This study aims to analyze the use of vacant lots in detached housing estates in Minori town, Ibaraki prefecture. In particular, this study focuses on 1) details of development 2) the realities of owners of vacant lots 3) how the lots are used by owners and residents in the neighborhood 4) problems of living environment caused by vacant lots 5) environmental management by residents and public administration. The results are summarized as follows:(1) Aratio of vacancy depends on the way of development.(2) Especially in old estates some neighboring residents utilize the vacant lots as vegetable gardens or parking lots.(3) Living environment in detached housing estates are affected by existence of vacant lots.
This study aims to discuss the spatial configuration of the large-sized condominium units currently supplied in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area analyzed by adjacency graphs of the Space Syntax Theory. The analysis has been carried out on four controlled groups as to the floor area from approximately 70 to 125 square meters. The result turns out that the larger a floor area is, the more varieties of adjacency graphs we can observe. We also obtain another finding according to the classification of adjacency graphs by means of Relative Asymmetry Value (RA) that there is a tendency to the private-room-aggregation type prevails rather than the more hierarchically ordered living-room-centered type.
This study aims to analyze living environmental management by residents' organizations in 6large housing estates, in Minori town, Ibaraki prefecture. In particular, this study focuses on 1) details of developments 2) outline of residents' organization 3) rules for living environmental managements 4) living environmental problems of housing estates. The results are summarized as follows: 1) We found 3 categories of developement type, in Minori town. 2) There are 'administrative organization' and 'residents' organization' in each housing estate. 3) Common items of rules for living environmental management are 'commnity management' and 'condolemt occasions'. 4) Common problems are management of community facilities, traffic accidents, and school zones.
This research clarified the living environment of the courtyard houses in Fengsheng district of Beijing. Each courtyard house was shared by several residential families, whose compartments faced to the courtyard. They made an addition of rooms and sanitation facilities onto the courtyard by the want of living space. The extensions increased the building coverage ratio by 30 percent and degraded living environment. It was estimated that reducing dwellers to 66%, doubling the number of bathrooms, and four-fold increase in lavatories would be necessary for restoration of the original courtyard house environment.
In this research, in order to consider the space composition of a public performing-arts institution, it is considered as the object of analysis of 16 performing-arts institutions (26 halls) from which the room name and composition by a drawing and specification are clear in the public performing-arts institution published by the South Korean performing-arts database. This research establishes the functional classifications of spatial elements of the contemporary pubic out institutions in the South Korea. The research identifies the following three conclusions based on the surveys. 1) The close correlations between the areas designated as functional, mechanical, common portion areas and the total floor areas are identified despite the fact that the composition of each section differs from the scale. 2) Five halls between twenty-six halls shows three times of the ratio of [PWxD] of the whole stage area and this ratio are high at the hall of professional such as opera house. 3) Physical spatial sizes of that public art institutions which have Under-exclusive-contract art organization are large where compared to those without them.
This paper is the third in a series of a study about architectural planning of "free schools". The aim is to extract the elements composing architectural spaces of a school by analyzing the children's activities. In this study, what are made clear are as follows; 1) In any type, there are quiet places for individual activities. 2) Corners composed of personal computars are important for children to comunicate, and furniture as foundations of children's activities. 3) A stuffroom is very important for stuffs to manage school. 4) various public places for collective activities are able to be setted, increasing with the size of spaces in it.
This study aimed to identify planning factors that relate effective utilization of large-scale public gymnasium for athletic meets. In this topic, the utilization states of the arena space of Yoyogi National Stadium was surveyed. The following items were considered as planning factors to effective utilization of an arena space: 1) Duration of event 2) Features of spectators, number of spectators, number of days of using the facility, the ratio of "number of spectators" to "number of days of using the facility", and period necessary for preparation for each event 3) Kind of temporary equipment and places to install the equipment 4) Load carrying capacity of floor for installing the equipment, view from spectators' seats, methods of using lighting fixtures, and methods for installing scaffolds for the equipment 5) Heavy-duty zone to install large equipment used in the event
In recent days, bringing up children needs helps from not only school, but also overall community including family. Therefore, it is important to make clear the view of making educational environment based on parents' consciousness according to growth of children. On this study, concrete approach made through cooperation of school, family and community is proved. The summary is described below. 1) Variety of cooperative activities depends on community background. Activities utilized local feature is important. 2) Parents' positive attitude is affected by degree of interaction with school. Feature of parents' consciousness through grade is divided into 3 groups according to willingness toward cooperation. 3) In order to reinforce cooperation, school, family and community have to play respective roles with wide vision.
