This paper aims to clarify the present conditions and problems of the unit type nursing home throughout Japan. The results of the analysis are as follow: 1. The number of the staffs and the fixed placement affected care and the making of living environment. Fixed placement was in particular indispensable to bathing care and excretion care, an atmosphere built on living room. 2. Since staff placement less than two people is necessary to perform fixed placement smoothly, the review of the current standard related to staff placement is necessary. 3. In the private room, dementia can have lived with one's life rhythm and a family can be easy to visit. In other words, the private room is effective for improvement of the quality of life of the elderly. 4. In private room, the occupancy rate of the low-income person is low, then an effort to meet the demand of the low-income person is necessary.
The Fukushitei, founded by NPO Legal Person in 2001, is a volunteer serviced café and the place of senior citizens. Catching national attention, it is regarded as the initiator of a supporting place for senior citizens in Tama New Town. The research is based on three investigations : a participant observation survey, a one-year-long actual use survey, and a one-week actual use survey. Through these investigations, details of the actual utilization of Fukushitei as well as the significance of its existence are recognized. 1. In addition to providing support to daily lives, Fukushitei is taken as a good-place-to-go by those who engage in entertaining communication activities there. 2. Fukushitei serves as a guardian for senior citizens in the region. 3. Fukushitei prevents senior citizens from isolation. 4. Fukushitei provides users of different personalities and life styles with a place to enjoy themselves.
The purpose of this study is to examine the actual condition of the downsizing the living unit in children's home, and to clarify issues of the working environment. The main findings are as follows: 1) Children's homes have adopted the downsizing the living unit, especially in 2000's. 2) The types of the living unit's plan are characterized by its composition of the entry, private and common rooms, and it is also related to the Children's home's historical development. 3) The management of the working environment in order to help staff's interrelationship is a key for considering the home's einvironmet.
This study clarifies the first plan of post-war reconstruction city plan, which has not known its detail yet, and its planning process by investigation for 4 local cities, Kumamoto, Kochi, Okayama and Gifu. As results, the followings are summarized. 1. Residential district control and building removal during war time influenced post-war main streets plan strongly, 2. Residents and land owners requested as early permission for building own houses and shops as possible and local governments had started planning earnest in fall 1945, 3. In municipalities with strong leadership like a enlightening governor, a planning process advanced faster, 4. In each planning process, there was each ardent argument for future city conception, 5. As for new planning tool and technique every city almost acceded to central government's fundamental guideline.
This paper aims to clarify the characteristics of the Post-War reconstruction plans of the provincial towns, Makurazaki, Kushikino, Akune, Nishino-omote, Tarumizu and Kajiki in Kagoshima Prefecture, where planning and implementation were carried out collectively by the Prefectural Office of Kagoshima. This study comprehends the planning concepts described in "Plan Documents on the Land Re-adjustment" prepared for each towns, and investigates how the urban design in the reconstruction reflected them. Under the post-war circumstance, positive goals were set up particularly in the port towns like Kushikino and Tarumizu, where became the South End of Japanese territory since the islands in the south of the lat.30°N. were under U.S.Occupation. And by the distinctive design solutions, for example with the circus or water-front square, indivisualities of the townscape in each towns were realized.
This research was focusing in Pichaiyuan redevelopment project, that is located at the Zhongshan Road conservation district. The methodology of this research was conducted into two steps as follows: first analyzing the redevelopment project operation process of Pichaiyuan and the environmental conditions before the redevelopment. Second, conducting observational and hearing survey to inhabitant sand administrative offices, and further analyzed the conservation and commercial revitalization of Pichaiyuan redevelopment project from the political, shop owner's and local residents' points of view. The result shows that, 47.7% of the merchants are interested in traditional building style in Liyuan. It can be clarified that 80% of them are willing to participate in property management. Based on this result, the community involvement is possible to be included as the essential element for development and conservation of Liyuan, that could be adopted by the government. Finally, in regard of sustainable development of Pichaiyuan, we think the continual design control, proprietors participation in the area management, and corporation with the surrounding Liyuan areas are important.
