This study aimed to consider the possibility of the residential environment improvement for the deinstitutionalization of child care institutions with the basic recognition that child well-being must be unitary with the community. As a result of the group interviews to people who had lived in the child care institution, the questionnaire to institutions in Japan, and the case study of Hope Meadows in the United States, it has become clear the following points at issue; 1) Person who had lived in the child care institution is conscious of peculiar manners and the sense of values acquired by life in the facility. 2) The physical situation of surroundings of the facility brings a big influence to the construction of child's interpersonal relationship and the training of sociability and cooperation. 3) A multi-generational neighborhood that supports families who have adopted children from foster care has been realized by the conversion of a existing residential area.
In this study, we focused on the exposure of fluid space in recent years and proposed a notation method for such space. By using of cognitive science, we extracted Occluding and Shading Edge from human spatial experience. By using both two edges, we created new notation method, Scene Books for both Occluding and Shading Edge. The findings in this study are as follows. 1)The structure of Occluding Edge is found through the change rate in scale and direction. 2)The structure of Shading Edge is found though the change rate in scale and complexity. 3)Through ecological notation method, a classification between fluid space and non fluid space is clarified. 4)Through both Occluding and Shading Edge structures, a classification of fluid space such as tube space, curved space and others is clarified. 5)Through ecological notation method, a new form of space, yet to be illustrated is presented.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of exterior perspective drawings of Michizo Tachihara. Quantified properties of the exterior perspective drawings are statistically analyzed. Tachihara's exterior perspective drawings are characterized by four factors, namely: surrounding lush, nature covering the architecture, view point, and position of the architecture. Through the verification of these characteristics, it is pointed out that there are six types of the perspective drawings. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that Tachihara's exterior perspective drawings reflect his views of the pastoral architecture, with which harmonious existence of architecture and nature is emerged.
The “core plan” is one of the most typical spatial forms of Modern architecture, as represented in the Farnsworth House (1945-51) by Mies van der Rohe. In Japan there are a number of houses designed by architects under its influence. Here we aim to illustrate how contemporary Japanese architects base their design theme on such model, as seen in architectural publications. Initially, two aspects of the conceptual description of houses incorporating a core plan were extracted and each scheme was subjected to KJ-method analysis (originated by KAWAKITA Jiro). First, we scrutinized architect's intention in adopting the core-type house plan. Secondly, we established each architect's view of the spatial character of the design, as exemplified in his deployment of the core plan. At this point, the actual compositions of each work were classified in accordance with three points concerning the relationship between the core itself and the space containing the core. These were similarity of geometrical shapes, symmetrical arrangement, and positioning of openings. Finally, the relationship between architects' thinking and the actual composition of their works was investigated, and we attempted to clarify how contemporary Japanese architects realize this design theme.
This paper attempts to clarify elevational aspects of urban space in the center of Tokyo from the point of view of continuity in configuration and articulation of station buildings' surfaces. Initially, the continuity of station buidings' surfaces is analyzed in terms of two aspects of comparative scale with neighbor buildings. One is comparative scale in terms of actual height and width of the buildings themselves. The other is the comparative articulated width of the station buildings' surfaces. Secondly, the fundamental mode and conditions of surface continuity of station building in urban space were determined by collating these two aspects. Thirdly, the characteristics of the surface complexity of station building are categorized in terms of models. One paradigm and three fundamental models were isolated by deploying the above-mentioned data, which may be said to represent one aspect of the urban form of contemporary Tokyo, and which afford one possibly useful way of describing the urban spatial character Tokyo today.
In this paper, the definitions of film syntagmas and segments are reintroduced, and the notions of narrative Existents and Events are introduced based on Seymour Chatman's theories as they are central elements in the analytical process used here. After extracting the segmental structure of the case study film Short Cuts, a 30mins section is considered for in-depth analysis where 5 types of Inter-Segmental Connections and 3 types of Intra-Segmental Relations are retrieved. The relevance of these Connections and Relations to the Existents and Events further develops the film to architecture analogies and further completes the contents of their corresponding Table elaborated in earlier works.
Neighboring shopping districts have always been commercial space required by local residents, and at the same time, they have played an important role as a forum in everyday life. However, many exhausted local shopping districts are lately under “residentializing” process. This research investigates the followings in 64 local shopping districts in Edogawa-ku, Tokyo that may “residentialize” : 1. The actual conditions of “residentialization” in local shopping district 2. The actual conditions of resident's daily life in “residentializing” shopping district. By comparing these shopping districts by their location, it is found that change in space and change in commercial function within local shopping district have influenced its interaction function, and as a result, it is clarified that the lifestyle is changing in local shopping district.