In this study, We noticed user setting (exclusive use, priority, common use), improvement situation of the multipurpose toilet in proportion to the user setting and improvement consciousness, when the whole main self-governing body improved the multipurpose toilet in public space. In this study, we grasped the plan and the function of the multipurpose toilet, and the transition from the disabled exclusive toilet to the universal design toilet for all people and the concrete change content of the toilets function. As the result, the purpose of this research is obtained a basic knowledge for deducing the element in the plan of the multipurpose toilet for universal design.
In this research, we aim at clarifying the classification and distribution of the arch member for exploring a relation between the natural climate and propagation of culture style in Eurasia area in future. According to the form, material and the means of constructing, seven attributes of the arch member are defined and each attribute is classified into several different types. By analyzing the interrelation of the attributes and the map of distribution we summarized feature and distribution of the arch member of each type, and furthermore we found that the elevation of the arch member distributed over the area of Gothic style is simple, on the contrary, the elevation of the arch member distributed over the area of Islamic style area is various. In Spain and the northwestern part of France, the east coast area in the Mediterranean, the western part of India and the northeast part of China, coexistence of various type of the arch member is confirmed.
This study is based on the study "Recognition of spaces in model laboratory: A study on walking environments for visually-handicapped people". In this study, the experiments in previous study were analyzed in new aspect and in detail. The behavior of the visually-handicapped was analyzed by walking locus, and the recognition of spaces was analyzed by using sketch map and interview. As results, in the behavior, characteristics were clarified in each model laboratory. Especially they could be seen at the area of corner, around the walls, inside of the area surrounded with the walls, outside of the area surrounded with the walls; the blind subjects tend to stop and think at the area of corner, the low vision subjects, inside of the area, and the eye-masked subjects, out side of the area. In the recognition of spaces, correct answer rate was specific according to the attributes of subjects. The relation between the behavior and the recognition were clarified.
The purpose of research is that to clarify and evaluate the special composition of public space leads to a guideline to design urban space better. The special units are set up that planned to be characterized public in each development area approved special zoning urban block area. The units are especially focused the relation with a public pedestrian way to recognize the actual action and behavior. The measures are devised to quantify one's liking of places and behaviors for taking a rest in those units. Finally, the result of experiment is visualized to clarify the characteristics of liking of place.
In this study, we tried to make clear the relation between visual phenomena and the composition of city buildings, and explain the visual quality obtained from our experiences in each urban place. We researched two areas:(Chayamachi-area and the area in front of Osaka station) These areas were different in terms of scale, building forms, and densities of the arrangements. As a result, we could classify the visual phenomena into sixteen types. We also found that these visual phenomena were expressed in the relation between our walking routes and the composition of buildings. In Chayamachi area where small buildings stand closely together, visual phenomena changes dynamically with a little move. In front of Osaka station, where large buildings stand separately, the visual phenomena changes gradually.
This paper is a revaluation of the value of shopping facilities, especially neighborhood center, systematically constructed in a new town. Formerly, in 1982, we investigated how Koyo New Town shopping facilities had been used, and, more recently, in 1995, we conducted the same survey and compared results with those of our 1982 study. This paper is a discussion of the following three points: 1) Division of the shopping facilities into three categories: a) neighborhood center, b) area center, and c) out-of-town center. Neighborhood center use is compared to the other two, and observations are made relative to changes over the past 13 years. 2) Making the reason for existing of neighborhood center clear, it is necessary to grasp minutely that the way of making use of neighborhood center. 3) Need for the neighborhood center based on user evaluation.
