The purpose of this research is performing the survey of an indoor thermal environment, Shelter performance, lifestyle, the amount of energy consumption in Detached Houses of Niigata Prefecture.This paper reports the result of a questionnaire and a survey as part 1. The outline of the results are as follows. 1.The living rooms temperature in summer season are in the range of 24-31 degrees in almost all Detached Houses. And the temperature of living room is higher than the outdoor temperature about 1-3 degrees.It is not concerned with an outer temperature but, as for living room temperature, many detached houses are in the range of 16-24 degrees in winter. 2.Coefficient of heat loss of detached houses which fulfills the standard of new energy saving of Niigata prefecture is about 40% in the whole. 3.The vertical temperature difference of living room in winter season is small in the detached houses which have high of airtightness performance and shelter performance, and is small in the Detached Houses which is installed floor heater.
A numerical model that deals with 3-dimenational radiative thermal exchanges within an arbitary block area in typical urban situation including surrounding buildings and roads, was established in order to identify the influence of reflection from surroundings on a building's Solar Heat Gain. A systematic numerical experiment that stands on the proposed model did lead several practical results. As one of the most admirable results, a set of the Tables for Factorial Effects by the Theory of Design of Experiment was obtained, in which parameters relating to urban and architectural designs were picked up plausibly and rationally. These deemed to be appropriate to draw following conclusions, - Calmative solar radiation into a window during a day decreases, if the building's W/H becomes small, or if you concem on the lower stories of the building. And due to the multi-iterative reflection within the building canopy, the large reflectance of walls or roads means the increase of Solar Heat Gain immediately. - When you concem on only the peak Solar Heat Gain of south oriented walls during summer, the influence coming from surroundings can be negligible. However, when you look at the peak Solar Heat Gain of east walls before noon or west walls aftemoon during summer, it becomes significant. The peak can be cut down 20 to 70% of which reduction relies on the height of a room considered or W/H of the building.
The investigation of indoor chemistry concentration and questionnaire survey of a consciousness of occupants are carried out. The purpose of the investigation is to clarify the relation between a life style, an air-tightness and indoor air quality. (1)About 60 percents of the residence at this time know a "sick house" and "chemical sensitivity." (2)When an air-tightness improves, indoor formaldehyde concentration becomes high. (3)When the age of the house is old, indoor formaldehyde concentration becomes low. (4)A resident's life style also has big influence on indoor air pollution.
The efficiency of KOH-added activated carbon in the removal of sulfur dioxide (SO_2) was examined by comparison with untreated activated carbon. KOH-added activated carbon was originally used to reduce atmospheric acid gases, but it was also found that its adsorption amount was less than that of untreated carbon in the examined concentration range. Furthermore, a prediction method for breakthrough curves using numerical simulations was studied. The simulated curves agreed well with the experimental results in both of the adsorbents. The predicted life of KOH-added activated carbon is longer than or equal to untreated activated carbon in conditions of atmospheric concentration.
To reduce the concentration after occupancy, the mitigation techniques by ventilation or air cleaning are effective. This paper reports the concentration reduction effects of the measures such as continuous mechanical ventilation, the passive product for removing gaseous HCHO and air cleaners for pollutants from the full-scale tests in the newly constructed multi-family residential building. The results are following; 1. The mechanical ventilation was most effective. 2. The sheet-form passive products were effective in the storage, besides the particulate products scarcely affect. 3. The operation of an air cleaner had a little influence on HCHO concentration in the room.
Indoor air pollution problems in dwellings can stem from a widely and variety of sources, such as building materials, furniture, paints, combustion heaters and etc. In recent years, there has been an increased interest in devices that are generically called air cleaners.Recent concern has mounted to supply purified air for occupants. Several studies on removal of SPM by air cleaners have been conducted, however, in these reports, we can not find useful information which is related to quantitative removal performance of gaseous phase contaminants. So, this study was carried out to determine the removal effectiveness of the appliance on formaldehyde by an environmental chamber, and the evaluation used with the index of equivalent clean air rates(ECAR). From our results, it turned out that removal rates of formaldehyde were 8.10〜19.9 m^3/h by the ECAR on domestic air cleaners with activated carbons or chemical sorbents filters. The ECAR is equaled to ventilation rates of rooms.