In order to make useful suggestions as to future tsunami urban recovery policies, the authors examined the transition of housing location in the damaged areas due to Sanriku Tsunamis in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. This paper analyzes the relationship between the situations of resettlement in higher land after the 1896 Tsunami and the building damage due to the 1933 Tsunami in those areas. Then, comparing the sequential aero photos after the 1933 Tsunami, it presents that the number of housing had increased in the coastal areas in the objective seven districts: Taro, Ryoishi, Katagishi, Kojirahama, Hongo, Kerobe, and Urahama. It also clarifies the reasons based on the field survey and interviews to residents.
This study clarifies the housing rebuilding situation in three neighborhoods in City of New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina (2005). The most distinctive trend is that the housing rebuilding percentage in all neighborhoods was almost same as 50%, and there is significant difference in percentage of abundant housing and vacant lots. This paper pointed several factors implicated in neighborhood housing rebuilding status gap, such as property values, the lack of option for selling property, individual income and homeownership etc. The further research is needed to verify this hypothesis which is formulated through this paper.
In this study, the characteristics of local original ordinances for controlling townscape are analyzed in Kanazawa City based on linguistic methodology and studied its actual operation by analyzing newly built houses controlled by these regulations. These are conclusions as follows. Description of ordinance regulations is categorized as seven types according to the concreteness level. Some regulations are difficult to be followed such as outer wall material and building location in the site. Parking space in the site became it difficult to build along the road, which is usually desirable in the historical district. Planning of parking location of the district is one of the important themes for controlling townscape. In order to control townscape based on the original ordinances it is also necessary to develop controlling system.
In this paper, the contents of the free answer in the questionnaire survey were analyzed by Text Mining, the residents's evaluation of living environment and the characteristics were grasped by the Correspondence Analysis and Cluster Analysis. And problems and possibility of application were considered in the questionnaire survey. Firstly, the free answers were sorted by seven categories, which are“Negative Evaluation”,“Demand”,“Negative Evaluation & Demand”and so on. And, the appearance frequency of words in the free answer were grasped. Next, using“Negative Evaluation”,“Demand”and“Negative Evaluation & Demand”on each category, the relationship with areas and appearance words were grasped by Correspondence Analysis, and the appearance patterns of the word were classified by Cluster Analysis. As a result, the residents's problems and demands in residence area were grasped, and a problem was arranged when a free answer will be analyzed.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the model of spatial practical use of station plazas from the example of time lag use of station plazas in local cities. Initially the spatial compositions of station plazas are classified into 3 patterns from their scale and flow planning and location. Secondly the methods of time lag use are classified into 3 patterns from sphere of use. Finally 3 models of spatial practical use are clarified through the spatial patterns and use patterns. The actual situation of spatial practical use of station plazas is shown.
Building-Standard-Law has lower-limits and inspection-system. We tried to clarify that there are prefectures whose ratio of inspection of buildings called“Building-Standard-Law order No.2”are over 90%, second, to clarify that the current way of calculating the percentage is not useful, third, to clarify that there are many prefectures where calculating is not useful. As the result, we found there are actually only two prefectures where the rates of inspections are above 90%, we found that the current way of calculating the percentage is not useful, we found that it is more practical and effective to talk with each building owners.
The local detached housing industry is going to shift their business model toward the sustainable society. The first part of the paper is to clarify the recent business development of the detached housing industry. 1. The detached housing is going to change its product architecture from closed-integral architecture to open-modular architecture. 2. The key point of this change is the evolution of the manufacturing-process. The integral procedure in product development is most important for the total efficiency of the business. The second part is the future business model of local detached housing industry. 1. For certain business development in the sustainable society, DCM market approach is suitable for the local detached housing industry rather than SCM. 2. The local detached housing industry is waiting for the emergence of a new core business person.
This paper discusses how the Yaku-daiku performed ceremonies. The Yaku-daiku were carpenters working at Kamowakeikazuchi Shrine. They were divided into two groups: one with the prefix “sei”, and the other with the prefix “gon”. These prefixes corresponded to Seiden and Gonden, shrines at Kamowakeikazuchi Shrine. Until the early Edo period, carpenters prefixed with “sei” performed a ceremony at Seiden, while carpenters prefixed with “gon” performed the same ceremony at Gonden. Moreover, especially in the late Edo period, during one ceremony, carpenters categorized as “sei” performed ceremonial procedures at first, and then carpenters categorized as “gon” performed the same ceremonial procedures.