This paper examines and clarifies the opinions of residents about the improvement of a narrow and dangerous footpath alongside main traffic route (the Kioroshi road), where the environment has not been improved over numerous years. By the analysis, it is clarified that the opinions of landowners for improvement of the environment are different from those of pedestrians. So, we study how to fill the gap and to improve the environment by residents. The results can be summarized as follows: 1) by knowing the opinion of the landowners, the ideas of pedestrians change to improve the environment together with landowners, 2) the women between the age of forty and forty-nine are thought as the key person for connecting community members of region..3) it is important to recognize that “niwadoushi” which was adopted for widening the footpath at this area in the past is an effective method for improvement of community environment and ancestral wisdom for this area.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the process of the ethnic business's accumulate and find a new approach to promote the relationship construction between multi-national business operators and local residents in this commercial area in the future. In this thesis I will clarified the following 2 points: 1)During the last 20 years, the number and geographical distribution of Chinese stores around the north Ikebukuro were changing due to many reasons. 2)The relationship between the Chinese businessmen with the locals was insufficient, which had been a big hindrance to promote the relationship construction among multi-national foreigners.
The aim of this study is to verify effects of proposals for fire spreading prevention plan in a historic preservation area through forecast of fire spreading and its evaluation. The study area is Hama-Shozu-Machi-Hama-Kanaya-Machi important preservation area for clusters of traditional structures in Kashima City, Saga Prefecture. The characteristic of this study area is continuing of straw-roofed houses and tile-roofed houses along the narrow streets. In this study, composing a proposal scheme considered the characteristic of this study area and improving a forecast method of fire spreading, some alternative plans are compared and estimated under the scheme. Through analysis and estimation of the alternative plans, the effects of the plans can be shown. The proposal scheme works almost well, so that possibility of this study for fire spreading prevention plan is indicated.
The purpose of this study is to clarify transformation process of townscape by the townscape improvement strongpoint project in Obuse town, Nagano pref. We analyze the following three points. 1) We grasp the actual condition of design control of building, change of the usage of building and the open-garden project. 2) We analyze townscape policy of local government and residents ' consciousness about townscape transformation. 3) We clarify the factor of townscape expansion by the townscape improvement strongpoint project.
This paper aims to clarify the strategy to establish the today's land-use regulatory system of Nanjo City and to clarify the efficacy of the system. The research methods were interviews, data analyses, and document investigations. The results are as followings. 1) At first, Okinawa Pref. had a confrontation with Nanjo City in realigning the City Planning Area. Pref. officers assumed that Nanjo City area should be belonged in Wide Naha City Planning Area. But City officers want to away from it. They discussed mainly 7 times. By and large, the City officers won. The city could leave from the Wide Naha City Planning Area at minimum proviso. 2) The key to victory were city's good presentations which described the present predicament by accurate information. And they used some trade terms. They defrayed the baseline survey cost which needs to realign the City Planning Area instead of the Pref. 3) The city officers watered down the proviso at first. It had no alternative but to do to achieve a consensus from the citizen. After making the agreement, the city officers tried to follow up the provisos.
Many of the peripheral communities surrounding the Sudanese cities and urban regions are ethnically and culturally homogeneous, keeping many of their cultural and social values alive, this has created a situation where the traditional “community-driven” planning and the legislative “government-initiated” replanning (village incorporation) spatially occur in the same space, often over a short period of time. While these two “timely different” planning approaches might share the same objectives, their approach of involving citizens and building consensus is generally different, quite often conflicts. The purpose of this article is three folds: to emphasise on the importance of the traditional form of Sudanese community participation named as “Nafeer”; to develop a conceptual framework for evaluating community participation in development projects; and to use this framework to evaluate both the traditional “community-driven” and the legislative “government-initiated” forms of community participation in the neighborhood of Al-shigla. Using an analytical approach through a comparison strategy, this article argues that community participation quality and quantity prior to the replanning process is higher than that conceived after.
In Japan, encouraging community activities in relation to conservation of historic towns has not gained popularity yet. Research about it is rather limited, strongly focusing on the effects of legal regulations instead. However, in this research, we found that community activities can have various functions such as bringing together able persons and groups, instigating enlightenment, pride and determination of local residents, popularizing conservation activities, distributing information, mediating disagreement, and through this process, improving resident awareness and townscape, solving issues government regulations have not been able to overcome.
The past improvements of bicycle roads had put central emphasis on linear components, such as running bicycle lanes parallel to roadways. However, the past research on this topic show the growing needs of further improvement of planar components, including other roads. This study defines“detour activities”as side-trips that provide wider range of routes within a plane, and by questionnaire targeting bicycle tourists, the followings have been clarified: 1) the actual behavior of bicycle tourism, 2) spatial characteristics that induce detour activities. Given the above, this paper discusses improvements of bicycle roads that will promote“detour activities”.
The mobility of people's activities, and cloud computing technologies are becoming advanced in the modern age of information and globalization. This study describes the capability of discussing townscape design while sharing a 3-dimensional virtual space with stakeholders in a distributed and synchronized environment. First of all, a townscape design support system based on a cloud computing type VR system is constructed. Next, an experiment of a distributed and synchronized discussion of townscape design is executed with examinees who are specialists in the townscape design field. The conclusions are as follows: 1. Users who use VR frequently and who use videoconferencing consider that the difference with face-to-face discussion is small. 2. The capability of distributed and synchronized discussions in the townscape design field is high.
