This study analyzed the transformation of space composition of farmhouse with Kang. The purpose of the study is to show sustainability of traditional farmhouse by focusing on changes of cooking space with Kamado. This paper found that the characteristics of transformation were expansion of the cooking space and separation of part of the cooking space with Kamado. Meanwhile, the laundry space was separated from the cooking space. These transformations were linked with not only improvement of the cooking space, but also Kang-centred living style and two-generation living. We clarified that the systematic change of the cooking space with Kamado contributes to the sustainability of the farmhouse so as to maintain the local living environment.
The purpose of this study explain the architectural planning of PICU which is relatively new concept in Japan. There is no suitable development model for PICU. And also, the paper shows the survey result and some recommendations on the issue. A survey was carried out by posting questionnaire survey sheets to 27 children's hospitals and 20 institutes replied, among which 11 replied to have independent PICU. As a results, conclusions are following 1) in a number of PICU's the medical staff is forced to work in very small area and it is recommended that sufficient floor area should be provided as in the some advanced cases, 2) making more comfortable environment for patients and visitors.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the peculiar design procedure "HONKA-DIRI". It means that an adaptation of an existing old architecture's design. Togo MURANO is a distinguished Japanese architect, and he used this design procedure from time to time. We experimented with photomontage in black and white. Experiments were made into two parts. The subjects estimated randomly 123 photomontage of Jo-an and Zangetsu-tei. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test. The result suggested that 1) the significant difference on estimation between an existing old architecture's design and new one, and 2) there is his original design.
This paper aims to analyze the urban formation of the historical city of Mekelle, the current capital of Tigray Region in northern Ethiopia. Mekelle has once been the capital of Ethiopia in the second half of the 19th century during the reign of Emperor Yohannes IV. A series of surveys have revealed the construction process of this imperial city, which gathered nobles and warriors around the imperial palace. Their residences, first loosely connected, came to be more concentrated in accordance with the population growth. The typological observation of the case study area clarifies the chronological development of such residences since the end of the 19th century up to the Italian occupation of the 1930's. The planning will of the locals of this period succeeded in generating an exceptionally proper townscape of a stone city.
Since 1986, the Doi Moi policy has triggered the rapid expansion of Ho Chi Minh City. Especially in this paper, we analyze the 1993, 1998 and 2010 master plan documents from the perspective of our conceptual framework of their planning system and the evolutionary process of adapting to the internal conditions and external environmental changes. Our findings include for example, two key reasons found among the planning techniques and socioeconomic reasons underlying the revision of the 1998 second master plan, namely the inaccurate population plan forecast and the rapid increase of the population.
This research clarifies how to promote community partnerships to prevent social isolation of elderly people, and the change in resident attitudes caused by the measures in an apartment complex in Yokohama. We focused Kachida area where community groups address social isolation issues, making a partnership among local groups including local government. We investigated the process of making partnership and starting activities, the organization and the roles of community groups, and the contents of the activities. In addition, we research the change in attitudes of residents by questionnaire investigation. As a result, a community group and some social welfare members have big roles and burdens of community partnership to prevent solitary death. The people who have longer residence years and who are older feel sense of ease, however the people who have shorter residence years and who are younger feel sense of fear. We require multigeneration interchange to prevent social isolation and isolation death.
The purpose of this study is to consider the changing scenery in evening. In this study, the division experiment of time sequential photographs was done. The result shows the followings. 1）The change process of the scenery in evening has some feature change points not continuous, and has some stages. The change of scenery at the point has strength, and, the change process can be regarded as mixture of strong changes and weak changes. Therefore, the time zone between day and night can be caught as divided time zone which has hierarchical and multi-layered structure. 2）The degree of hierarchy are able to be a concept for description about the change process of the scenery.
In recent years, there are many inflow and outflow of patients beyond the boundary of secondary medical care district. Therefore, this study aims to examine the validity of secondary medical care district from the viewpoint of accessibility of patients. The analysis is carried out to evaluate the grade of completeness of consultation behavior in secondary medical care district by measuring the accessibility of patients to medical facilities located in the nearest neighborhood from their residence. As the result, it is revealed that more number of outflows of patients are found in urban areas than mountainous areas. This fact will show the necessity of reviewing current secondary medical care district boundary.
The paper scrutinizes Yuisho Kakinuki, which was a document handed to Edo Shogunate by Chojuro Kashiwagi, one of the top carpenter leaders of Kobushin-kata and the head of Kashiwagi family. The analysis of Yuisho Kakinuki reveals that the pedigree of the family from the 1st head of the clan, Ihe Kashiwagi, to the 8th head, Chojuro Kashiwagi. The paper also reveals that Tarouemon Kashiwagi, who was adopted by Ihe Kashiwagi, the 1st head of Kashiwagi's carpenter leader, received managerial allowance, called as Bekki, before he had been the top carpenter leader and in a position for the compensation, when Kashiwagi family was in the process of having the two top carpenter leaders.
