Disaster-prevention open-air loudspeaker systems are set up at intervals of two or three hundred meters in almost all cities and wards of Japan. For the purpose of obtaining optimum articulation and intelligibility scores for all disaster-prevention open-air loudspeaker systems, two survey questionnaires on speech hearing conditions in two districts of Japan were carried out. The characteristics of the deca-syllabic articulation of the open-air loudspeaker systems in the two districts are predicted using a computer-aided simulation technique based on the proposed prediction method. The results of the questionnaire and prediction results are analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Multiple correlation coefficients obtained are 0.607 for a ward and 0.848 for a city.
Evaluating a degree of diffuseness of a plate vibration in audio-frequencies is useful for study on the structure-borne sound. In the present paper constituting method of the diffuse index using cross-correlation coefficients at two points n the plate, which index is zero under condition of modal vibrations and is unit under completely random vibration fields is studied, and is confirmed to be proper by results of a numerical analysis on tbe plate vibration. In addition, a calculation method of the diffuse index based on a number of natural frequencies of a rectangular plate is presented.
To formulate a qualitative method of lighting design for visual objects colored in reversed contrast, we experimented and traced the equal visual acuity curve of reversed contrast visual targets. The results are as follows: (1) The equal visual acuity curve of reversed contrast closely resembles the standard curve of standard contrast; they are verily the same, especially for 0.2 visual acuity. (2) The reversed contrast target smaller than the 0.2 visual acuity target, is found having higher visibility, nevertheless the larger one is found having lower visibility than standard contrast.
A simplified numerical calculation procedure of water evaporation from a soil was proposed combined with simultaneous solution of heat transfer equation at its surface for a quantitative prediction of passive cooling effect of soil covered constructions with a certain accuracy. If the evaporation ratio or saturation ratio of the soil was defined as a function of water content of the soil in advance, the proposed method was able to describe the wet condition of the covering soil and to reduce calculation load exceedingly compared with the conventional procedure based on the simultaneous hygrothermal transfer equation. The functions of the evaporation ratio and saturation ratio were identified respectively determined by a least square method using Rechards Equation as its exact solution. Discrepancies in phenomenon can be found between the exact solution and the simplified one which assumes a constant evaporation ratio. However, good agreements of calculation results were confirmed between the proposed method and the exact solution.
To clarify effects of localized airflow on thermal comfort, physiological and psychological responses of the total of 960 female subjects to localized airflow was studied in a climate chamber. Experiments were conducted in summer under 60 kinds of the following conditions : four air temperatures (25℃, 27.5℃, 30℃ and 32.5℃), six types of localized airflow (a uniform airflow, four oscillating airflow and a randomly fluctuating airflow reproducing a natural wind) with average velocity of 1.0m/s and three airflow temperatures (equal to, 5℃ and 10℃ lower than room air temperature). The comfortable zone of combined air temperature and airflow temperature became narrow and shifted to high room temperature and high airflow temperature according to the increase of maximum airflow velocity.
Results given from wind tunnel experiments on the flow and temperature fields around urban street canyons are presented. 3D Laser Doppler Velocimeter(LDV) and cold wire were used for measuring the instantaneous flow and temperature fields. Profiles of mean wind speed, mean temperature, variances and also momentum flux and heat flux were strongly dependent on stabiHty conditions. A steady cavity eddy was formed just before the front surface of building blocks in a model street canyon. The intensity of the cavity eddy was also affected by stability conditions strongly.
The difference in numerical error and prediction accuracy between two grid-systems, i.e., staggered grid and colocated grid, is discussed. Firstly, it is clarified theoretically that results of LES with colocated grid do not satisfy the conservation of kinetic energy even though the flux form is employed for the discretization of the convection terms of momentum equations. Next, two cases of Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of turbulent flow in a channel with relatively large Reynolds number are carried out using both staggered and colocated grids. The differences between the results of staggered grid and colocated grid are examined precisely, thereby the shortcoming of colocated grid is clarified.
A turbulent vortex-shedding flow past a two-dimensional(2D) square cylinder at Re=2.2×10^4 is analyzed by Large Eddy Simulation(LES) using two types of dynamic Subgrid-scale(SGS) models, i.e., the Smagorinsky type and mixed type. Results given from the two dynamic SGS models are compared with those from the standard Smagorinsky model and the experiments conducted by Lyn et al. Two types of dynamic SGS model improve the accuracy of the predictions remarkably. In particular, the mixed type provides more accurate results than those given by the Smagorinsky type dynamic model.
