This paper presents some experimental results concerning with vibration propagation characteristics of the reinforced concrete structure in the actual building construction and in those of the model structure. This research proposes to make clear the similarity of the experimental results in the actual structures and those of the model structures. Some results are summarized as follows ; 1. Except the case of "ALC+woodcut" substructure, the foundation and the ground structure are both removed, the vibration propagation characteristics in the superstructure of the model are not depend on the substructure. And experimental results of the vibration propagation characteristics in the model structure are almost the same in the real structure. 2. The natural frequency obtained from this experimental results in the model structures are numerically almost equal to the values calculated by the law of model similitude. 3. Mode shapes obtained in the model experiments are similar to those in the actual experiments. 4. Though the damping ratio in the model structures is different from that of in the actual structures, it is possible to reproduce the vibration propagation characteristics in the actual structures by identification of the damping ratio from the experimental results in the model structures.
In many cases, the position of the sun in the sky at a certain place on the earth at a certain time in a year is calculated by using data on the latitude of the place as well as the solar declination and the apparent solar time at the time. In order to obtain the apparent solar time in Japan, it is necessary to know Japan Standard Time and the equation of time at the time, and the longitude of the place. The intensity of solar radiation on the ground is affected by the distance between the sun and the earth. Among the above-mentioned quantities, as regards the three quantities of solar declination, equation of time, and sun-earth distance, it is not easy to know their sufficiently accurate values at a certain time in a year because they change depending on the time of year. This paper presents a series of approximate equations for calculating these three quantities as functions of time passage after the vernal equinox or the perihelion.
The airspaces existing in exterior walls and window frames influence the overall heat transfer of these building components. The heat transfer in the airspaces consists of convective heat transfer and radiative heat transfer. The radiative heat transfer coefficient of the airspaces varies largely with their surface emissivities, surface temperatures, and two- or three-dimensional (3-D) shapes. Therefore, it is important to calculate the radiative heat transfer coefficient of the airspaces as accurate as possible considering the effects of these factors. In this paper, the calculation equations of the 2-D radiative heat transfer coefficient adopted in ISO 6946, ISO 10077-2, ISO/FDIS 15099, and JIS A 2101 are derived and the necessary assumptions for the derivations are summarized. Then it is shown that the 3-D equation is easily derived from the 2-D equation adopted in ISO/FDIS 15099. Numerical calculation method of 3-D equation considering the effect of the surface temperature distribution is developed. The recommended ranges for the use of the equations are summarized on the basis of the comparison with the accurate numerical method.
In Niigata City, a climate of the winter is characterized by very strong wind and a lot of snow. There is a possibility of a wind environment induced discomfort even with a low rise building in this area. It is difficult to use the current criteria in such cases because of the difference in consciousness of a resident and the frequency of the wind speed. Therefore, it is very important that new criteria which can be adapted the climate at a northwest area of Japan. The purpose of this study is to develope the new criteria for Niigata City by the wind tunnel experiment, the field survey and the questionnaire. The results are as follows, (1) By the questionnaire survey of the wind strength, the conscious of the wind strength will be begun when to put up an umbrella is difficulty, and discomfort break out when a walk is a difficulty. (2) The criteria of the wind environment in Niigata area is laxer than the acceptable frequency of Murakami's criteria. As for this criteria, the acceptable days per annum that is the maximum gust wind speed exceeds lOm/s per a day of the 1.5m height is 102 days, and 15m/s is 21 days, over 20m/s is 4 days.
Airflow structure of a cross-ventilated model building for normal wind angle case was analyzed using Large Eddy Simulation. Simulated results were in close agreement with experimental observations in view point of flow rate, distribution of velocity vector and turbulence kinetic energy and wind pressure coefficients. Simulated results were analyzed, and it was elucidated that the downfall of the inflow specific to cross-ventilation is strongly affected by pressure gradient due to recirculation on the lower portion on the windward surface of the building. Further analysis was then made to identify shape of streamtube passing through windward opening. Spatial change of static, dynamic and total pressure along the identified streamtube indicated that strong acceleration and deceleration of the airflow does not exert significant change in total pressure at the upstream side of the opening, although energy is exchanged between static and dynamic pressure. This means that flow energy of the streamtube is virtually conserved at the upstream side of the opening, while energy loss occurs after passing through the opening due to the production of turbulence kinetic energy.