This study discussed the estimation of asbestos waste generation from both dispersed and undispersed asbestos building materials in building demolition by comparing three possible future outcomes, from “30±2 years Longevity Scenario”, “Simple Remaining-rate Function Scenario” and “Floating Remaining-rate Function Scenario”. The main results are as follows, 1. Each scenario led quite different future outcomes, especially in case of undispersed asbestos building materials wastes. And there is a possibility of leading the false outcome by “30±2 years Longevity Scenario” for the generated period and the maximum quantity. 2. “Simple Remaining-rate Function Scenario” and “Floating Remaining-rate Function Scenario” led similar outcomes in case of dispersed asbestos building materials wastes, though the latter is a little less until middle of the 2020's. 3. These outcomes have a big influence on the future management of processing and disposal of asbestos waste.
As a result of studying major books on carpentry techniques, three conclusions were drawn concerning methods for determining the depth of eaves. 1. It is evident that the depth of the flat part of honshige-taruki eaves with hip rafters where the rafter interval equals the standard rafter interval was determined based not on the so-called rafter interval system(shi-wari system),but on the method of designing eaves (HIKIKOMI-TARUKI). 2. There were two ways of determining the depth of eaves. 3. When using the method of designing eaves, there are OLD method and NEW method.
This paper presents a study of the methods by which the inclination of a rafter was determined. Three methods were identified: 1. The inclination of a hien-rafter was determined so that the elevation of the kayaoi could be made higher than that of the kioi. 2. The inclination of a hien-rafter was determined so that the elevation of the kayaoi could be made the same as that of the kioi. (MUTSUTSURE method) 3. The inclination of a hien-rafter was determined so that the elevation of the kayaoi could be made lower than that of the kioi. (KAYATIGAI method)
The foghorn building in Inubousaki which was all made of steel was built in 1910. It is ambiguous that the steel used for this building was domestic or imported from Europe, because it was made in incunabula of steel production in Japan (the Imperial Steel Works (Yawata) was founded in 1901). This paper shows that this building can be the oldest building in existence using domestic steel in Japan on the following basis; a) The steel panel (8'× 4' Japanese feet) can be produced in Yawata then. b) Assaying the chemical properties of building parts, more copper is gained in steel panels and rivets. It means that the iron ore used for them were probably imported from China that was mainly used in Yawata then.
Detailed measurements of compound piers in forty-one 12th century churches in Ile-de-France and in fifteen churches dating from the middle of the 11th century to the middle of the 12th century in Normandy indicate the following: 1) All shafts from compound piers in Ile-de-France rise entirely from the re-entrant corners of the core in the tiers of the pier. In this regard, compound piers from the transitional and early Gothic periods are homogeneous. 2) Shafts from compound piers in the main Normandy churches penetrate the re-entrant corner by up to about one half or three quarters of its volume. This feature clearly differentiates compound piers in Normandy from those in Ile-de-France. The results prove the prototype of Gothic architecture to have been produced not in Normandy but in Ile-de-France.
“Sagaryu niwakoho hiden-no-sho”is a secret book written in the Muromachi period describing about the techniques of constructing traditional Japanese gardens and one of the most popular reference books of landscaping. The rich use of drawings and clear writings characterize the book. Many manuscripts and alternate versions were published in the Edo period, while the verifications about the contents of these books have not been done yet. We chose ten alternative versions and compared their descriptions with the original and found the following issues. 1. We had produced the comparison charts. The contents vary depending on the alternative versions. However, any description about the ways to appreciate the gardens and the ways to construct the gardens is not omitted in any version. 2. We categorized the alternative versions into three types according to the style of transmissions. The example found in the Takidan-ji temple seems to be the most similar to the original.
This paper is one of the comprehensive researches to explicate Geoffrey Bawa's architectural thought and works. The aim of this paper is to focus on thematic explication through the analysis on the spatial composition of his hotel works. The analysis consists of 4chapters as follows: Chapter2-4 describes the properties and their chronological modification viewed from the connection between outside and inside, and between adjacent spaces by analyzing two diagrams. Chapter5 explores his architectural theme through the semantic analysis of the interrelationship of those properties and its modification revealed in his spatial composition. Finally, this paper explicates the meaning of intermediate spaces which play the key role in Geoffrey Bawa's architectural works.
Auszeichnung für gute Bauten der Stadt Zürich is an architectural prize first established by the Zurich municipal authority together with local architects in 1945. The City of Zurich is positively focused on its own urban development and this prize has afforded an excellent opportunity to address local urban character and policies. The intent of this paper is to extract features of the jury organization and classify building type and other characteristics of award-winning works. It will be part of a broader study clarifying the idea and the methods of architectural evaluation by the Zurich Municipal Authority since World War II.
The present paper aims to analyze the types of the mountains painted in the Christian paintings of the Chora Church, focusing on their relationships to persons, and clarify the significance of these types. In our analysis, we made explanatory drawings and pattern diagrams of each painting. Explanatory drawings were made to divide each painting into scenes. Pattern diagrams were made to find out the relationships among persons and mountains. Three types of mountains were identified: 1) Mountains Next to Persons, 2) Mountains Surrounding Persons, and 3) Mountains Next to Persons and Surrounding Other Persons. The significance of these types was also clarified.