We validated the heat flux models for the surfac e energy budget, which are usually used in the architectural engineering field, by comparing with the measured heat environment data in the very near ground with in 5m. For solar radiation, we compared three models with measured data. The Katayama's model was the most accurate and its accuracy was about 10%. For radiation flux, we compared three models with measured data. The Deardorff's model was more suitable for this energy budget calculation. For sensible heat flux, we examined three heat flux models. The heat flux given by KEYPS formul a was the most accurate. The calculated surface temperature by using this coefficient and solving surface energy budget agreed with measured data within 4 K.
This paper is intended as an investigation of individual differences of evaluation to living environment. In this study, individual differences of evaluation were examined from the difference of resident and dwelling attributes. By multivariate analysis, about 1000 living situations of dwelling units in multiple dwelling houses were able to be classified into four groups by the difference of attributes. It was clarified that in four groups the evaluation of living environment was different. It was confirmed that the method of making living situations a pattern by resident and dwelling attributes was effective to explain the individual differences of evaluation.
The purpose of this study is to discuss, from the viewpoint of environmental psychology, the relationships between the residents' life style, consciousnesses and their understanding of the environment in which they live. By assessing the findings of this study and the existing spaces in the community, it will be possible to develop a methodical architectural plan for the community. In this study, the areas under consideration are the sea, the port, the settlement (an urbanized area), the farmland and the forest. They are viewed as all having continuous connections, not as being independently isolated units. This makes it possible to evaluate their interactive relationships, the furthermore, survey was conducted to examine the ways in which local residents were aware of their "town," and to explore their conceptual ties withthe seaand the mountains. The results were analyzed. The areas in which they take action, in which they appreciate the environment and the extent to which they think of areas as their living sphere, were classified into several settlement patterns. This study further discusses the existing areas from the viewpoint of local residents' understanding and involvement.
Effects of urbanization on heat island over Tokyo Metropolitan Area were analyzed by a CFD technique with a three-dimensional turbulence model. Two cases of numerical prediction were carried out to examine the effects of land-use change and anthropogenic heat release change between the value at 1930s and that at present. The size and intensity of heat island created over urban-areas has been investigated with its effect on wind field. Particle diffusion analysis was also conducted to estimate the transportation of pollutants released from the bay area.
The radiant energy field in an office environment varies widely, in time and space, depending on numerous internal and external factors. The conventional thermal load calculation alone is inadequate for the basis of thermal comfort design of office environment. The present paper deals with a new approach for evaluating the thermal comfort in an office environment taking into account the radiation field as well as energy efficiency. The method utilizes a PMV model based on Fanger's comfort equation. combined with a simulation-aided software, SAPLO. The results of analyses indicate that the present approach is effective in assessing the relationship between the thermal comfort and the energy consumption.
Mainly by the four times questionnaires for the tenants of a home for the aged, against whom all the expenses are charged, in 15.5 years from when it was opend, The major findings on a reshuffle of the 293 tenants are as follows: 1) The majority of the 293 tenants moved into it within 6 months from when it was opend, and their average age is 69.6. But the later the tenants moved into it, the higher their average age was. 2)The 89 tenants moved out in 15.5 years from when it was opend, by death or moving.
The purpose of this paper is to study on the charaster of stage sapce and the way for arranging the size of flying system by investigating the 45 public multi-purpose hall in Aichi prefecture. The conclusion shows: (1) In public multi-purpose hall, the width of prosenium is wide, the depth of stage is narrow and the space of stage is not enough to turn large-scaled setting. (2) The way for arranging flying system of public multi-purpose hall was able to conjecture. (3) Arranging the concert shell is one of cause that flybar is only 1〜3 between electricbar.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the living characteristics of the aged who live in urban area and their characteristic of utilization of leisure facilities. This is based on the results of questionnaire given to the aged living in high-rise housing and in the surrounding residential areas within Tokyo metropolitan area and Nagano City. First, we can classify the aged by their leisure characteristics. The aged are classified into five types. And then, we find the living characteristics and utilization of leisure facilities for each type. Finally, we were able to clarify differences of utilization between types of leisure characteristics.