The purpose of this research is to apply the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage system (ATES) to cities in Japan, and to achieve energy conservation. In this paper, optimal pump operation for the proposed ATES system was demonstrated using Genetic Algorithms (GA). Energy conservation was examined for the model building : a large-scale Tokyo office. Compared with an air-heat source heat pump system, the proposed system saves energy by 29.9% and recovers initial costs in 7.0 years, which makes it economical.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the changes of water usage and consciousness of water-saving in Fukuoka-city by comparing the past investigation results in 1989 with those in 1999 passed 20 years from the big water shortage, and to collect the basic data for the planning of effective water usage in houses. In this paper, we clarified the factors of distinction between the results of investigation in 1989 and those in 1999 for detached houses and apartment houses respectively. And we analyzed quantitatively the changes of the factors affecting the volume of water consumption and so on.
The purpose of this study is to establish a method for the evaluation of urban thermal environments with regard to land use and land cover. The method is verified by means of a case study of Metro Manila in the tropical region of the Philippines. We discuss the present urban thermal environment and predictions for future trends in the region. We used urban blocks as units in the evaluation process and explanatory variables for the classification of urban blocks were selected. Cluster analysis was performed by monitoring the difference between the maximum and minimum values of each explanatory variable. The results show that urban blocks were classified as belonging to several groups. Classification results were verified using the Heat Island Potential system, which is an evaluation index for urban thermal environments.
The CFC utilized as a refrigerant of air conditioner causes the ozone layer depletion. Today, the ozone depletion in the stratosphere is recognized as a major enviromnental problem, because which results in a significant increase in solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation that reaches the surface of the Earth. Increase of the UV radiation will have an influence on the human health. The purpose of this study is to present analyzed results of the permissible exposure duration for exposure to the solar UV radiation at Sapporo, Kanazawa, Tsukuba, Kagoshima and Naha, and to discuss the regional characteristics from the viewpoint of the UV radiation exposure. Through analysis of the permissible exposure duration, the followings were shown : (1) The level of the permissible exposure duration in every month at 5 observation points. (2) The relation between the permissible exposure duration and the global solar radiation. (3) The permissible exposure duration according to the class of simplified weather classification based on the cloud amount in each region and in each month.
The indoor thermal environment and the residents' lifestyle in 8 thermally insulated prefabricated houses in the Kansai area were investigated. This report discusses the heating, room temperature, and usage of living space in these houses, comparing it with houses without insulation. The results are summarized as follows : 1) The residents of the prefabricated houses use kotatsus (tables with small heaters to warm the legs under the table and a skirt around the table to hold the heat in) and electric carpets because of the low temperature just above the floor level and additional heating apparatus because of the morning coldness. The room temperatures, however, are higher than in the houses without insulation. 2) In the houses without insulation, lack of heat retention causes the low temperature just above the floor level. In the prefabricated houses, it is caused by insufficient heater capacity and intermittent heating. 3) When the residents want to relax in the living room, they can't choose the seating style except sitting on the floor directly to use kotatsus or electric carpets because of the low temperature.
This study examined the factors which had an influence on the indoor comfort of office workers, by the statistical analyses of the synthetic investigation results at five offices. As a result, the following was obtained. (1) The analysis by quantification method II showed that, thermal sensations and smell sensations were influenctial factors on the discrimination of uncomfortableness and neutrality, light sensations and so on were factors on the discrimination of comfortableness and neutrality. (2) The multiple regression analysis showed that the percentages of office workers who answered comfortable (comfortable and slightly comfortable) or uncomfortable (uncomfortable and slightly uncomfortable) could be explained by the measured physical data.
