto-johikeshi these were fire fighting teams of Tozama Daimyo (feudal lord group). Some studies described that the role of them were fire extinguishing for Kyoto city only. But, in this paper, it will be clarified that the firehouse of Kyoto-hikeshi located near the Tuijiuchi (the royal palace). There for the role of Kyoto-hikeshi included fire fighting of Tuijiuchi. But the firehouse of Kyoto-johikeshi located near the Kamo-river at a distance of 400meters from Tuijiuchi. However, the plan of Firehouse was same for the most part.
There is no difference between Tokyo and Kanagawa pref., in the "age" distribution about removing and reconstruction of the folk house. 19 century latter terms, the "reason" of "fire disaster" is most. The "distance" is many from neighboring area, but 20 century first half decreased removing and reconstruction distance. Removing and reconstruction was done in order to obtain the residence quickly and cheaply. As the prerequisite, it is thought that the similar type residence was distributed widely inside area.
This paper traces some links between Udatsu and Daikoku-bashira. Both of them were seen in vernacular houses of town houses as well as of farm houses. The paper concludes that Udatsu and Daikoku-bashira were originally Munamochi-bashira which was a post supporting a ridge directly. The archetypes are chosen as the late-medieval structure of tow-span depth and Hottate-bashira which was a post with fixed end in a pit of the earth. Main diversity of Udatsu and Daikoku-bashira depended upon their location. Udatsu was within a wall facing on to outside while Daikoku-bashira was inside a house with detachment of a wall.
This paper seeks to clarify the spatial composition and changing process of the precincts of Kitaguchi Hongu Faji-Sengen Shinto shrine located in Fujiyoshida city, through the analyses of Keidai Sashizu (plan of the precincts) and other historical materials. As a result, Keidai Sashizu were estimated to have been drawn around 1701, so the spatial composition of the old presincts during the era of Akimoto clan can be reconstructed. As for making special mention, the old presincts had been located in front of the present and the buildings to construct it were much smaller. But in the middle of the 18th century, it was largely expanded around the space of worship such as Haiden (front shrine) with the contribution of Murakami Kosei and Fuji-kou sects. That is also suggested the process of the unified control of the precincts by the Shinto priests.
This paper traces some morphological changes of vernacular house's skeltons in the district of Fuefuki river that runs through the north-east area of Yamanashi prefecture. The paper concludes that the original skelton has two spans' depth with posts supporting a ridge beam directly from the ground. The bigger skelton of four spans' depth appeared while the small one of two spans' depth remained. The bigger one comprised two types. One has posts supporting a ridge beam directly. Another has no post supporting it directly. Both were developed from the original skelton of two spans' depth with posts supporting a ridge beam directly from the ground.
The paper deals with a form of earthen walls constructed in medieval urban outside space. Earthen walls comprised Tsuiji and Dobei and their diversity could be seen in scrolls and screens which depicted the medieval urban landscape. The turning point is at the end of medieval time particularly after the Ohnin-no-tairan. Dobei appeared after Tsuiji had a fixed end at the bottom and a cover at the top of its structure. Dobei stood as in screen in urban outside space and obstructed view. Then it began to divide urban land around town houses into pieces of premises.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the housing idea for commons envisioned by the Housing Loan Corporation at the time of its foundation. For permeation of a rational construction-process and a house for commons in high-quality, the corporation forwarded the project on preparing the drawings of standardized houses soon after its foundation. In this project, the drawings were not only prepared within the corporation, including the architects' projects requested, but also collected through the design competition. As a result, two publications, in which 295 types of houses were selected as a recommended standard, were offered to the public market for the people convenience in 1951. In these drawings, the conservative trend on house-planning is dominant whatever some radical projects were employed. Therefore, its tendency is recognized to have reflected the contemporary concept of the corporation to the appropriate house type for commons.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify all the processes of plans from the first design (European style), the second one (semi-European style) of the Diet Building until the building was finished as a temporary construction, the plan of which was discovered in 2004 in Chiba. The first plan of the Diet Building was designed by Paul Kohler, who worked at the architectural firm Ende & Bockmann in Berlin; the provisional Diet Building was completed by Adolf Stegmuller at the same firm and Shigenori Yoshii. Though the scale of the provisional Diet Building was reduced sharply and the construction was changed to wood from brick, with regard to the room arrangement both of the plans were very similar; accordingly, the idea of the first plan designed by Kohler, who had to retire because of his illness before completion, still existed.
Originally called "Shinmachi Waste Thread Spinning Mill (now Kanebo Food Company, Shinmachi Factory)" was known as one of earliest modern industrial facilities existing in Japan. Though this facilities was quite popular in the history of technology, there was not a regular historical survey to make clear the parts of established building. This research is confirms the part of structure built in 1877 (established year) by the comparative study between some original drawings and measured drawings. We conclude that most of part of original building is existing in present time.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the concept of "spaciousness" and it's spatial composition evident in the Case Study House Program (CSHP, 1945-1966). Even though the motivation for the CSHP was to create a mass-producible industrial house, this key concept of the new living quality is considered to be associated with the sense of rootedness. The concept of spaciousness meant to extend the living space beyond the substantial boundary of the house to the surrounding environment. The four important designing elements of spaciousness are view toward landscape, platform, flat roof and open wall. These elements create spacious physical living spaces integrated with the environment.