This paper shows the relationship between Murano's architectural concept and Arishima's literary works. There are the structures of conflict and unity in Arishima's works. The structure seems to affect Murano's concept of architecture and the concrete way of design.
The combination of environment preparation prior to implementation is arranged and discussed by broadly determining the range of environment preparation, from introduction of technicalaids to problems with facility planning, and by typologically considering environment preparation for the severely mentally and physically handicapped. The purpose of determining these indices is to provide more effective environment preparation for these persons. Environment preparation is divided typologically into the following three categories: 1) environment preparation for the purpose of ameliorating severe disability and thereby reducing the care load, 2) environment preparation for the purpose of ameliorating severe disability and thereby promoting independence, and 3) relatively simple environment preparation for the purpose of promoting independence.
Based on field research in Koura-chou, Shiga Prefecture, this paper demonstrates that the visual environment of rural areas is dependent on the spatial structure of the boundary between public and private which forms road space, and also discusses how this finding can be put to use in community development The main points can be summarized as follows 1) Roads are divided into three typs, namely intra-community roads, inter-community roads ad inter-city roads, their respective attributes also being outlined. 2) Intra-community roads are rich spaces which reflect the history, culture and ecological stock of the locale. Inter-community roads are affected by as yet untouched farm land consolidation. Inter-city roads show no evidence of local attributes. 3) Koura-chou offers a concrete example of community development which is both sensitive to these findings as well as to local history and culture. 4) By conducting a series of community development workshops, Koura-chou is laying the foundations for the next generation to continue this pattern of community development
Researches on spatial images in words are synthesized to understand their present condition and analysis methods. Seventy papers are categorized into the three fields; 1) history of architecture 2) architectural space 3) urban and rural space. Then, in each of the fields, their purposes and texts and the methods used for their analyses are examined. And the difference of the style of texts are understood to think about the difference of the methods and their developing processes. In conclusion, methods of researches on spatial image in words are influenced by the style of texts. Researches have abilities to advance in comparative studies and interdisciplinary fields.
This paper analyze the status quo of parks in Kobe-City after the earthquake disaster of Hansin-Awaji area on 17th January 1995. Through the analysis, this paper proposes the way how to use parks for emergency restoration measures after earthquake disaster.
This paper presents the first step of an overall approach to the integration of design and construction in building construction projects. Its approach relies on the information technology to support members of design and construction teams throughout the project's life cycle. To manage the information correctly in execution of jobs, the authors covered all the items to be considered in view of project management. Character of the supporting tools is discussed around integrated object oriented model. As the primary tool, process model is described with its prototype using Object Pascal.
Milestone is often used in repetitive construction work. This paper describes adaptation of milestone to scheduling technique. Milestone can be applied in two ways. In the first way, manpower coordination is checked and changed according to the probability of achievement at the next milestone, while the one at the final milestone is considered in the second way. Scheduling application on a sample project is shown to evaluate the probability of achievement and working ratio. It can be concluded that milestone is effective in schedule management, whose two methods are developed in this paper.
"Toku-Yu-Chin" project was started in 1993. This project was expected to promote rental house with good quality for urban middle income families through subsidizing both building cost and rent. Under this project Local Housing Corporation can lease rental apartment house constructed by private land owners. In this case contract rent between the land owner and L. H. C should be decided to balance market rent in the neighborhood. This paper conducted 'approximate rent' of private rental housing market by multiple correlating analysis at first phase. On the next phase cost data was collected and compared the cost rent to contract rent. Finally these contract rent was compared to approximated market rent. In conclusion contract rent is enough lower than cost rent in which includes normal land lease cost, and also contract rent is almost the same as market rent. This findings shows that this project is effective to promote wider rental units in urban area without excessive raising market rent.
The lord of Mouri-Han sometimes made the tour of inspection in Edo era. Through the examination of historical materials on these tours, the following results are ascertained. (1) The castles of chief vassal were used as a lodging by the lord. (2) The castle of chief vassal was composed of public rooms and private rooms ordinarily. But when it was used as a lodging, public rooms were used as the dwelling of the lord and followers. (3) Some castles had an independent private room for the lord and the other had not.
