The objective of this research is to show a comprehensive evaluation of the living environment of Sakaide Artificial Ground over half a century, which is a pioneer case of a compact city, an urban lifestyle and mix of residential and commercial areas. The previous paper showed evidence of the influence of the interaction of residents on the community formation of Sakaide Artificial Ground, focusing on how to use the public area of public housing. This paper aims to obtain knowledge contributing to future collective housing plans and living environment management by clarifying the actual situation of the transition in the residents' way of living in the Sakaide Artificial Ground. For that purpose, we conducted interviews with administrators and residents. Furthermore, we collected data by measuring the interior and exterior of municipal housing and land landowner housing. In conclusion, the results of the study in terms of residents' evaluation show: 1. There are many complaints about the multiple municipal housing regarding insufficient insulation of the houses, aging of buildings, and huge number of stairs; 2. There are good evaluations about the highly convenient location, with a mix of residential and commercial areas, and outdoor spaces on Sakaide Artificial Ground; 3. There are many residents with a long history of living in this place who developed good relationships within the community. Also, the results of the study in terms of residential status show: 1. Voluntary dwelling unit area expansion and refurbishment are done in multiple municipal housing; 2. The diversity of municipal housing and landowner housing has provided the residents with the option of moving to another type of dwelling within the Sakaide Artificial Ground, to suit their lifestyle without leaving the community; 3. Elderly residents have lived a fulfilling life within walking distance and almost independent lives because of the highly convenient location.
Introduction: Now that ICT can be used to support teaching and learning activities in schools, it affects both educational methods and facility design. Improving teaching methods and meeting personal needs are enhanced in the new courses of study for elementary and secondary schools in Japan and these are compelling reasons to use ICT. Schools are seemed to be encouraged to offer a diverse range of provisions to suit the National Curriculum, however, the facility design doesn't link to new ways of learning nor the impact of ICT. This paper examines a case study utilization of learning space at an independent school in Sweden called Kunskapsskolan Spånga. The school provides personalized education and applies ICT in order to achieve its pedagogical goal. The school plan helps enable the students to work individually. The main goal of this case study is to grasp concepts in order to design school buildings to open up new Methods: We conducted interviews with a principal as well as teachers, a questionnaire to the students and one day of observational research in Kunskapsskolan Spånga. In the interviews, we grasped the class management style, the allocation of classrooms and open spaces and dug deeper into the day's activities when we did observational research. The questionnaire asked students' about their usual and favorite spots when they studied alone or with friends. In the one day observation, we had every student from Year 6 to 9 wear a corresponding colored wrist band to distinguish their Year. We plotted the spots where students learn on sheets which had a floor-plan and furniture arrangements had been drawn. Conclusion: Students have a lot of time to learn individually at their own pace. Floors are divided into subject areas, so students move to the English area if they study English. There are students who study themselves and who take lectures in a specific subject area. Only one or two classrooms are taken as lectures and other classrooms are occupied with students who work on their own tasks. This means that there are no dedicated spaces and the school uses the entire space flexibly. Glass walls between classrooms and open spaces not only make visual links between them but also shut down noise, so classrooms can easily change their use applications for both lecture rooms and open spaces. The popularity of different furniture is scattered widely and this result shows there are multiple needs. A variety of different furniture in open spaces enables students to find their own favorite space. Round tables in classrooms and long tables with desktop computers are mostly chosen when studying alone. Tables designed for sitting down facing each other with high backed chairs are chosen when studying with friends. The groups who tend to choose this type of table to study at seem to want to feel that they have their own territory. More than half of the students use computers at the same time. Laptop computers allows pupils to stay anywhere they want. Discussion: An increase in independent learning and ICT use will have an effect on the balance of spaces. ICT makes it easier for students of different ages and abilities to work in the same area like the school of this study does. The difference between classrooms and open spaces is likely to become blurred. Dedicated rooms used as particular groups or subjects will discourage new ways of learning, so use applications of rooms should be changeable.