Japanese architectural reference books “KIWARI-SHO” are known as the method of architectural design for Japanese traditional architecture used by the rules of proportional relationship and module. In this design technique, there are some important factors composed the base of system, for example “HASHIRA” (pillar) and “TARUKI” (rafter), which are the beginning of proportional relationship reaching every parts. Each chain of connection is necessarily joined somewhere, and it causes specific problems as contradiction. This paper traces the contents of “KIWARI-SHO” from this point of view, in order to understand its history.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the structure of Hungnam district, North Korea, constructed by the Chosen Chisso Hiryo. Several new maps were made using old maps, aerial photos, materials and photographs owned by the Noguchi Institute. These new maps help to delineate the Hungnam district and its factory and company house complexes. Developing these materials contributes to our understanding of the former layout of the area.
A Bostonian architect, Ralph Adams Cram, proposed three architectural projects to Japan. Tsuda College project is the last one. The original drawings are lost but some reproductions are kept in the Cram and Ferguson Office. This study examined the relations between Cram and the college and the architectural features of these drawings. These are the precious historical materials which show Cram's consistent use of the Japanese architectural style as well as Art Deco detail. Cram's proposal was not adopted because of budgetary difficulties, but his basic concept of plot plan interestingly remains in the actual Sato Koichi's campus.
The conclusion of this paper is as follows. : 1. We have some standard by which the original material is judged, there are the presence of list, the difference of sculpture pattern, the level of weathering, the shape in section, the nail mark of rafter installation, the section size . 2. Long Duc Dien was built in Gia Long 3 (1804), and the repair of this building was done two times in Minh Mang 12 (1831) and Thanh Thai 12 (1900). 3. The most of pillars, keos, kans, and beams were original material, except digits of roof that were changed in the Thanh Thai age and rafters. 4. There were rafters in three terms that is the Gia Long age (original one), the Minh Mang age (middle one), the Thanh Thai age (new one). Rafters that have respect at the lower side were new materials. 5. Rafters were installed placing center of building, and one rafter span size was 233.2 mm (0.6 syaku, vietnamese scale) before restoration. 6. In the first time, if the width of rafters was equal the among of rafters, we think that the size of the width and the among of rafters were 127.2 mm (0.3 syaku, vietnamese scale), and then the height of rafters is 63.6 mm (0.15 syaku, vietonamese scale).
Based on the results of previous studies on planning methods and procedures of various Khmer monuments, we attempted to analyze the case of Beng Mealea. The construction measure is considered to be 411mm, however, dimensional inconsistencies are revealed in details of some parts. The objective of this paper is to examine the planning methods and process of Beng Mealea temple by a restorative approach. Judging from the result of analysis, the planning of Beng Mealea was started with double-enclosure temple layout, and subsequently developped, probably on the way of construction, to triple-enclosure. In consequence, we can see several traces of modification in its dimesional disposition. The method and technique of this temple planning is uncharted in a sense, different from that of any other Khmer monuments we studied before.
In Pompeii, two underground conduits have not functioned systematically as the main drainage to discharge the fountain runoff and rainwater. The forum had been isolated from the network of street drainage system, and a raised surface on the street north of the forum prevented the runoff from flowing into the forum. The four sewer holes caught the excess water running on 5 surface drain lines of which each collected the water from three or four street fountains and water towers. To control the water running on the street would have taken a water distribution system like the one already existing.
Ancient mosaics, which could be designed to take account of the form and function of the space, where they laid, captures the interest of a number of researchers as an example of luxury and power. But others noted that the elaborate process of fitting together the tesserae to make an image. On a mosaic in the House of the Dioscuri at Ostia, an outline was probably not applied on the wet underlying mortar to guide the hand of the mosaicists. Fortunately, the asymmetry of the design in the frame provides the means of exposing any minor errors introduced in the course of fitting the tesseraeto reconstruct mosaic production process. And the emblema depicting Venus was precisely worked directly on the bedding plaster mosaic without any guidelines. Since the four panels of the pictorial type were set in floors, the discontinuity has occurred between panels.
This study aims to clarify Le Corbusier's housing concept referring to vernacular elements. Particularly, this paper focuses on the housing composition in the urban project of Chandigarh. He investigated the vernacular housing in India and extracted nine elements: long narrow site, screens, bedroom, verandah, front garden, rear garden, orientation, roof form and fixtures (tip-up door and claustra). These elements were extracted from the traditional houses and villages to adapt to the climate of the region: strong sunlight, heat and humidity during the rainy season, southeast wind and heavy rainfall. The housing of Chandigarh presented by Le Corbusier inherits these vernacular elements.
