The purpose of this study is to investigate the actual nature of the customization of apartments in South Korea and the usage of interior components and industrialization in these dwellings. The results are summarized as follows. 1) The residents did work in the customization period in all three stages of occupancy of their unit. 2) The scale of the customization work and the skill of workers performing them differed by construction stage. 3) The assembly of furniture and equipment such as a system kitchen is progressing. But craftsmen commonly intervened in the final stages of work.
This paper determined the effects of living-unit downsizing in a facility for children with intellectual disabilities. The children's living space was split into floors and units in the process of living-unit downsizing. Downsizing has enabled the staff to respond more easily to individual needs, ensuring the life rhythm of each unit. However, compared with when the living units were large in size, involvement with the opposite sex has decreased and information sharing among staff has become difficult. As living-unit downsizing occurs, it is essential to provide both "soft" and "hard" opportunities and places that enable interaction among various units.
This study clarifies the relationship between hospital ward layout and nurses' perception of burden, while also verifying the practical convenience of multiple-corridor layouts, which have come to be considered the innovative floor plan for wards.the survey respondents preferred a layout that features a central corridor and centrally located nurse station from among the various types of ward layouts. The multiple-corridor model, currently considered the innovative layout for hospital wards, cannot necessarily be described as beneficial from the perspective of reducing nurses' perception of burden. These results differed from the findings of research that analyzed volumes of nurse traffic.
The purpose of this paper is to consider the state of an exhibition planning focused on full scale architectural displays for permanent exhibitions in museums of history. We surveyed 68 museums among public museums of history opened since 1951, enforced a law the museums in japan. We found that 41 museums had 143 full scale architectural displays. We classified them into 9 building types, and most types of houses. Building types of houses turned from farm houses into town houses and modern houses. We classified them into 4 types of display for the building ranges, it turned out that the range of that has been expanded. It will be necessary to plan exhibition spaces with full size architectural displays.
The purpose of this research is to clarify the psychological and physiological effects of the seismic ground waves including vertical direction. The difference in psychological change of a youth group and an elderly-people group were considered this time. The main results were summarized as follows. 1. Although the earthquake motion was thought to be "large" and "strong" from the feeling evaluation questionnaire, an awful feeling had many people who presuppose "A few is felt." 2. As for the uneasy stress of the youth group, the significant difference was accepted by the situation where the subject was placed. However, the elderly-people group did not accept a significant difference. 3. Both a youth group and an elderly-people group had the very high consciousness to the fear of insecurity and safety to an earthquake. However, although the consciousness of a youth group tended to improve by earthquake motion experience, an elderly-people group did not change. 4. The youth group could not be easily subject to the influence according to an earthquake motion psychologically or physiologically. However, psychological influence was not seen but an elderly-people group had the tendency for systolic arterial pressure to become high as physiological effect.
Human subject experiments were conducted on the crowd flow of evacuees passing through a ticket gate at a railway station. The ticket gates at railway stations are typically narrow and therefore hinder the navigation of passengers through them during evacuation in the case of fire. In the experiment, 48 subjects passed through a ticket gate with 3 passages. The subjects approached the ticket gate from various start positions and went toward various goals. On the basis of the experimental results, the characteristics of evacuees' selection of one of the multiple passages of the ticket gate were elucidated and a calculation model was developed.
In order to grasp the relationships between crowd densities and uneasy feeling of persons on stairs in railway stations, we conducted experiments which reproduced the high-density crowd starting to walk up and down the stairs in a mock-up station stairs. As a result, we obtained delay in starting to walk at various densities quantitatively and following 3 opinions. 1. When the density reaches about 4.0 persons/ m2, a majority of passengers may feel uneasy. 2. More attention must be paid to downward crowd staying on stairs than upward crowd because of its uneasy feeling. 3. A crowd must not be stayed on stairs in railway stations at a density of over 4.0 persons/ m2.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between perceived shapes and psychological quantities of attractiveness and impression of a setback space within a street with variation of its area texture. Authors presented 60 scale models to subjects, selected on the basis of a field survey then asked them to evaluate their attractiveness and impressions using a visual simulator. The analysis of the relationship between physical and psychological quantities helped in identifying the psychological quantities related to the different perceived shapes. The patterns of area texture that strengthen the attractiveness of the setback space were also categorized.