Architecture has been disseminated in society through photography, as much as actual visits. In recent years, art museums have been positively encouraging visitors to take pictures, and the pictures taken by visitors are accumulated on social media as Big Data, showing citizen's architectural experience. This research aims at the following two points for big data formed by the accumulated posted pictures on "Instagram", a social media specialized for picture posting. (1)To visualize big data of images on museums. (2)To discover the way how to analyze big data that will help art museum plans. As a survey method, a picture analysis using deep learning was performed. First, a feature amount extraction of the pictures is performed by CNN, and then we visualized it using t-SNE to show the result of CNN in two dimensions and "image discrimination program" which mechanically classifies pictures for learned elements. First, as the target of the survey, 595,587 pictures related to 406 museums were extracted from Instagram by hashtag search. In order to grasp the rough trend of the pictures, t-SNE was conducted. As a result, we have obtained five elements of "building" "art" "text" "nature" "food". (Fig. 2) Second, we made "image discrimination program" learn about 5 elements, and the program identified the 595,587 pictures. The classification result of the pictures was "building" 13.7%, "art" 56.0%, "text" 20.0%, "nature" 6.2%, "food" 4.1%. In the comparison between the museum's outline and the 5 elements ratio, the numbers of picture posts and the numbers of visitors which often used for museum evaluation are not related (Fig. 4). Moreover, there are many "building" picture posts at the old museums of the opening year, "art" and "text" picture posts at the new museums (Fig. 6). From typing based on the ratio of 5 elements in each museum, we were able to grasp the characteristics of each building by obtaining 16 categories and 6 groups of types (Fig. 8, Table1). From the ratio of 5 elements on two museums holding the same exhibition which allows visitors to take pictures, we clarified the difference of the influence of the camera allowed exhibition(Fig. 9). Third, we conducted t - SNE on the building pictures of each museum to visualize the detailed subjects. As a result, it was found that the images of a museum building on social media are made up of relationships between other elements (Fig. 10, 11). Moreover, as the ratio of building pictures at a museum increases, building pictures image is biased towards limited subject (Fig. 12). These findings obtained by this research are not to show subjectivity reflected in each picture but to show a part of the characteristics and impressions of the museums from the accumulated image data by the visitors. Fumio Nanjo, Mori Art Museum Director said about the museum buildings, "It is not a model as a general theory, but a special solution that matches its context is needed". In other words, these data are not to indicate the majority to get the right answer. These data are more like the air showing how people get interested in and what they do there. By visualizing it, we suggest to building planners and designers that they can think about building architecture with feeling more opinions. We will position this research as an indication of options for each art museum to acquire its unique special solutions.
Objectives In this study, we focus on the space having features in the height direction and the behavior of the infant occurring on the spot. Further, we tried to grasp the meaning and value of space from the viewpoint of cross section including the viewpoints of ecology and psychology. Then, this study aims to clarify the relationship between humans and the environment. Background and purpose of the research project. Recently, various nursery spaces have been provided, and a space for children to climb high places such as a playground equipment, a void, loft and the like has been proposed. Already the distance and spatial cognition of the communication at the plane perspective has been studied. But, the studies included the sectional [or vertical] consideration of the space is not sufficient. Particularly the study for children is less. In a space provided at a high place, a field of view different from the one-floor space is provided, and some kind of behavior is caused by the information, and it is possible that the relationship with others also changes accordingly. The change of perspective due to the body movement of children is less than adults so the environment may play a role in the change of perspective. Therefore, it should be considered a three-dimensional spread in children's environment. Methodological approach It was subjected to behavior observation of the exchanges scene in 4 childcare facilities in order to grasp the reality of behavior in planned space by the cross-section. The observed scenes are materialized and analyzed. The shape consists of four elements of the seeing distance, the horizontal distance, the sectional distance and the angle. This analyzes the relationship between section space and children's behavior. Main findings As a result of behavioral observations, there were 157 cases of behavior from high position, 11 cases of behavior to the same height, and 16 cases of behavior from low position. Much of behavior is behavior from the upper level, and the look over view from above is characteristic behavior. When every shape of children's behavior was compared, it showed that the horizontal distance, the vertical distance and the angle has influence on behavior. Analyzing an element of the shape, we have shown that the relationship between behavior in sectional composition and ecological psychology (visual character). In this study, we focused about relationship of space and behavior, children's behavior at sectional space is classified into 6 elements. As a result of behavioral observations, there were cases where the shape differs depending on the characteristics of the space even with the same behavior. Conclusions Tends to be associated with behavioral and human visual features (bird's-eye view and elevation) was appeared in the discussion at the cross section. Bird's-eye view at a high position gives the spread view, it has become easier to understand the presence of others by visible, and then it will trigger the communication. It'll be something to contribute to an architectural planning from the aspect where it's new to consider including the horizontal distance, the vertical distance and the angle, not the distance between the persons. In this study, we discussed about the children, but it is possible to carry out evaluation of the space intended for the adults.