This is a study on the original plan and the panel paintings of the Shircsyoin of Ninomaru Palace of Nijo Castle. The results are as follows. 1. The Keicho plan of the Ohiroma can be reconstructed. The alcove and the shelves were origin ally on the north of the jodannoma and tukesyoin. was on northwest of that room. 2. The length of papers of wall paintings can be classified into three groups of the Shirosyoin, Kurosyoin, and the others.
The Nanzenji Ohojo was moved to Nanzenjiin 1611 from the taimenjo of Shinjotomon' in (the mother of Emperor Goyozei). Before that, the building had been used as the Palace of Prince Ryojin. Originally it had been constructed in 1585 as the sinden of Retired Emperor Ogimachiin. According to physical evidence remaining on the present building, we reconstructed the original plans of the taimenjo and shin den. We traced the original location of the sliding door paintings like the Immortals (senninnzu), the painter of which is very likely Kano Eitoku. The representations of Chinese women in the Narutakinoma were painted for Shiniotomon' in.
Among the several buildings of Sennyu-ji Temple in Kyoto, Gozasyo, Kohojo, Osetuma and Shikidai are presumed to have been displaced from other locations. There is little information about the origin of these buildings except some legendary stories. In this research, based on an investigation of the traces of the members and on measuring the size of wall paintings on paper, it is clarified that the above mentioned buildings were displaced from Osatogoten and Dairitainoya of the Kansei and Ansei eras.
This research is the first trial whose purpose is to expose the evolution of the conservation concepts of the modern architectures before WWII in Japan. The method is : 1. Find out the conservation movements. 2. Group the movements according to the problem type. 3. Arrange the groups chronologically and consider the evolution. Among those examples this paper deals with that of Rokumeikan, in which we can observe the emergence of this concept aroused by the sentiment of the owners, and that of Tatsunokutikakouba, in which we can observe a conservation insistence by an architect for the first time that based on the technological history.
As the result of study on characteristics in architecture of schools at the middle of Meiji Era, a knowledge was acquired as follows. 1) Since 1893. a large number of schools were built. The reason for it was considered the revival of school district system. 2) Some kinds of shapes of ground plan are based on model plans designed by the municipality. 3) Two styles of designs are mentioned as followed. One is Nagayamon-style, and the other is Jpanese-style, which was put into two types, Gottengakko style and the style adopted partially at entrance. 4) Thanks to the school district system, they were free to adopt the style of palace, samurai-residence, and feudal schools. 5) The design of Gottengakko was concerned with architects belonging to Osaka Prefecture.
In the stonemasons' craft in the fifteenth and sixteenth century German language region, there was a educa-tional system, in which journeymen learned the higher skills and knowledge of craft from their masters. These journeymen were called "Kunstdiener" in this paper I discussed the form of employment of "Kunstdiener", based on the materials of Upper Rhine region, and indicated that "Kunstdiener" were the journeymen living in their masters' households and employed by the year. There is a differenee of employment between the journeymen as "Kunstdiener" and other journeymen as wage labours living in their own households.
A purpose of this paper is a composition of conceptual method which founds the basis of living function analysis based on human relativities structure. Analysis method of living function based on the functionalism concept considers the form of human actions as to be equal in the form of animal behaviors. In consequence of it, it is not a enough but necessary condition for living function analysis. According to function, space, action and perception which are basic method concepts, they have in common with a proper human relativities structure and they are combined inside each other. Its logical phenomenon shows the basis of method concept of living function analysis by human relativities structure.
To develop the method of measuring sound insulation of building floors against heavy and soft impacts, a working group was set up in the Architectural Institute of Japan (AIJ). As the first experimental study, various kinds of impact sources such as a bang-machine, rubber balls, automobile tires were examined in field tests. Based on the results, nine rubber balls of different impact characteristics were made on trial base, and field measurements were performed by using them in several buildings of different construction. From the experimental results, one rubber ball impact source of 10ms impact time was chosen. To examine the manufacturing technology of the rubber ball, thirty one balls were made in three different production lot in different seasons. As a result, a fairly good reproducibility in manufacturing has been found. Using these standard rubber balls, inter-laboratory tests were carried out among forty acoustic laboratories in Japan. This paper describes the outline of these works.