The purpose of this paper is to study and to propose an efficient method for calculating a long-time impulse response ranging over audio frequencies in a room. This method, based on the numerical integration of Kirchhoffs integral equation, carries out integration with technique both for tracing the potentials of the identical phase elements like the Fresnel zone of a propagating wave-front and for dividing into a spherical wave part and a dispersal wave part. The effectiveness of this method is confirmed by comparison between calculated value and measured.
This paper proposes that a method to make reverberation part, which considered a time pattern of reflection and head related transfer function, to make time short to get impulse resposes from numerical simulation, which used for synthetic sound field by using OSS, and shows that effectiveness of proposed method through evaluation of difference between measured and operated synthetic sound field by using proposed method as to reverbrarion part.
Some improvements were tested about a new and simple measuring method using a sound tube for the propagation constant. At first, this new system consists of four parts so that the backed wall can be removed. It makes it easy to set and take off a test material. Moreover, in order to reduce the resonant vibration of the test material which caused to large measuring errors, the material was fixed to the backed wall by several nails. As a result, the smooth frequency characteristics in which the error deep dip is eliminated can be observed. In addition, using this system, measurements on granular material such as sand and small ballast could be performed, which could not be done by the ordinary method.
This paper describes the results of an experimental study to examine whether a thermally-insulated small composting tank for the use at home can ferment garbage sufficiently without heating by an electric heater. We compared the fermentation processes in two composting tanks, one has an electric heater and non-insulated walls, the other has no electric heater but well-insulated walls. The experiment was made for fourteen days in winter season. It was found that there were no differences in several indices for measuring the degree of fermentation of the contents between two composting tanks and thereby better thermal insulation enables a small composting tank to ferment garbage without heating by an electric heater.
When we analyze non-isothermal turbulent flowfield, we have both cases of stable and unstable. The modified new k-ε model (MKCO k-ε) which can reproduce both damping and accelerating vertical turbulence flux by buoyancy has been devised. A 2-D simulation is conducted for non-isothermal room airflow using the modified model. The results are compared with those of the model experiment and those based on other k-ε models. The present model predicts it better than the existing models.
An experimental study was carried out to determine the nitrogen oxides emission characteristics with oxygen depletion as some of the pollutant generation rates were heavily dependent upon oxygen depletion. The emission rates of NO and NO_2 as well as NO_x were determined quantitatively on kerosene fired space heaters. The NO_x emission characteristics of kerosene heaters were classified as two emission models, the one represented the conventional radiant-convective models of which the emission rate decreased proportionally with oxygen depletion, the other expressed the fan-heater models which had two distinct oxygen phases. The first phase occurs in the sharp decline from the initial oxygen point of K_0 to a certain oxygen point of Kc. The second phase occurs in the decline beyond the point of Kc.
As part of our study program on environmental radiation levels in buildings, we have undertaken to measure the natural radioactivity, such as radium-226, thorium-232, and potassium-40 in various inorganic building materials. The specimens of their materials include cements, aggregates, concretes, asbestos cement slates, tiles, gypsum boards, rock wool boards, bricks, wall clays, soils, phosphorous ore, zirconia, zircon flower and zircon sand that used in Japan. The ranges and mean values of natural radioactivity concentrations existing in their materials are tabulated and evaluated.
The outdoor panel of the ambient-energy heat pump can exploit solar energy, infrared radiation, convection, and mass transfer for its heat sources and sinks. To calculate heat exchange of the panel, its fin was divided into several elements and their simultaneous equations were solved in iterative method. As a recent panel consists of multiple fins to improve air-source capability, the numerical model became complicated. This problems were alleviated by using sol-air temperature and fin efficiency in its heat-exchange equations. Sol-air temperature was extended to accommodate mass-transfer. A computer program that adopts this mathematical model was developed. Preliminary runs of the simulation program gave us some insights to improve COP of this ambient-energy heat pump.
The so-called "Building maintenance services" (abbreviated as BMS after this) contains janitor services, security services and the services to maintain air-conditioning systems. The number of building maintenance companies have increased since 1960 because buildings of which total floor area exceeds 3,000 m^2 are required certain degree of indoor air quality by laws. The general population of workers in BMS has a peak in the eldelies, and more elderly workers are expected to engage in BMS. However, detrimental environments in the working space and the daily demand for workers may cause physiological and psychological stress. It was therefore reported that accidents involving elderly workers have frequently happened during working. In this study, environments in working place and physiological and psychological stress to elderly workers in janitor services were evaluated. Results are as follows ; 1) Workers in janitor services walked in the distance of 4,000m - 8,000m a day. 2) Elderly workers claimed chronic fatigues such as back or knee pains. 3) Elderly workers showed their physical characteristics that restrain ankle movements. 4) The main cause of accidents may be workers' careless mistakes.