1. Background Many people naively think that it is easier to memorise the structure of a grid street pattern than a non-grid street pattern. However, since people stroll in urban areas not for pure way-finding but shopping or sightseeing etc., it is more important for them to recognise the ways to go than to create a cognitive map. In a non-grid street pattern district, each crossing has more characteristics. Such crossings may be memorised easier by pedestrians, who concentrate on other activities besides way-finding. This study, therefore, aimed to clarify the effects of crossing-shapes on the route recognition by comparing the results of a grid street pattern case with a non-grid street pattern case.
2. Methods An experimental investigation was carried out in a residential district in Tokyo with a total of 28 healthy participants aged between 19–25. The participants were divided into two groups with 14 people each to conduct the same task in different areas of the district: one has a grid street pattern, and the other has a non-grid street pattern. In a trial, participants were instructed to remember a route (Figs. 1, 2) by actually following the author so that they can reverse the route afterwards alone. After learning the route, they were asked whether they passed through the crossings that the auther presented and the reason why they decided so. Those crossings were presented by photos (Photo1, Photo2), and also on-site guided by the author via another route (Figs. 3, 4). The presented crossings contained one-third of dummy crossings that had been taken in the same area but not on the learning route (Table1). Finally, they were tasked to draw a map of the learned route on a piece of white paper.
3. Results The precision of memory: The results show that the participants of the non-grid area remembered crossings much more precisely than those of the grid area. In particular, the participants of the non-grid area had more confidence about the crossings which they did not pass than those of the grid area (Figs. 8, 9). In a grid area, participants found it hard to judge a crossing as “never passed” where they actually had not pass through. When a participant remembered whether he/she passed the crossing, he/she relatively remembered also the direction in which they came from and went to (Fig. 11). Regarding the selected directions, there was no difference in the correct answer ratio between street patterns. Cognitive map: Fig. 7 shows that the participants in both areas could know the direction of the start point of the learning route from the goal point quite correctly; however, more participants could answer with accuracy in the grid area. By drawing a cognitive route map, more crossings were missed in the grid street pattern than the non-grid street pattern (Figs. 12, 13).
4. Conclusions The study revealed that pedestrians could decide on crossings in a non-grid street pattern area more correctly, and also with confidence, whether they have passed there before than in a grid pattern. Hence, in practice, pedestrians may be able to walk around with less worry about getting lost in non-grid street pattern areas. However, there is still room for research on the precision of the connection of individual crossing memories. Further studies are required to build a pedestrian route recognition model in non-grid pattern areas.
In recent years, Glass Curtain Wall is often adopted as the exterior finish of a fireproof building that is built in a city area. There are many cases that are more disadvantageous than other CW in the prevention of insulation and dew condensation performance because most parts are made of glass in GCW. When adopting GCW in snow cold districts where an external condition (falling snow, cold, strong wind) is significant, it is important that we have effective insulation and dew condensation prevention to contribute to energy saving. As a preliminary investigation, this study examines a tendency and problems that can occur while investigating real GCW adoption frequency, each part specification, and the presence of dew condensation in Sapporo city. After that, we gradually show the constitution pattern of specifications to have the performance of insulation and dew condensation prevention in each main snow cold district from findings. And we arrange it as the basic specifications that can be referred to when adopting GCW. From the investigation results, we knew that adopting pair glass on vision of GCW in Sapporo was beneficial. However, the settlement and specifications of the spandrel were not established. And it was found that a design supervisor and builder almost always ended up deciding the specifications. It is thought that it is important to improve the settlement of the spandrel part when considering the actual situation can occur. For example, when insulation materials such as urethane foam are not used, unevenness of the air blast thickness, and dew condensation harm concentrates on a spandrel part. Then, we set simulation models and aim performance and check an insulation and the dew condensation performance that each part CGW specification has, in reference to frequent GCW constitution patterns at the time of an investigation. In addition, we narrow down specification combination patterns