"A Prediction Method of Thermal Radiant Environment" is expected to serve the computer aided design tool in outdoor space as supportive means. Compared with the already available prediction methods, the method herein described places greater emphasis on its ability to makes it possible to evaluate thermal radiant environments that is given to the timely prediction in design process as well as to various other factor including external materials, the buildings shape and layout, greeneries, pergola, veranda, etc. This method is developed based on existing sensible heat balance simulation for all the exterior surface. And it is also combined with 3D-CAD system that makes it easily to input the complicated exterior shape and also make it possible to evaluate the 3-D distribution of surface temperature at any view points. The proposed method was used on trial for thermal problem studies of an existing small residential area in Tokyo that is composed of five houses, many big crown trees.
In order to grasp the movement of styrene, which is thought to be an endocrine disruptor, its emission rate was measured at every stage of the process in which an apartment house is constructed, and the emission rate from 'tatami' mats using polystyrene boards in a large chamber was also measured. As a result, the followings are made clear. 1. The emission rate of styrene becomes high after the installation of the wall panels and after the completion of the building. The emission rate at the completion reaches55 (mg/h) and its concentration is 1.4 (mg/m3) when the air change rate is 0.5(1/h). 2. The emission rate of styrene increases with dynamic loads by walking. The increase continues for six days at the shortest. From the above-mentioned results, the risk of indoor air pollution by styrene from 'tatami' mats using polystyrene boards is suggested.
The monthly electricity and water consumption data are obtained at six existing leased buildings that use only electricity as energy source. Several factors relating to the electricity consumption are picked up. Based on the data, the influence of these factors to the electricity consumption are analyzed using multiple regression analysis. The explanatory variables are monthly water consumption as substitution of numbers of personnel in the building and hours of building tenants, tendency of annual electricity consumption per anuual water consumption as substitution of office automation introduction degree, annual electricity consumption pattern of each building that expresses seasonal difference of air-conditioning load, thermal characteristics of the building and characteristics of the building equipment energy efficiency, and outdoor air temperature.
The aim of the research is on the way of neighboring relations and creating a comfortable living environment for the elderly. Generally the elderly neighboring relations could be very different from the young person with the sociable contents, number, distance. How a house and its common area outside are designed, could give an idea of how neighboring relations could be changed. It is summed up to three necessities, the soft plan of the outside space, the rest facilities at the entrance, and the open door. The elderly neighboring relations are greatly influenced by a house plan and space design.
This study aims at accounting for validity of the theory of space by O.F.Bollnow for dwelling environmental education, and trial study on making clear of the characteristic of "Raum, den man hat" Bollnow said by considerations about the representation of Primary Scenes. According to the theory of space by Bollnow, it is principal understanding of space on the true meaning to dwell that man get "Geborgenheit" in "Raum, den man hat". As a result, Primary Scenes are valid for realizing "Raum, den man hat" through having unity with man, and "Geborgenheit".
The aim of this study is to provide some suggestions in the architectural planning and design of single rooms in nursing homes for the elderly. The results of the analysis are as follows; 1)The settings of single rooms are quite different between each other. 2)There are some considerations about bed arrangement. The planning that are able to accept to the demand of the owner is useful. 3)The daily articles in the single rooms can be classified into two groups. One is [movable articles], and the other is [unmovable articles]. The variation and the number of articles in each single rooms is different. 4) The settings of single rooms are related to one's daily living activity, family's visit, and many other factors. The plannings that are free for setting the articles according to circumstsnces are useful, and are in demand.
In many public elementary schools, planning and improvement of outdoor spaces such as athletic field, pond, flower garden and trees have nearly been considered, comparing with those of inside schoolhouse. Since environmental spaces including natural materials such as soil, water and plants are valuable not only for children but also for residents, the ideal way to plan natural spaces is now reconsidered quantitatively and qualitatively. Basing upon the investigation of 62 public elementary schools where are different in their environment inside and out of school campus, this paper compared and analyzed the ways for utilization of natural spaces in their curriculum or in free time of schoolchildren and deduced the factors for planning of natural spaces in schools.