This study makes a proposal on the way to introduce daylight in atria. Subjective appraisals were made to describe the function of the atrium, and physical factors having influence on the visual image were measured. As a result, office workers want to have an atrium as a space for refreshment, daylight with sunbeam is effective in order to obtain a great refreshment. The variety of luminance distribution in the visual field and the change of illuminance have proved to be favorable to the estimation of the atrium.
For understanding the intellectual disabled person as the subject of architectural planning, we clarified the characteristics of dwelling life and analyzed the factors that prescribed their behavior. At first, we showed the situation on the principal dwelling life (the action at home, going-out activity and so on) and studied the correlation on 6 indicator as the factor for determining the action. As the result, the performing their life depend on social-life ability rather than disability ranks, and it was made clear the effective factors on each, and the family type have also influence on some behavior. According to this results, we can say that it is possible to spend the normalized life even a disabled seriously on learning ability and the other subjects.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of classrooms in the National Kurihama School for Hnadicapped Children. The school provides educational treatment for severely handicapped children, in cooperation with the National Institute of Special Education. A distinctive feature of the school is the structure of classroom unit: the school contains six classroom units, each of which is for four to five pupils and consists of three teaching spaces, a study room for teachers, a children's toilet, and a storage room. The total area of the unit is 140m^2. This study revealed that the structure and total area of each classroom unit were appropriate for educating four to five handicapped children.
The purpose of this study is to deepen our understanding of transaction between patients under palliative care and physical environment in PCU. We select a literary writings, patient's family set down her experiences in a PCU as a record in, entitled "When it is fragrant with the smell of a fragrant olive", and we distinguish the PCU in the writings for case study. Through the analysis of changes of patient's condition over time lapses and locales in the literary writings, we confirm the features of the transaction.
A purpose of this article is to obtain an indicator about opening of public facilities, from analyzing of constitution element of "inner open-space" with comparison. As a result of consideration, we realized as follows. (1) It is effective that "purpose of utilization", "entrance", "rate of HAKIKAE-room", "posture of activity", "number of groups utilizing facilities", "daylighting planning" and "rate of inner open-space" as an indication to show opening of facilities. (2) Interior space of facilities in SAPPORO-CITY become inside space. Contrary to SAPPORO-CITY, interior space of facilities in NAHA-CITY become outside space.
The study aims to find out new implications of school planning on the basis of the survey to examine following assumptions: I.e. each pupil finds his/her own meanings in school buildings and forms a particular place attachment. In this process, he/she would get used to school-life and its environment. A couple of boys and girls in each first, third, and fifth-grades is selected and followed by designated surveyor all the day, without noticing them anything the intention of the survey. All twelve pupils' range of activities, behavior and communication with friends, teachers and particular preference of places are recorded are described on a layout plan. The analyses of the survey reveals the following three significant results; Firstly, the children stay, for the most part, in their classrooms, because of the existence of some psychological barrier. Secondly, children behave themselves according to visual information obtained. Children use furniture as the tool to get used to the surroundings in huge rooms, the scale of which are far beyond their body scales.
This thesis aims at estimating the total floor area and volume of public facilities for the modem performing arts at the early stage of the facility planning. Concretely through the analysis of new 12 examples of public facilities for the performing arts we proposed some useful and clear method of estimating the total floor area and volume as exactly as possible and tested the validity of the method.
An experimental study is performed to know each level of students' spatial abilities objectively. Subjects are asked to identify photographed scenes of the town in front of their university. The scores of the test are statistically analyzed. One result shows that the level of students' spatial abilities for the town does not increase from 18 months after their entrance into the university. Another shows that their recognitions on a sequence of scenes of the town are formed slightly behind the formation of their recognitions on each scene of the town.