in each place that secured the aim performance. As a result, the GCW specifications that almost secured the performance of insulation and dew condensation prevention of the aimed vision part are as follows: Sapporo (I, II area classification): Insulation sash shape +Low-E pair (A12) Aomori, Nagano (III area classification): Insulation sash shape + pair (A12) or non-insulation sash shape +Low-E pair (A12) Sendai (III area classification): Non-insulation sash shape +Low-E pair (A12) Toyama, Matsue (including Tokyo, IV area classification): Non-insulation sash shape + pair (A12) The insulation performance of the spandrel can secure aim performance by giving a necessary insulation material thickness in all areas. Because dew condensation prevention performance depends on construction timing and settlement related to the airtight performance, it is difficult to establish its superiority as specifications. It is effective to construct at the time when specific humidity of seal air is low, like winter season with tightening air leakage completely from the inside. On the other hand, only using specifications and the combination of each material, it is extremely difficult to secure the final performance like the dew condensation harm of the spandrel part. Quality control of material management and construction precision at the construction timing is indispensable. Not only does GCW have dew condensation and insulation prevention which contributes to the energy saving, but also it is useful in that it provides comfort and health, that are the main aim of the buildings. It is necessary to overcome problems which arise at the same time while referring the combination of GCW patterns which this study showed. Besides, we have to strive for favorable GCW specifications while dealing with having the load restraint (sunlight shielding performance) in the air conditioner.
In the center of Yokohama, various urban building have made based on each condition until today. In this paper, the buildings in Isezakicho district in Yokohama are typologically analyzed in shape with their location and construction age.
Firstly, all existing buildings in the area are classified into several building shape types, and their location tendency is analyzed.
Secondly, the construction age of all the buildings and parking lots was investigated.
Finally, each building shape type’s characteristics with its location and construction age is clarified.
This research helps to design the relationship between various old and new buildings in contemporary cities.
This study aims to clarify the user's role in the making of urban space, by examining two renovated open space with urban gardening (OSUG) in Tokyo. Firstly, a mixed survey approached people and OSUG were used to disclose the spatial setting. Secondly, the setting's patterns are interpreted as user's experience. Finally, by connecting the setting and the experience, parameters of qualities will emerge, identified as “usage”, “space affordance” and “image of identity”. Furthermore, these factors combined will illustrate seven scenarios of OSUG, ranging from a privacy resting spot to a public outdoor playground, as well as a community garden.
In the preceding manuscript, we clarified characteristics of sitting postures from the correlation between the time transition and body parts, but this study did not show behaviors of body parts at the sitting posture. On the other hand, there are scenes where tables and chairs are used with others in actual dining. Humans have personal space which is an invisible psychological territory in interpersonal situation. Psychological territory is considered to affect behaviors when using the table and chair. Base on above, the objective of this study is to clarify a psychological territory and a movement area. This study is comprised of sitting place survey in dining, psychological territory survey, act observation survey in non-interpersonal situation and interpersonal situation and impression evaluation. The results are as follows. Table1 and figure 4 show results of the sitting place survey in dining. In terms of shape of table, "rectangle" was found to be the most common with 80%. In terms of sitting position in the "rectangular" table, there are three patterns of "a. Adjacent", "b. Diagonally opposite", and "c. Face-to-face". Figure 6 show results of the psychological territory survey. The interpersonal distance was evaluated height in "a. Adjacent" 600mm, "b. Diagonally opposite" 700mm, and "c. Face-to-face" 1400mm. Figure 8, 9, 10, 11 show results of the act observation survey in non-interpersonal situation. This survey clarified the movement area in non-interpersonal situation. The movement areas of male were "A. hand" 600 mm × 700 mm × 700 mm, "B. knee" 600 mm × 200 mm × 300 mm, "C. toe" 700 mm × 300 mm × 600 mm. The movement areas of female were "A. hand" 600 mm × 600 mm × 700 mm, "B . Knee "400 mm × 300 mm × 300 mm, " C. Toe "400 mm × 300 mm × 700 mm. Figure 13, 14, 15, 16 show results of the act observation survey in interpersonal situation. The movement areas of male and female overlapped in "b. Diagonally opposite" and "c. Face-to-face". Table3 show results of the impression evaluation. "b. Diagonally opposite" and "c. Face-to-face". were evaluated height.