This paper presents the results of CFD simulation on the ventilation efficiency in a multi storied underground car park. In this study the influence of supply/exhaust air imbalance of mechanical ventilation system, and the buoyancy effect of heat from ground and vehicles were studied with the age of air obtained from CFD. The results of this paper are following ; (1) In Case 1 (supply air volume= exhaust air volume), the distribution of the age of air was almost same in each floor. There fore it is easy to plan the ventilation system such as the layout, of the high velocity fan-diffuser unit for the stagnant region. (2) In Case 2 (supply air volume < exhaust air volume), the airflow through the ramps was activated and the difference in the ventilation efficiency of each floors was observed. In this case, the planning of ventilation system becomes relatively difficult. (3) In Case 3 (supply air volume > exhaust air volume), the airflow through the ramps was activated and the difference in the ventilation efficiency of each floors was observed, as same as in Case 2. (4) The buoyancy effect due to the heat transfer between indoor air and ground walls on the distribution of temperature and the age of air was observed in the lowest floor in summer and winter. (5) When the heat generation from vehicles was considered in the simulation, the air diffusion was activated due to the buoyancy effect.
The purpose of this research is to investigate indoor air pollution by MVOCs, and also to analyze the relation between MVOCs emissions and sick building syndrome. In this paper, characteristic of MVOCs emissions from 17 fungi, which are frequently detected in indoor environments, was experimented using five materials as a first step of the research. Fungal species that was inoculated several materials produce many MVOCs and these MVOCs are greatly varying between species and inoculating materials. MVOCs emission rates of all fungi inoculated in potato dextrose agar have increased according to the growth of fungi and also each compound are produced at almost constant rates. MVOCs emission rates have decreased as the growth of fungi stops. From house dust and Tatami (Flooring rush mats), 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol and dimethyl disulfide are mainly detected, and ethylacetate,3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol are produced from potato dextrose agar.
For the maintenance of water-quality, the water service systems in multiple dwelling houses on the Tokyo metropolitan district had let to be changed from the receiver tank water service systems to the direct water service systems raised the pressure by pumps. In this paper the authors investigated that the multistory buildings connected with bore 75mm affected the building or distributing pipe. As a result, the authors made out that the water service pipe in the connecting buildings are not affected by the direct water service systems raised the pressure by pumps. And the consumption of electric energy per 1m^3 decreased from a change of the water service systems.
This research is the one having researched to establish the method of analyzing the city that can be almost evaluated for a potential ability of the solar energy use at the city planning or the regional plan stage and effectiveness. In the report at this time, the content to confirm application to an actual urban area of the probability of view by the model experiment and the measurement investigation was described.
When a secular change of land covering is examined by using remote sensing data, a degree of solar radiation in the observation day and a difference in the growth conditions of the plant cause a trouble. In this paper, the method of getting rid of the influence that occurs by the difference in the weather condition is proposed, and a secular change of NVK (Normalized Vegetation Index) is examined. Furthermore, the new index NUI (Normalized Urban Index) to distinguish green covering and non-green covering without influences of solar radiation and the growth conditions of the plant is proposed. Secular changes in land covering of Kumamoto City is made clear by using NUI.
Increasing protective concrete cover, design strength, and story height prolong the life of RC structure building. The influence of those factors on life cycle material consumption (LCM) and life cycle carbon dioxide emission rate (LCCO_2) were investigated. The results show as follows. 1. Increasing protective concrete cover is more effective measures to decreasing LCM and LCCO_2, than increasing design strength. 2. Increasing story height has less influence on LCM and LCCO_2. 3. Blast-furnace cement is more effective than normal portland cement in reducing LCCO_2, considering suitable protective concrete cover and more than 100 years life cycle.
In this paper, maps of regional climatic characteristic based on the results of some field measurements around hillside area were prepared. And then, guidelines for regional and architectural planning considered for the localized micrometeorological phenomena such as cold air drainage flow were drafted. As a result, it became possible to draw up regional and architectural plans aimed at improving thermal comfort and saving energy for residents. Particularly in regions with complicated geographical changes, in order to improve the reliability of the evaluation, it is essential to grasp regional characteristics by going through processes investigated in the present paper.