The purpose of this study is to clarify how people understands the structure of interior spaces. We made reviews for existing methods of cognitive maps, but it's difficult to analyze the spatial understanding by those methods, I.e. Image-Map, Sign-Map and Element-Recall Method. Therefore, we developed new cognitive map "Puzzle-Map Method", and applied to the interior spaces of 7 typical planning hospitals. As a result, it's very important to understand the interior spaces of hospitals that the clear structure from entrance spaces to derivation spaces, effective relationships between elements and each space.
In previous papers, we proposed a language system named "Spatial Allocation Language (SAL)" as a simple method for describing architectural plans. Described architectural plan by SAL is a symbol string and can be analyzed by computer. Our SAL system is, however, limited in small class of architectural plans. This paper proposes a new extended version of SAL in order to describe wider class of plans. That is, we introduce nine SAL operators. These operators are defined only by geometric information. Using new SAL notation system, we obtain an algorithm which produces a SAL expression of given plan from geometric information.
The creek region has faced the same difficulty of the irrigation and the drainage as the lower stream region. Therefore various devices have been thought out for high water uses and control. Rules of use and the regularization between each people and each settlement have been made over the years, then these have been establishing an order of water control and various irrigation customs based the water system. 1.The traditional water control system consists of three dimensions: points, lines and faces. Points correspond to the water pipes and sluice dams dotted on creeks. Faces are territories enclosed dy the bank of reclamation. 2.The irrigation water is narrowed down in the vertical direction. Drainage water is drained off in the horizontal direction. 3.The principle of the water regulation is what is called "Motase" in Japanese which means bearing and shearing. 4.We have to make much of the application of the principle and small or middle technology in the communities.
The purpose of this study is to consider the principles of space formation in the houses, villages and cities, focusing on the cosmology that decide physical arrangement. We selected Cakranegara city in Lombok island, Indonesia, as a case study. Cakranegara was built as a colonial city of Karanngasem Kingdom in Bali in 18th century. We guess Cakranegara was constructed based on the idea of Bali Hindu City. This study clarifies the space organization of the city by discussing streets pattern, land division, formation of living quarter, distribution of temples, community organization, distribution of the cast and etc. Pura Meru, the central biggest and impressive Hindu temple, dedicated to Brahumana, Vishunu and Siva, was built in 1720 by the king of Karangasem, Agung Made Ngurah, to unite all the Balinese small kingdoms in Lombok. Enclosing three towers, there stand 33 small shrines. The name of each small shrine is derived from the name of karang (neighborhood unit) which has been maintaining the building. We can consider that the distribution of temples (puras) show the original area of the city. This paper clarified the distribution of these karangs and area planned in the beginning of the construction of Cakranegara.
The meaning of the 1936 plan for boulevards network or park system in Sapporo were analyzed on following aspects. 1. The boulevards network were aimed to provide space for a disaster prevention under the influence of the big fire in Hakodate city on March 1934. 2. The boulevards were modeled on Odori-park and could be crassify with three patterns, prototype, riverside-type and farmland-type. 3. The background of revision about boulevards network was caused by urbanization, esspecially on farmland-type. 4. Through the 1936 plan, we could recognize the park system realized trunk-road network.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between estimation and transition of the streetscape by means of a virtual reality simulation system. Methodology : The virtual reality simulation system is applied as the experimental tool. This system is composed by stereo glasses, emitter(controller), projector, screen and mouse. Eighty two streetscape models were made in consideration of the height and set-back of building regulation and classified into ten groups with pre-test. One typical model was sampled from each group. So ten models were experimented. Estimation categories : continuity, order, openness and preference. Subjects : 35persons(23males, 12females). Results : The subjects prefer to streetscape having some openness, and the estimation of continuity and openness changes according to the change of the height and set-back of building.
In this paper, we made a detailed comparison of descriptions on the Japanized-style temples between two "Doki-shu" books in "Shoki-shu" and in "Shomei" to analyze their substantial characteristics. The analysis shows that majority of descriptions found only in "Shomei" and some different descriptions between both books were deliberately added and revised in "Shomei" in the later ages. In these addition and revision, we found some tendency in plans toward expansion of interior space, standardization of facade design, and adaptation for building regulations of temple since 1668, and in elevation and roof toward emphasis on the Japanized-style design.
On this study, by thinking about the trades of housing sits, I investigated the transformations of the block patterns in old Otsu town after the end of Edo period. The summary of this study can be given below: ・ A number of trades of housing sits were increased and the prices of land went up after the last of Edo period. ・ Only the parts of back lots can be traded. ・ The corner of housing lots were separated into sevral parts after Meiji period. ・ Fixed properties of storehouses were very expensive.