Development and Transfiguration of Gangi-Dori in Sakata city were analyzed on following 3 aspects. 1. In the first of the 18th century, Gangi-Dori was developed in Sakata city. In the middle of the 19th century, Gangi-Dori changed to commercial areas in Sakata city, because Gangi was used for a purpose of commercial function by residents of town houses. 2. Gangi-Dori in Sakata city was constructed on the road in front of the town houses in the Edo era. 3. Gangi-Dori in Sakata city was constructed where the post function and commercial function were developed.
This study aims to demonstrate how the diverse waterside spaces were coexisted in Phra Nakhon area as the walled district of Bangkok in early twentieth century by using century-old cadastral maps, land-ownership registers and our own architectural surveys of existing buildings. Focusing on the patterns of canals, roads, land parcels and buildings of the century-old cadastral maps, firstly, we classify waterside spaces to five types and explains spatial composition of each type. Secondly, we analyze and characterize the relationship between spatial compositions, their locations, and land uses of waterside space into five types. Our study is the first study that integrates the century-old cadastral maps and corresponding land-ownership registers of Bangkok.
Natsujima (Tonoas) in the Truk (Chuuk) Islands was the geographical center of Japanese Micronesia (Nan'yo Gunto) where the original administrative headquarters was established in 1914. Without any large-scale industries, Japanese population in Truk remained small for years. However, conditions drastically changed after the mid-1930s when the Navy began to fortify the islands as the chief naval base in the Pacific for World War Two. This paper examines the Japanese settlement process in Truk and the urban morphology of Natsujima as well as the life of Japanese and Trukese in Natsujima-cho, during prewar and early wartime years. It also discusses the features of bonito fishery bases operated by Okinawans in small and dispersed settlements in Truk.
In this study, we refer to earthquake related damages of Japanese traditional wooden pagoda. According to records, few pagodas have been completely destroyed by earthquakes, but often pagoda's eaves are damaged by earthquakes. We performed the eave-beat tests and free vibration tests with a 1/10 model of a three-story pagoda by changing the weight of the model.We obtained the following results from these tests. •By an increase in amplitude of high degree mode, the vibration of eaves is activated. •If the shoe supporting the roof system jumps up from the column, the shock of the shoe hitting the parts below induces the excitation of the vibration of eaves. •The size of the pagoda effects the characteristics of earthquake-damage of these eaves.
This study is to clear the demolition process of Japanese general government building in Korea which had been in Seoul from 1926 to 1997. Considering the usages of the building by American army and Korean government after the colonial period had eneded, it was not only the negative heritage but also it stood for the Korean government itself. Also it could be revealed in the demolition discussion which had done in the process of demolition by Korean government. Analyzing the discussions about the demolition in several sections of Korean society, this study reveals that what the that building stood for in Korean society and what kind of conservation value which the building had. And it concludes that what kind of meaning the demolition of the building has Korean society and how impact the demolition on the conservation of other colonial heritages in Korea.
This paper aims at elucidating characteristics of general history exhibition by way of exhibition scenario and display design in public museums of history. 39 newly built museums were selected to analyze their modus operandi of exhibition. It was found that there was a correlative pattern among style of exhibition scenario, allocation of exhibited items and display design consisting of visitor circulations. When reviewing the trends of general history exhibition, it can be said that the display design is changing to the allocation where visitors can select their circulation according to their interest.
Discussed items are as follows. 1. The necessity of permission for changing the current conditions of important cultural properties in all seismic reinforcement works. 2. The completion year of the restoration work of old Yamagata prefectural assembly hall. 3. The classification of the buildings in above paper.
The author thanks Keiichi Miyatani for his discussion, and the answers are as follows; 1, Seismic reinforcement of important cultural properties is divided into alteration or non-alteration. Medical restoration means the status quo. 2, Seismic reinforcement of Yamagata prefectural assembly hall was connected with the concept of Venice charter. 3, This paper focused on the modern reinforced concrete architectures in Japan. Their seismic reinforcement prevail inside because modern buildings give emphasis to maintain exterior.