Luang Prabang had been a former capital city of Lao P.D.R and it has been as a center of Laos tradition cultural. There are a large number of ancient Laotian architectures, European colonial architecture, natural landscape from long time ago has remained in Luang Prabang and it has shown the peculiarity of the tradition culture of Laos. And so it was listed in the world heritage site in 1995. In order to protect Luang Prabang as a world heritage site, the government of Laos with the assistance of UNESCO had dawn up the master plan "The Plan de Sauveguarde et de Mise en Valeur"(PSMV) by using as a base regulation for protecting heritage. In April of 2001, PSMV was carried out and it has been enforced as a formal law in preservation area. However, by investigation of the local office of UNESCO concern about actual situation of conservation and a report at the general meeting of UNESCO in 2002 are also report that: the rule is not fully yet to protect in actual situation. Therefore, the aim of this paper obtains the key of effective preservation at understanding the actual situation and the problem of PSMV of the historical heritage preservation area in Luang Prabang. Result as follows. 1) Most of illegal building has non-permission, in this case there are many of them had violation on the material of wall, building form, in the case of having permission there is little violation of building form, but there are many violation on the material of roofs. 2) Most of buildings are belong to personal possession and have been constructed by themselves. Moreover, they did not know that construction be violating to PSMV.
This study is, based on the survey of Land Resisters, to bring to light the formation process of large scale housing lots in urban area of Kyoto. The analyses reveal that (1). Inner areas of most blocks are unutilized, and left as open spaces; (2). Apparently, non-availability of two meter wide road frontage to get access, a requisite, seem to be the reason; (3). Inner area has advantages from light angles due to distance from road; (4). Large scale housing blocks have been made by amalgamating several inner areas along with front areas, enabling construction of large highrise housing.
It is pointed out that the depression factor of the retail trade is a decrease in the sales efficiency because of the excessive expansion of sales areas. The purpose of this study is to propose a decision model of the retail trade sales areas, and to clarify the determinants of optimum scale quantitatively. Thirst of all, we explained the mechanism of the investment decision based on the neoclassical investment theory, and constructed an estimate model of sales areas. Secondly, we applied the estimate model to the cities in Kyushu. As the results, we made clear two points. 1) The presumption value of the parameters using in the model was admitted statistically significant. 2) The validity of the model was shown in the application results of each city.
In this study, we calculated each laboratory's excess of electricity bill over dividend on a per capita basis of numbers of laboratories in each 2 departments (electricity) or 1 group of 6 departments (chemistry), in national university corporation. In 5 laboratories out of 9, excess over dividend are less than excess over expenses that interfere with research work. And in rest 4 laboratories, differences of excesses are the 100 thousands yen mark. Furthermore, we made it clear numbers of laboratories, that will have to pay excess over dividend, decrease from 23 to 13, when the quantity of electricity decrease 20%.
This work intends to disclose the ordering system for actual firefighting in Kyoto city under the Tokugawa regime (Tokugawa era). Some studies described that fire extinguishing for the Royal palace was role of lord groups only. But, in this paper, it will be clarified Kyoto machibugyosyo (magistrate office) made positive policy about firefighting for the royal palace supported by Kyoto shoshidai (governor of Kyoto and its neighboring district).
In this paper, we analyzed various proportions and systematic dimensions of tahoto pagodas in Japanese traditional architectural reference books, to know the content of its design system. The analysis indicates some tendencies of those values, and we show a standard diagram of systematic dimensions. Some of these findings also apply to those pagodas in existence. We can consider, through the edo period, the essence of designing system of tahoto pagoda was getting sophisticated and common.
During Edo-Era Mouri-Han had some palaces in Edo, the capital of Japan. Through the examination of historical materials on the palace at Katsushika in Edo, following results are ascertained; (1) The palacewas built in 1824 as a retreat of lord. (2) Lord, his wife, concubine, son and three daughters lived there. (3) The palace was composed of main, back and west building. (4) Lord, his concubine and three daughters lived at main buiding. (5) Lord's wife lived at back building and his son lived at west building.
The karidono of the naishi-dokoro in the imperial palace had been also reconstructed repeatedly during the late modern period. The karidono of the naishi-dokoro, following the Kansei period reconstruction of the imperial palace, was presented to noble families who specialized in devotional ritual. Plans were also made to use the shinka-den as the karidono. This was related to a proposal to transform the shinka-den into the naishi-donoro's karidono.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify details of how a "Tosanjoden-zu" was drawn. Kozen Uramatsu is thought to be the author of the Tosanjoden-zu" which is the subject of this paper however there is evidence suggesting otherwise. This study suggests this drawing is very similar to a "Tosanjoden-no-zu" authored by Teikan Tou. Teikan and Kozen were known to have collaborated on other published works, so it is possible that Kozen transcribed Teikan's "Tosanjoden-no-zu" and included it in his "Inkyu-oyobi-shiterzu" as a "Tosanjoden-zu". Kozen collectly understood the main roof's ridge of the Higashino-tai in this Tosanjoden was in a north to south orientation.