Entering an era of shrinking population, the space under overhead railway attracts attention as a resource for revitalizing the area, and various utilizing cases are increasing. In Japan, the railway viaduct spread widely contemporaneously with the progress of modern urban planning. However, there has been no prior research that discussed the birth of the space under overhead railway and its utilization plan from the viewpoint of urban planning history. This paper aims to clarify how the space under the overhead railway, which runs through the center of Kobe City, was designed in the process of modern urban planning by using the original sources about the arguments among the agencies, organizations and persons involved. The problem of overhead railway that appeared in modern Kobe caused intense controversies mainly on the city council in the conviction that the underground way is the “city's policy” and the chamber of commerce, but from the beginning there was not a single "public opinion" in Kobe. The result of adopting the overhead way of national railway and Hankyu Railway reflected that real situation of the Kobe side. This problem proceeded in the change of overhead railway image brought about by the advance of civil engineering technology. The decision of adopting the overhead way of national railway greatly affected the way of extension into the center of the city by private railways. The attitudes towards the public business system by the Hanshin Railway and Hankyu Railway were just contrasting. Hankyu's idea that skillfully used the decision of national railway, in particular, greatly changed the circumstances surrounding the subjects involved, which led to the formation of a large-scale space under the parallel tracks of national railway and Hankyu. This paper revealed that the background of this idea was suggested by Dr. Kiichiro Morigaki, a technical official of Kobe City who tried to find a compromise point while the city council's opposition to Hankyu's overhead plan overheated. The detailed design of the viaduct was decided through repeated changes of the range, structure and usage as the urban planning projects progressed. Kobe City Office's initial idea of laying the track of municipal streetcar under the viaduct was abandoned due to the progress of the street plan and lack of financial resources, but the range was greatly expanded and the structure was considerably changed suitable for utilizing far beyond the initial expectation of Board of Railway, because of the consistent insistence of the importance of the space under the viaduct from the viewpoint of urban planning by Kobe City Office. Especially, in the most important area between Sannmiya and Kobe the city office patiently sought the way to properly manage the space. Based on Morigaki's argument, the initial report of Hyogo Urban Planning Local Committee that was supposed to be used for public roads was changed to using the part of 4 m wide as sidewalk. Then, publicly controlled space under the viaduct between Sannomiya and Kobe was reserved. This paper showed that the decision at that time became one factor to survive the shopping street formed from Yami-ichi (black market) under the viaduct after the war.
In this paper, we are targeting on reinforcement works which has serious influence on the quality of the superstructure from among various kinds of construction work, focusing on information necessary for the building process from design to construction. We clarified the issue for utilize information on reinforcing work by Field survey and analysis. As a result of this, we will summarize basic knowledge on new methods of management of production information utilizing ICT. We investigated the workflow of the reinforcing bar bending factory, interviewed the rebar sub-contractors and observed the reinforcing work on the construction site; therefore, we grasp of the production information in the reinforcing work in detail. In addition, we investigated where ICT is used in the flow of information. As a result, the following knowledge was obtained. 1) Production process can be categorized into four types, "drafting", "bar bending", "placing of rebar", "inspection". 2) Information on the management items "drafting" and "inspection" is obtained from the structure drawing and the construction drawing. Because their information is an element unit. 3) Management items of "bar bending" and "placing of bar" obtain information from "bending schedule" and "bending instruction tag". Because their information corresponds to materials. 4) The digital information of the rebar bending process is used to create of "reinforce drawing", "bending schedule", "bending instruction tag", and it is applied to progress management and inspection in the reinforcing bar bending factory. Among them, software that creates "bending instruction tag" is developed by reinforcing bar bending factory himself. In addition to hearing within the reinforcing bar bending factory, interviews to a foreman of reinforcement works in the construction site were conducted twice and process analysis was performed. As a result, the following knowledge was obtained. 1) Inside the reinforcing bar bending factory, workers are himself conduct sampling inspection of bending reinforcing bars. The confirmation items at that time are the information on the dimensions stated in "bending instruction tag". 2) After bending work at the factory, "bending instruction tag" is used until distribution to work place on site. At the placing of bar used information of "reinforce drawing", and for final inspection "structure drawing" is used. 3) The sub-contractor of the reinforcing bar performs the self-check during the placing of bar. A general contractor will inspect after the placing of bar is completed. We clarified the following contents from the investigation of the actual situation of the whole process of reinforcement works and workflow analysis. 1) In reinforcement work information for connecting design and construction, the bend and check information is intensive on "bend command tag". The information described in the "structural diagram" is referred to in the creation of "construction drawing", "reinforce drawing" and "bending schedule", but bar bending, transportation, distribution and placing of bar bending Information of instruction tag is used. 2) Since the information to be referred to changes during the process, it has the risk of mistakes in converting information. The workflow of the reinforcement work was partially optimized because the work was divided finely. Therefore, a mechanism for preventing a mistake of work between each work was not constructed. From now on, we think that the division of responsibility and roles in the production process in rebar work progresses more. In order to overcome the situation, it is possible to improve "productivity" by proceeding with "visualization" and "sharing" of information on bending processing and arranging muscle, and by not sending defective products to the subsequent process, and using ICT and BIM are important.