Amenity is the concept of environmental quality in common among the English. Although each man has a different evaluation structure of amenity, public evaluation structure of amenity is existent. Grasping the structure is valuable to the consensus of regional planning that is initiated by inhabitant. So, this study probes the structure by inhabitant from questionnaire. As the first paper of study, the relation between the evaluation and inhabitants' attributes was analyzed, and the Covariance Structure Model about evaluation of amenity was built at the housing development in Itabashi City. Finally, influence of inhabitants' satisfaction by the evaluation of external space was clarified.
Characteristics of policy instruments for improving the energy efficiency of new buildings are analysed by examining empirical data regarding experience of OECD countries and other empirical evidence which suggests environmental effectiveness etc. of the policy instruments. Six policy instruments, such as, building regulation, energy tax, capital subsidy and environmental labeling, are evaluated according to four criteria ; environmental effectiveness, economic efficiency, incentives for innovation and administrative cost. The results of the analysis indicate that characteristics of the instruments greatly differ from each other and that there is a great room for further ex post analysis on the characteristics of the instruments.
A questionnaire survey was conducted in National Children's Hospital to study the needs of children and their visitors and to measure their satisfaction for developing design guidelines for children's hospital wards. The number of sickbeds in a bedroom, bedroom area, bedroom location as well as playroom design were assessed in terms of their respective needs. A multivariate technique was then applied to explain their satisfaction. Children's satisfaction was largely determined by architectural factors : sickbed's distance from the nurse station, playroom type, playroom area, the number of playrooms, connection to a corridor system, sickbed's distance from a playroom, playroom's distance from the nurse station, and the number of sickbeds in a bedroom, most of which also explain the number of play activities.
The aim of this paper is to clarify various self controled activities carried out by children in relation to utilizing various places in several "free schools" which provide places for those who do not want to go to ordinary schools. The result of field surveys and analysis are as follows ; 1) the number of children using the places are different from one day to another. In additon starting time and period of their activities varies from one person to another. 2) The ratio of period for free activities and programed ones in a ordinary day is respectively 80% and 20%. However, it was found that The ratio at programed activities rose up to 30%. 3) The ratios at individual activities in a day were from 20%-40%, while in the case of group activities were from 60%-80%. 4) Most of current "free schools" period quiet places for individual activities. Children selected an appropriciate place for their own need.
The purpose of this study is to analyze how open governmental buildings are to the general public by means of questionnaire surveys to those who are concerned in various stages of their planning process and those who actually manage them. Ten functions are selected to examine the degree of their opennes, i.e. parking, observation station, space for standing exhibition, space for special exhibition, facilities for information, restaurants, coffee shops, retail shops, open space, and convention facilities. Main results are as follows. 1) Parking, observation station, space for special exhibition are more 'open' to the public than retail shops and convention facilities. 2) The degree of openness projected at the planning stage is greater than the one actually realized with the exception of parking. 3) Buildings of the lower level of governments are more 'open' to the public than ones of the higher level.
This study focuses on interactions among residents and care workers in two group care unit facilities for the elderly. The method is the behavior tracking of the elderly and workers every five minutes for twelve hours. The results are as follows : (1) About 45% interactions of all are "potential interaction" which means that workers stay in groups or near residents to have a interaction whenever the resident requests. (2) Potential interaction implies that workers who are doing homelike activities share the time and space with residents, too. (3) Varieties of places and full worker's organization make workers have many kinds of interactions with single resident, and have varieties of potential interactions.
The aim of this study is to clarify the sectional composition of Japanese contemporary houses located on the inclined ground in terms of relations between external and internal composition. External composition is formed by the direction of the approach in contrast to the slope and the ground connection of the building volume. Internal composition is formed by the sectional arrangement of rooms. Then 4 types and 8 patterns of composition are found. Comparing the types and patterns, almost 3 characters are found, those are emphasis of direction of the slope, contrast between the building and the slope, and abstraction of the special quality of the slope.
California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) has continued for more than 30 years with disclosure. This study analyzed the reported court decisions, which are related to CEQA. Talking about their points of view for citizens, and fair arugment about understandings and operation of CEQA for public agency and private business, are important meanings of the law cases. Disclosures at the early phase of the project and feedback system through the court decisions accelerate the action to avoid significant environmental impact and to pay careful consideration for residents. Necessity of the study from diversified viewpoints contributes to increase the quality of the projects.