Numerous NOH-stages(NOHBUTAI) remain in Sado and Wakasa districts. They were built on the premises of the shrine, which were served for divine rites. This paper deals with the NOH-stages the two districts which belong to the rural stage(NOUSONBUTAI) from the view point of the planning and design. Both difference and similarity of the stages are made clear in terms of the plan within the districts. The two districts share certain similarities in that most of the stages have temporary constructions, and back stages(ATOZA) are also used as main stages(HONBUTAI) in order to make the stage square.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the motivation and the fundamental condition "theater going". The method of this study is takings interviews with their on motivations, the experiences in their lives and the activity on the day of going theater. Time geography is adopted for the analysis. The findings are as follows 1) Causes of theater going are greatly influenced by regional living environment and characteristics of audiences. Results are dependent on the characteristics of audiences. 2) Theater going is motivated by changing of living environment. that is sometimes decreeing theater going, especially in women when they marry or have children. 3) It is found that time geography is effective to understand the correlation between living environment and the site of facilities for performing arts.
This paper presents a multivariate extension of simultaneously specified spatial autoregressive process. The objective of the model is to examine spatial interrelations among geographically distributed variables. We discuss procedures to obtain a maximum likelihood estimate and give test statistic of the model. In an application of the model, we analyze healthcare expenditure on hospitalization and outpatient care by municipalities in the Tohoku, Kanto, and Ko-Shin-Etsu regions of Japan in 1998. We show that there is a positive spatial autocorrelation among each category and that outpatient care expenditure has a positive spatial influence on hospitalization care expenditure, but not vice versa.
The aim of this study is to clarify the spatial composition of exterior void space in contemporary architecture forming a street wall. That composition is formed by relationship between arrangement of exterior void space and connection with spaces without site and inside of building. Arrangement is integration of void's position on outside volumes and division of outside volumes. Connection has two ways that accessibility or openness to the eye. Comparing the patterns of composition, they are classified into three groups; passage, end, extension of inside space. An alternative composition is found according to opposite of these groups.
In lbaraki prefecture, there have been many barns which had used for curing Tobacco, between the Meiji and the Showa. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the formation process of a barn and the relationship between the structure and its function of curing Tobacco. As a result of survey, following two facts were cleared; 1) The process of formation is concerned in agricultural modernization. 2) The structure affects diversion.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the level of walking difficulty through crowd flow. Four subjects crossed a crowd flow in a terminal station at four separate penetration angles each; 45 degrees, 90 degrees, 135 degrees. The crossing pedestrian's difficulty was analyzed from both the human movement and psychological aspects. The result of the analysis is as follows : 1) Mental evaluation of crossing difficulty has a close relation to the crowd density. The perception of crossing difficulty showed the greatest change between 0.25 person/m^2 and 1.0 person/m^2. 2) Mental evaluation of a 45 degree crossing angle was more favorable than one of 135 degrees. 3) The results of physical analysis were the same as mental evaluation. 4) The crossing subject tended to cross behind crowd pedestrians. In the case of high density, the avoidance behavior becomes complex, using changes of speed and locus.
This paper aims to acquire the basic data for the design technique of the collective housing that can lighten residents' burden in leading a more environmentally-conscious life. The results are as follows. 1) It is important to make cross-ventilation and take in day lighting as much as possible. 2) It is necessary to deepen residents' understanding of the devices and measures for preservation of the environment. 3) It is necessary to prepare conditions for residents to grow flowering plants. 4) It is desirable to make residents unconsciously use stairs instead of elevators.