This study aimed to clarify the relationship between the room form and indoor thermal environment by examining how the form and other factors affect indoor thermal environment on models of main rooms such as living rooms and dining rooms, in contemporary houses of cold climate areas. The present study has demonstrated the relationship between the room form and indoor thermal environment on main room models of contemporary houses in Hokkaido. The present result suggested the possibility to make an intimate relationship between indoor and outdoor spaces by using large windows in houses of cold climate areas.
In this paper, the spatial composition of fireproof belt buildings in Yokohama are typologically analyzed in the relationship between their 'void,' which is defined as the exterior open space volume above the void elements, such as courtyard, path, parking, terrace and low building's roof behind the main building mass, and neighboring voids in their urban blocks. Firstly, the composition of the main void belonging to the fireproof belt building are classified into several types from their relationship with streets and the variation of the set of void elements. Secondly, the sets of the neighboring void elements are classified into some types. Thirdly, the composition of the whole void is analyzed from the combination of the main void types and neighboring void types, and classified into the several types. As the result, it is figured out that the characteristics of the exterior void space can be defined by the combination of the 'isolation - connection' aspect mainly dominated by the relationship with the neighboring voids, and 'open - close' aspect mainly dominated by the main void's connection with surrounding streets.
The purpose of this paper is to provide the method for the deduction of impression of streets in historic district of Kyoto City by using Self-Organizing Maps (SOM). The street data consisted of spatial elements given from the analysis. SOM includes a two-dimensional visible system which allowed us to analyze the multivariate data. By using SOM, we were able to create a map reflecting the characteristics of the streets with the impression by sensibility evaluation. In this case the characteristics and the sensibility evaluation data of the streets were easily understood by visual analysis. By executing SOM on the new additional data of a street consisted of spatial elements, we deduced the impression of historical streets and the proposal for improvement of spatial elements based on the similarity of them by the location on this map
This study examined the activity environment based on lifestyle types of the elderly living in suburban new town. Activity environment was defined as the relation between the following five items: living activity, activity time, active mass, active intensity, and location information. By categorized living activity and active mass, four lifestyle types were identified: Sports type, TV type, Housework type, and Hobby type. Different lifestyle types showed different activity environments. Thus, results indicated that different lifestyle types have different issues and countermeasures.
Tourism is expected to vitalize the declined region's economy and to create the region's brand, but it sometimes causes the problems such as the pollution and the disruption of natural resources. This study aims to clarify the treating process of the problems caused by the tourism boom through case studies and to suggest the process for sustainable development of tourism areas based on analysis on the solution measures in each of the cases. As a conclusion, it suggests the importance that the local society of tourist areas should consider the process including the recycling use of regional resources together with the promotion for sight-seeing in order to make the balance of vitalization of tourism and preservation of natural resources.
Currently, the decrease in population and the aging have become important problem in Japan. The purpose of this study is analyzing quality of life in the marginal local community, considering free answer. The data of the questionnaire survey in Nanmoku-Mura Gunma was used for all analysis. Nanmoku-Mura is one of the typical marginal local communities. This study aims to discuss the characteristics and analysis method of free answers in questionnaire survey in comparison with pre-code data and free answers, by one of the language processing techniques for text data acquired from free answers. We clarified that the quality of life and residential attitude are composed of individual attributes and district characteristics.
Ogusuku district had been influenced by U.S. governance more than Japan's mainland as well as Okinawa. In these 14 years, Ogusuku-HANASAKAJIJII-NO-KAI, is consisted of males aged 55 and over, has managed trees and plants of each private garden as well as public space in Ogusuku district. Therefore, the purposes of this study are following three things to clarify. (1) The townscape transition of Ogusuku district from 1945 to 1972 influenced by U.S. governance. (2) The activities and contribution for townscape in these 14 years by Ogusuku-HANASAKAJIJII-NO-KAI. (3) The evaluation of Ogusuku-HANASAKAJIJII-NO-KAI from the viewpoint of spatial characteristics and historical background.