RC construction methods in Taiwan are different from that in Japan in various ways, despite of the fact that it was transferred from Japan. This paper-tried to clarify the adaptation process of RC construction methods both in Japan and Taiwan. After the Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923, RC construction methods in Taiwan were diversified, while in Japan mainly the unitizing construction remained. This thesis explained the phenomenon by reason of the regulations differences in RC construction between Japan and Taiwan.
We studied movement of standing up from the toilet stool for the proper establishment of the grab-bar was done a few physical burdens and it may be done safely. The following results that leg power and body balance of maintenance ability had relation with the easiness to use a grab-bar by the questionnaire. It was found that in the experiment of the movement with a grab-bar that as for 200mm・250mm from the tip of the toilet stool, it stood up, and a position of vertical grab-bar establishment contributed to the reduction of knee joint moment, however 150mm though it stood up and didn't help to the movement. These results got a common with the young age person and the aged.
Foreigners who tried to find their ways at Osaka Station area were randomly selected, unobtrusively tracked until each destination, and interviewed with regard to their reference frames, reasons, and difficulties if any in path choice decisions as possible. According to several factors influencing wayfinding behavior, the features of 36 samples were classified into five types, namely ; "independent," "dependent," "usual," "barrier," and "positive" respectively. In these wayfinding features there is a aspect as the "unfamiliar schema" of different socio-cultural structures. Factors included competence of utilizing information, stay-period in Japan, language ability, experience, generic knowledge of city environment, as well as the extent of lostness. Complex patterns of passageways and less efficient guiding information for unfamiliar foreigners were pointed out as physical reasons for losing ways easily.
The purpose of the present study is to clear the relation between street trees and the buildings with the fluctuation theory and disorder, regularity, and attraction of the street space. We made the experiments, using the visual simulator which enable us to observe scale models from eye level. As a result, we cleared the influence of street trees and the buildings planed by the fluctuation upon disorder, regularity, and attraction. And disorder, regularity, and attraction could be estimated by the change of the street trees and the buildings.
The authors have anxiety about the future of our society involving both academic and practical activities for creations of good architecture and environment. It is suspected that the individuals behaviors, each of which is regarded as rational from an individuals point of view, bring about undesirable consequences for the society system composed of the individuals, and that the system retrains some individuals from trying to make the system better. The authors try to reveal the interactions between the system and the individuals that govern the system behavior by employing agent-based simulation. This paper describes a computational representation of the system and some computation results.
Concerning the external appearance of Chinese and Japanese modern architecture were investigated to Japanese students. Based on the SD method, two stages image tests were performed. And using the layer structure model of image, graphical modeling analysis and fuzzy outranking analysis were carried out. According to those results, "adjective pairs" that can describe the first impression of Chinese and Japanese modern architecture were extracted. And about the difference of processes for the evaluation of appearance, the "structure" was important to Chinese modern architecture and the "space" was important to Japanese modern architecture.
The Bijlmermeer housing project in Amsterdam which was built during the sixties and seventies has been a "problematic estate" soon after the opening of the town because of an increase of vacancy of flats, vandalism, criminality and so on. And now the regeneration project is being taken place from the beginning of nineties. The purpose of this study is to explore causes and background of being failure and stigmatization of the Bijlmermeer from the view point of firstly the Dutch national planning and Amsterdam's city planning, secondly from the planning and design concept, thirdly from the participation in decision-making process of each stage of the project.
This paper aims to seize the local government's point of view for Important Preservation District for Groups of Historic Buildings (I. P. D., for short) through their "Enhancement regulation" and the present situation, and tries to see ideas about the harmonious design order and the various preservation design developments. As a result, we find these three points. First, there is the correlation between character of I. P. D. and the building form regulation's type. Second, "frame" (heights of eaves, pitch of roof), "silhouette" (building line), and "parts" (walling) are influenced by the harmonious design order. Third, the preservation design developments are influenced by "elements".
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the preparation method of the master plan as common information infrastructure of urban husbanduary developed in multisubject, by the report of the example of city master plan of Tsuruoka City, Yamagata Prefecture. In the paper, we showed the method for distinguishing the planning documents which are issued in the process of urban husbanduary with the two distinction, the desicion type and process type. Then we clarified the method for integrating the planning documents in the master plan with the distinction
In this paper, we tried to analyze the characteristic of optimum long-term building repair plan. As a result, the suitable repair plan in each time point can be called 'Maximum-repair' that restores the performance to the first level or 'Non-repair' that does not repair at all . The decision depends on the balance of the repair cost and the expected income increase. The suitable repair plan has strong relation to the building degradation tendency and generally speaking, it has robustness against other factors.