In the present study, the structure of street spaces is clarified by the Indication and the Psychological analysis method. (1) We made experiments on the Indication method at 14 street spaces. As a result, it is shown that high and low elements of indication rate exert mental influence in opposite direction. (2) The street spaces are classified into 4 types according to psychological quantities by the Cluster analysis. (3) By the same way, they are classified into 4 types according to indication quantities. (4) And then they are classified into 16 categories according to indication variables and psychological variables. (5) It is clarified that relation of psychological quantities and indication quantities by the correlation analysis. In conclusion, this study shows that the characteristics of street spaces are composed of "Ground" - elements as well as "Figure" - elements in view of "Gestalt" psychology.
Since Jinmen area has been keeping the Chinese traditional villages and dwelling houses as their original conditions, this paper discusses the relationships among the architectural form of house, "Li-Tai", i.e., social norms/ethics, and also "Xin-Tai", i.e., mental/spiritual beliefs in Chinese farmers' society. The field survey and literature studies revealed that : a) The main hall, the central place of ancestor worship and daily life, has priority over the other rooms around it, i.e., bedrooms. Its form and size are basically decided by the layout of ancestor's memorial tablet and wedding ceremony that prays for descendant prosperousness. b) The width and depth of every house are nearly homogeneous in the neighborhood district and many villages since the farmers do prefer the communal collaboration to the differentiation among them.
In this paper, we considered about the border space of the site in the farming scattered settlement on tableland. First we analyzed the direction of the site front face space. Next we classified the site front face space from two viewpoints. One is the condition of the front in the site, the other is the position between fence and wall of the house. The main contents of this paper are as follows. 1) The composition of the site front face space is classified into the typology of two or three types in the settlement. 2) We got the concrete composition pattern, by adding the detailed elements to the typology. 3) It is possible to grasp characteristics of the landscape as a whole settlement from the distribution of the typology.
The purpose of this study is making clear that the establishment and use about School Bio-top. The establishment is formed of the participating subject, and the place, and the facilities condition. And I grasp the use from a viewpoint of the environmental education, and the regional residents, and the regional ecosystem. The effect on envilonmental education is influenced by the participation of schoolchildren and the type of facilities. The use of regional residents is influenced by the participation of regional residents and position of street and gate. The regional ecosystem is influenced by the adjoining nature and the scale.Finally I propose the guideline about establishment of Dragonfly Pool at school.
This study summarizes the results of a psychological experiment conducted in order to assess continuous recognition of street layout based on the dominant hemisphere of the brain. The experiment was conducted in two areas : one with a grid-shaped street pattern and another with an irregular pattern of winding streets. Subjects were asked to memorize route by studying a computer-animated simulation and walk the route by themselves. Originally the experiment included 18 right-dominant and 21 left-dominant. Analyzing questionnaire and errors in the cognitive maps, the right-dominant used more spatial expression than the left-dominant. However, there was no difference between both types in the number of completion of walking the route and drawing the cognitive maps.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of the green distribution area and to divide them by a classification method. Firstly, we surveyed the land use condition, and obtained the information about the green decreasing area. Secondly, we made clear the characteristics of the green space with environmental factors. Finally, we classified the green space by the Hayashi's Quantification Theory III and the Cluster Analysis. As a result of these analyses, these classifications agree with the real distribution of the green. And, we could understand that this analysis is an effective method to classify the green distribution.
The purpose of this paper is to study the problems of conserving historic environment and improving living environment of Yangdong Village in Kyoungju through the questionnaire survey of the head of households and administrators who concern the conservation planning. The results obtained are as follows : many inhabitants aren't satisfied with the storage space, the privacy of the room, and the water sections of the house, and the convenience of facilities such as shop, hospital and road; inhabitants under 60 years old tend to have more problems of living environment than the older; many inhabitants agree to the conservation of historic environment and desire that the project are carried out as planned under the consensus between residents and administration.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the space conditions and the landscape characteristics of Seoul City that is very dense. For this, a lot of landscape pictures were gained by the field survey. We attempted to classify the landscape by using the multivariable analysis to a data-base which is assembled from the pictures. As a result, we recognized 5 classifications of landscape, which are "Street landscape in a low-rise region", "Street landscape in the commerce and business zone", "View landscape in low-rise residential zone", "View landscape of open space" and "High-density residential landscape". Also, we observed to clarify the evaluation of landscape by general inhabitants' consciousness in dense town space using 5 classifications of landscape and survey. A sampling survey using a questionnaire was carried out at seven areas. The following results were obtained that Inhabitants are influenced pleasantness of landscape by the open space in the city.