During the1920s and 1930s the American geographer Robert Burnett Hall (1896-1975) conducted pioneering research of Japanese cities, towns, and architecture. In Hall's studies, the interpretation of the built environment was based on the culture-nature relationship. But, the understanding of that relationship was being redefined during that period. The 19th century assumption of the deterministic role of nature in the development of societies was changing to the possibilistic viewpoint, according to which nature sets certain constrains but does not determine culture. The following investigation shows how Hall's possibilistic standpoint results in the attribution of significant importance to cultural history in the interpretation of the built environment, while his geographic approach leads to an emphasis on areal distribution and functionality in the formal analysis.
'Takarazuka Shin-onsen', a recreational facility with hot spring bath, had been developed to a large Amusement Park at suburb of Osaka. Ichizo Kobayashi managed it in the first half of 20th century. At the beginning, he tried to make cooperate with existing hot spring town at the other riverside. But his plan didn't come off. So he decided to manage 'Shin-onsen' independently of old town, where many geisha girls were employed. And he tried to differentiate the girls' opera, which he had established, from geisha that were equated with a kind of demimonde, developing his side more with fresh image.
This paper discussed on the lecture policy and its theoretical characters of Hideto Kishida's "Kenchiku Keikaku" class at the Tokyo imperial university, based on analysis of the lecture manuscripts "Introduction to the architectural design" (1937) and the syllabus. Kishida considered the field as a subject to "designing architecture" in building up his two classes of "Kenchiku Keikaku" and "Isho and Soshoku (design and decoration)." He held lectures attached with history, design and planning while developing what he had succeeded from Yasushi Tsukamoto. With the assistance of such catchphrases as "Architecture is a container of human life" and "Necessity is the sole mistress of art" by Otto Wagner, Kishida established a theory to position architecture as a form of art. He also repeatedly explained about the meaning of Locality (specialty) throughout the lecture, in which he introduced a historical view in his attempt to back up the theory of dwelling development.
This paper seeks to clarify concretely the urban renewal of the surrounding area of Chau Tien Temple at Beigang by the Municipal Improvement Act during the Japanese colonial period in Taiwan. Its characteristics are as follows. 1) Rotary which was constructed around the temple in 1920 enlarged the precincts and the temple acquired the magnificent façade of three gates (Dragon Gate, Front Hall and Tiger Gate). 2) Development of the public retail market of Beigang which had been established in 1908 after the Great Chiayi Earthquake reinforced the commercial functions in front of Chau Tien Temple and changed its townscape. 3) Road widening of Gong-kou Street (main approach to the temple) in 1936 created the modern townscape which was unified in design by the continuous two-storied shop houses with Teng-a-kha (arcade).
This paper aims to clarify preservation concepts of villages in the policy establishing process of preservation districts for groups of traditional buildings (hereinafter the Denken policy). The following three points were clarified. 1. The discussion about the relation among a preserved building, its regional bond and its surrounding environment developed the following new three policies in the law for the Protection of Cultural Properties in 1975. 1) enablement to designate the building site and its relating properties ( Clause 1, Article 2 ), 2) environmental conservation (Clause 1, Article 45) and 3) preservation districts for groups of traditional buildings (Clause 6, Article 2 and Article 142) 2. Ahead of the Denken policy, villages were preserved as historic sites by so called a freeze-preservation method; nevertheless, there were research theories and flexible conservation concepts to deal with "living" historic sites as whole historic living environments. 3. In the early period of the policy establishing process of the Denken policy, there were preservation concepts to define a historic living environment as a whole and preserve a special exterior district as part of it.
The report reveals the following findings from the traces of an axe and adze on existing wooden buildings in Kinki region which were built between the Asuka period and Kamakura period. Axes were used for lumbering. It is presumed that they were used to cut off raw wood and to make coarse wooden blocks out of a log. Adzes were the main tools for shaping building components after they are vertically split to form lumbers and for chipping the surfaces. They come in a variety of blade widths and shapes (straight/curved), and were used in accordance to the shape of the chipping surface (flat/rounded surfaces, joints) and its size. The adzes in the seventh to fourteenth century were used for a wider application than it is today, often used to scrape the chopped surface flat after it is lumbered, and to make a moderately round surface (convex and concave surfaces).
Support-center for the elderly was legislated for the first time after the Great East Japan Earthquake. This paper clarifies the realities and circumstances of its planning in Iwate Prefecture, and discusses the roles of government. Conclusions are follows; 1) Support-center is classified into four types. 2) Its function and location are supposed to be related to the damage of cities and elderly facilities. 3) Not only support-center's staff but also life support adviser watch elderly. 4) Cooperation and adjustment between related government sections are important. 5) Local care-service corporations are selected as administrator of support-center by a negotiated contract because they know the area and are able to re-employ old staff. 6) Government guideline for construction and management of support-center should be improved. Comprehensive construction with temporary housing as well as flexible disclosure of resident's information for estimating service volume should also be considered.