This paper examines Jinguko ownership of Daikushiki and the characteristics of Ukeya and Uketakumi. (1) There were 44 Jinguko for the Naiku and 33 for the Geku, from the late 12th century to the early 14th century. However, in the 15th century, these numbers did not remain the same. The amount of wages paid to individual carpenters remained the same throughout the Medieval Period. (2) The Sakusho supplied each Uketakumi with construction materials and handed him wages. Ukeya which were projected in those times were buildings such as the Higashi Hoden, but not the Shoden.
Delving the history of renovation of the Nishinomaru Palace (1869-1873) and the Akasaka Temporary Palace (1873-1889), this paper shows that the characteristics of the ceremonial space were produced to accept the Western-style ceremonies introduced into the court of Japan. In the Nishinomaru Palace, tatami mats were replaced by carpets in 1872 for accepting the reformation of imperial ceremonies to follow the Western courtesy system. In the late period of the Akasaka, the floor carpets were replaced by parquet to adapt for the change of the Queen's costume to the Western-style.
The team from Waseda University has been excavating on the hill-top at Abusir-South in Egypt since 1991, and unearthed the stone structure belonging to the Prince Khaemwaset. This article deals with a style and a drainage technology of the roof on the portico of the structure. It was supposed that the upper point edges of the roofs were cut diagonally and were extended beyond the front of the architrave, like eaves, which style is similar to that of Old Kingdom. On the drainage technology, joints between roof blocks were alternately made watertight by the insertion of T-shape section stones and also used as a gutter, though the reason is unclear.
William Hodges pointed out Grecian Architecture was not the most excellent architecture, in his "Dissertation." He gave his opinion that the first habitations had been brought to an architectural perfection while they had been influenced by the climate, the pursuits, the habits and the materials. He supposed the architectures had originated from the Hut (or Tent), or the Caverns. He thought the forces of Nature had formed the types of Architecture in the Caverns. There was an aesthetic element in his opinion. He thought Grecian, Roman, Chinese Architecture had originated from the Hut or the Tent. He thought Egyptian, Hindoo, Moorish and Gothic Architecture had originated from the Caverns, and these architectures had been brought to an equal perfection with Grecian Architecture. In his opinioin about Indian Architecture, there was the near idea of the theory of architectural origin.
Claude Perrault's views on composition (in general) appeared in his notes of translation of Vitruvius' Les dix livres d'architecture, especially concerning the two of Vitruvius' six principles on architecture, ordinatio and dispositio. His interpretation on these conceptions didn't cause as much controversy as his untraditional views on proportion. But, when compared with the views of the Italian interpreters of Vitruvius, such as Daniele Barbaro and Vincenzo Scamozzi, Perrault's misunderstandings or intentional paraphrases are made clear. He understood the two conceptions with making reference to French contemporary residential architecture, and confused their original attributions, which had been re-interpreted in the regular and characteristic compositional system of the residential architecture in Italian Renaissance.
In this paper we clarified characteristics of relationship between spatial scales and frameworks of Japanese contemporary houses in terms of frame elements and module. Initially, we analyzed their arrangements of beams and columns, and found several framework shapes. Secondly, we analyzed their material, span and numbers of framework. Thirdly, we analyzed their unit spaces, materials and cross-sectional shapes of column, and found several characteristics of sizes and proportions. In conclusion, we pointed out that most of units spaces were articulated according to proportion and each size of framework, and that indicates spatial scales based on relationship between proportion and module of framework.
This paper aims to figure out a hidden morphological logic in a complex street network pattern and to recreate a new street network pattern in a same style as the original pattern. First, it introduces a tree-structured model, which is extracted from the graph of original pattern. This approach makes it easier to pick up the relation of each element in the pattern using intergenerational connection along the tree-structure. As a result of analysis on Venice through this approach, both global and local aspects of the pattern are shown.