In this paper, we focus the traditional timber buildings in Kyoto inner city area, and analyze the change and the present condition of their maintenance and renovation system based on the connection with carpenters and craftsmen because of the proper renovation. According to statics and the results of builders' seats researches, we mention the transition of carpenters and craftsmen in Kyoto and its central area, and the change of the building maintenance and renovation by residents and businessmen, and the relationship between building user and professional based on the investigation results. Finally we make clear that the maintenance and renovation system decline as the result of the interruption between residents and carpenters, which is owned to the possession of rental houses, the reduction of owner's economic power, and decreasing, aging and movement from inner city of carpenters and craftsmen.
In this study, the outer gates of the Royal palace and the area called "Tsuiji-no-uchi" inside the gates on the pre-modern era are considered. As the six gates had been built before 1643 and the other three had been added before 1708,the area had been expanded down south. The area was recognised as the sacred place. Accordingly, the Bakufu bore the cost of the fences and the gates in order to landscape it. It was possible that before 1643 the area around the palace had been identified as the "Jinchu" which had been conceptualised since the medieval period.
This paper discussed on the actual situation of succession for a Daikushiki of the Jinguko. In the late-12th to the early 14th century, Thoko and Shoko are monopolized by the carpentrrs of the Arakida, Isobe, and the Watarai family name holding an additional post of a Shinto priest, and also in the early 14th to the early 15th century, The issuance of the supplementary assignment paper started to be carried out and it became necessary consequently to obtain the recommendation by a Shinto priest in order to make Jinguko do a supplementary assignment
The purpose of this study is to consider the influence of traditional industry on a spatial transformation in a modern city. The case of this study is Noda Shoyu Company Limited, which is the predecessor of Kikkoman Corporation. Industrial foundation was essential for the sake of traditional industry's development. At first, however, owners of traditional industry only had their own plants. Afterwards, large-scale infrastructure and modern industrial equipment were introduced by the Noda-shoyu guild. Thereafter as the second stage of their progress, those owners established Noda Shoyu Company limited. That company tidied up a loop road and improved suburbia. It caused the spatial transformation of Noda City.
This report is the studies on the public housing planned from the middle of the Taisho era to the early of the Showa era in Nagoya. In Nagoya, 289 independent house were planned in the 13 places without finance at a low-interest funds by a deposit part, the Ministry of Finance in 9 and from 12 to 15 in Taisho era. These houses were built by three types and were mainly lent to the city personnel and the school personnel. Therefore, it was not helpful to settle the housing shortages of people in the low income bracket laborers. In Nagoya made the plan that apartment house for laborers in parallel with this. This apartment house was planned with ferroconcrete. However it realized as wooden accommodation because of short of the city funds. The public housing enterprise from the middle of the Taisho era to the early of the Showa era started for solving a house shortage between middle class and working class. However independent housing was given priority to middle class in Nagoya.
The author defined meanings of two words, 'ZOUKA' and 'KANCHIKU' which were parallel used in the eraly Meij era and the transition of quality concept focusing on how to be used two words. Two words had belonged to different area and 'ZOUKA' related to the professional education and the body, instead of 'KENCHIKI' to general education. Although 'ZOUKA' was corrsponded with architecture, 'KENCHIKU' included another meanings, building and consturaction, and was the undefinded word. From the Middle Meiji era, the word, translated to architecture, became to single word, 'KENCHIKU' and happend a confusion in designs and products activities. This trend has continued until today.