This study aims to clarify the formulation process and structural features of historic conservation system of Hoi An ancient town in Viet Nam. The conservation work began after the Vietnam War, and its process can be classified into 4 phases in accordance with the enactment and implementation of policies. Through reviewing the process, we found that the following features have played important roles. 1) a conservation fund created by revenues of tourist ticket. 2) the regeneration of state-owned buildings has played leading roles for the conservation. 3) professional organizations are responsible for both tangible and intangible cultural heritage conservation.
This paper grasped about a house and a living from the form(step, line type) of the house by a floor plan and hearing for the continuation residence layers of “UONOTANA Shopping Street” in the center of Akashi-City at about 1960 and considered the change with the later house improvement action through an example. The separation of dining and sleeping room was difficult, and the then living was considerably inferior residence environment. There are many cases which maintain “a street garden type” by the enlargement, but changes by the rebuilding to “n-LDK type” of “the stairs hall type”.
Building pagodas within the precincts of shrines was a common style of construction and the syncretic idea was accepted through the Middle ages down to the Meiji Restoration. Many of those pagodas, however, have been destroyed since then and up to the present day there remain only so pagodas affiliated with shrines. They are regarded as the evidence of the combination of Shintoism and Buddhism. Among them some were relocated from shrines to temples and others of which main idols were changed or even removed under the policy of the separation. There fore, they are now far from their original style of construction in those days. This paper assembles a lot of historical and religious facts and idols written about pagodas. Its aim is to try to frame an explanation about their idiosyncrasies by the comparison with the ones belonging to temples.
Edmond Morel, a chief engineer in railway construction of the Meiji Japan, proposed the foundation of a board called KENCHIKU-kyoku to the government in April 1870 to promote various construction projects for the public convenience. The proposed board was to consist of three sections; administration, accounting and education, and should be controlled by a minister. This paper argues the origin of this board referring to Morel's career, British and its colony's situation. During the 1850s-60s, the British government challenged to reformation of public works in the British India for effective development and administration, and founded technical school to train civil engineers. Morel had chance to learn this effort, and might propose that the Meiji Government should found a government body in charge of public works. Although Kenchiku-Kyoku had to be the Board of Public Works for Morel and his followers, its function was turned to more engineering based industrialization when the Board was officially formed by the government councilors as Kobu-Sho. Yozo Yamao, a government technocrat tried to realize an idea of public works by adding survey and education departments, with assistance of Colin Alexander McVean.
Hans Schmidt, a pioneer of Swiss modern movement, transited his thought on the city into minimum dwelling in 1920's. In articles written in former half of 1920's, he asserts to form city based on economic activities of citizen. It is foreseen that this generates his idea on the minimum dwelling, as a result of calculation of economic activities of the human's life. This paper aims to clarify how he archived this transition; firstly, analyzing his articles and manuscripts on the city and the minimum dwelling chronologically, and then, understanding Hans Bernoulli's thought on urban planning as a background of this transition.
Catholic Building Professional Advisory Group (CaBPAG) was established in 2006 under Diocesan Building and Development Commission of the Catholic Diocese of Hong Kong. The CaBPAG was called for to assist building and maintenance of church and related facilities by involving the volunteer laity of building professionals. This study revealed that the laity integrated the spiritual activities and professional contribution in building projects within the CaBPAG. Such pursuit of spirituality can be understood within the context of worldwide development of spirituality since the 1960s and the local context of Hong Kong such as endangered religious freedom.
This research aims to examine the company towns of Hitachi, Ltd. and the residential area plans formulated by Yoshikazu Uchida during World War II, focusing on the Hitachi, Taga, and Mito works. Yoshikazu Uchida, who was Japan's leading authority in city planning and housing policy during the war, designed advanced residential area plans for Hitachi, with reference to Western housing and the neighborhood unit. It has been recognized that his work illustrates some of the possible theoretical achievements in city and residential area planning at that time.