The aim of this study is to make clear states of developments of urban facilities in the tourist industry during 1930s. In 1930, the Government established the Board of Tourist Industry and the Committee of Tourist Industry to attain foreign currency. They had tried to invite Americans and Westerns who lived in the East Asia with 4 keywords; advertisement, hotel, tourist resort, service. Therefore, they had tried to represent urban facilities which reflected tourist interests.
At the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia in 1876 Japanese carpenters built two buildings, Japanese Bazaar and Japanese Dwelling. Scrutinizing them from the historical context, it came to clear that the former was organized by the Japanese government with the intention of promoting export, and for it we can see the representation of 'traditional' Japanese elements. It was one of the good examples of the Exhibition buildings for thinking about the representation of 'traditional' Japanese style or motifs in countries overseas.
This Paper shows the kyoto's role in forming the Ancient Shrines and Temples Preservation Act(1897) was decisive. To help recover Kyoto's economy, since 1881 Kyoto had been trying to preserve old edifices in its shrines and temples as its symbols. But for lack of sufficient fund, Kyoto began to carry on a campaign to form a national law to preserve those old edifices; Kyoto even proposed a preservation bill referring to the ones abroad and ask other prefectures to join the campaign. Kyoto's propositions were introduced in some articles of the Act.
Muqarnas-vaulting is one of the most characteristic elements of the Islamic Architecture, and the fourteenth century is the most flourish period. This paper refers to four monuments to which the masterpieces of muqarnases were applied in this century. They are the funerary complex at Natanz from Iran, the madrasa of Sultan Hasan at Cairo from Egypt, the Patio of Lions in Alhambra from Maghrib and the Mausoleum of Ahmad Yasasvi at Turkestan from Central Asia. The muqarnases are applied to important places, e.g. the vaults of the tomb chamber, the masjid or the main rooms, the alcoves on the qibla axis, the portal iwans of the monument. And they have two common features. 1.Muqarnases which applied to iwans, alcoves or niches became a architectural focus with symbolizing religious meaning. 2.Muqarnases which applied to vaults were improved, creating mystic and gorgeous atomosphere.
The First Boat of Ancient Egyptian King Khufu was restored by Antiquities Department of Egypt from 1954 to 1982. But the former restorer Hag A.Y.Moustafa admitted that the original shape of some parts of this ship still remained unsolved. In the last thesis, we elucidated the numbering system of the timbers with the unreported hieratic inscriptions marked by the ancient carpenters. With this result, we simulated the restoration of the ship with a 1/20 scale model that we recreated based on the data of 649 timbers which Hag A.Y.Moustafa tendered. As the result, we obtained a new idea of the original shape of this ship different from the actual one, regarding the structure of canopy, the position and numbers of rudders and oars.
Bartolomeo Ammannati, the architect in the 16th century, projected S.Giovannino dei fiorentini and Collegio for Jesuit Society in Florence. Ammannati's decorative and complex plans of the church were left in "Citta ideale", but actually, Ammannati designed a functional and simple church as a result of granting of demands of Jesuits. Ammannati designed a cloister which merely separated the space of community life from the space of schoolrooms in the small Collegio, but in plans of religious communities, it is obvious that Ammannati concidered a connection with urban space, by closed or opened cloister.
The aim of this paper is to study the Space-Meaning on the using columns in Villa Savoye of Le Corbusier. Villa Savoye is planned on a 4.75m X 4.75m structural grid system, on which another grid is superimposed by the ramp. However, Le Corbusier purposely shifts columns in Y-Y (North-South) direction. The column positions and their relation to the wall (especially the round columns) are differentiated by the topological or spatial meanings of their own. Use of columns can be classified as follows; A. Column of Articulation B. Column of Orientation C. Column of Celebration D. Column of Support E. Column emphasizing the freedom of the wall.
The purpose of this study is to understand how marina is recognized by visitors. We conducted questionnaire survey on visitors to the waterfront except pleasure boat users and analyzed using association method, quantification method III and cluster analysis. The results are as follows: 1.The visitors have different perception about the marina by their activities. 2.The marina has much contribution in the familiarity on the waterfront. 3.The image of the marina can be classified into 5 types. 4.The evaluation of visitors about natural environment is the important factor of the marina.