This study aims to clarify the building regulations in agricultural district of Yamashiro province through the Edo period. This paper takes up the building regulations by Kyoto machibugyosho in the 18^<th> century, and compares them with the building regulations by the Tokugawa Shogunate. In the early part of 18^<th> century, the building development and the new housing building are prohibited in agricultural district of Yamashiro province by Kyoto machibugyosho, which are similar to the building regulations by the Tokugawa Shogunate. But, those regulations had changed by the official notice by Kyoto machibugyosho in the 1767, because the peasants movement spread throughout the country, and the economic policy of Tokugawa Shogunate had changed in those days.
Ocha-ya was a lodging used by lord of Mouri-Han and built except in Hagi, where residence of lord was built. Goten was a residence of lord's family and built in Hagi. Through the examination of historical materials, following results are ascertained on Haccho-Goten, former Nan-En-Ocha-ya, of Hagi. (1) In 1768 a lodging was built to be used by retired lord Shigetaka who lived in Mitajiri and it was called Nan-En-Ocha-ya. Its plan was similar to other Ocha-ya. (2) After Shigetaka died in 1789, it was used as a a residence of lord's family and called Haccho-Goten. Nan-En-Ocha-ya was remodeled and its plan changed to be similar to other Goten.
This study aims to clarify the building regulations in agricultural district of Yamashiro province through the Edo period. This paper takes up the application forms for building up to Kyoto Daikansho (regional office of administrative office) in 17〜18^<th> century. This paper makes clear that the existence of several steps in the application based on some documents in south Yamashiro province. These steps are different from those in the application forms for building up to Kyoto machibugyosho in north Yamashiro.
This is a study on the history of the drawing "Higo-kumamotojo-ryakuzu", which was found in the Monjokan of Yamagutiken. The results are as follows : 1. The Hagi-Clan made private inquiries clans in northern Kyushu in 1612. At that time, the drawing was painted by the private inquirer of the Hagi-Clan that made private inquiries The Higo-Clan ; 2. The drawing shows the situation of Kumamoto castle in the late Keicho eras that was not made clear before.
The purpose of this paper tries to clear the history of kitchen in courtyard dwelling from Ming to Qing period. In this paper, adopted historical documents are clay images, paintings, literary works, old houses, site and so on. By set up 2 viewpoints of site plan and interior construction of kitchen. The results are as following. (1) It is strong tendency of that, at the upper class residence, kitchen was disposed backyard or left side yard, at the middle class ordinary dwelling, kitchen was disposed left side, and at the lower class, kitchen was disposed outdoor. (2) Interior composition of kitchen was from by 3 factors of water-jug, counter, oven, moreover Concretely divides 6 factors. There are difference from upper class and middle and lower class.
Our problematic is the ≪non urbanity≫ of the green space in the Renaissance of Paris. The preliminary research affirmed that the garden was socially closed in the Middle Ages. The hypothesis of this article is if the Tuileries garden rests non urban before the intervention in the classic epoch, although it is the first public park in Paris. The analysis on the construction process shows the unrelated characters of every element and the analysis on the letters of Catherine de Medicis shows the intention of the crown to separate it from his surroundings. Thus, the hypothesis is proved.
Botanical gardens appeared, for the first time, in the western garden history in the 16th century. They usually had an additional gallery building where natural objects and craftworks were collected and displayed. This kind of collection is generally evaluated as one, which was aimed at the study of natural science. On the other hand, however, collecting many curious objects was in great fashion in the contemporary secular world, and this type of collection did not aim at any serious study. This paper argues that these two kinds of collections had many similarities by analyzing the method of display and character of Pisa Gallery as a casestudy.
In 1716, Yoshimune Tokugawa, who had been the lord of Kishu-han, became Shogun, and moved to the Edo castle. More than two hundred retainers of Kishu-han also immigrated to Edo to be retainers of the Tokugawa shogunate. Yoshimune assigned residences near the Edo castle especially to retainers close to him, while retainers close to his predecessor were obliged to move to outskirts of Edo. However, as seen in the example of Hakuseki Arai, some retainers resisted to these enforced immigrations.