In recent years, not only the aging of human but also that of buildings has attracted attention as a social issue. For conducting daily checks and repairs to realize longer life of buildings, interest in method to carry out more properly and continuously updating of planned parts and equipment etc. than ever is increasing. For the purpose, it is generally required formulation and review of a long-term maintenance and cost plan. However, even if the plan is formulated, it is difficult to secure additional construction costs when the maintenance cost of repair, management etc. is higher than planned. In particular, ordinary repair costs required for small-scale breakdowns or daily repair are not taken into consideration in the long-term maintenance plan in many cases. As a result, the cost of carrying out large-scale conservation and renovation will be insufficient, and the possibility of postponement of repair and maintenance modification for longer life will increase. Therefore, in this research, focusing on the management data of Ordinary repair cost, it aims to analyze the occurrence timing and the actual situation of the construction amount costs, further grasp the long-term trend. At first, it constructs the organization method to analyze the management data of the Ordinary repairs collected and accumulated by a building maintenance company. Next, the management data is organized from the viewpoint of building use, facility size, etc., to calculate the Ordinary repair cost per unit area, and to grasp the transition of the Ordinary repair cost per years from construction to the repair time. Finally, at the Maebashi Institute of Technology, the influence of Ordinary repair costs on the planning conservation plan with the maintenance planning cost software used in many municipalities. Analysis of Ordinary repair in this research revealed that its cost accounts for about 10% of the planned construction, so it has a non-negligible effect on the formulation of the conservation plan. In addition, there are differences in recurring repair expenses depending on the scale and use. The larger the scale is, the tendency is that Ordinary repair costs tend to be lower. On the other hand, compared to offices and commercial facilities, Ordinary repair costs tend to be lower than that of apartment and public facilities.
While being often created from the resources available in the surrounding environment, a building in a village setting may be maintained as a form of human occupation. Previous studies on the construction of village buildings have mainly been concerned to decipher ledgers relating to private residences through the accumulation of numerous studies conducted by other scholars in the field. However, historical materials concerning the maintenance of religious buildings are comparatively scarce and this scarcity has been a significant obstacle to the progress of systematic study in this area. It is against this backdrop that this study sets out to analyse the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of religious buildings in a village context. It will do so by means of empirical measurement and by analysis of historical documents relating to Kosuge, Iiyama city, Nagano prefecture, an area with a relatively high number of religious buildings. First, an analytical overview is given of the maintenance history of religious buildings in Kosuge. Then, 50 historical documents relating to the maintenance of 10 selected religious buildings are extracted from the “Kosuge Kuyu Monjyo”—an official record of village history—according to their era and their content. Finally, the mechanism by which these buildings were maintained is examined by focusing on selected key cases and by analysing the costs and processes involved in each of those cases. The historical data collected from the “Kosuge Kuyu Monjyo” can be divided into two broad categories: 1) data dealing with the maintenance of Juo-do Hall, whose records date back to the pre-Meiji era, and 2) data dealing with the maintenance of other religious buildings, which have been documented only since the Meiji era. Unlike the religious buildings that were managed by temples and shrines, Juo-do Hall was maintained by the people of the village. Records left by the villagers give evidence of their direct involvement in the maintenance of the building. Later, as a result of the separation between the Shinto and Buddhist religions in the early Meiji era, the management of religious buildings other than Juo-do Hall likewise fell to the people of Kosuge. Historical materials postdating the Meiji era also provide corroborating evidence for the gradual formation and development of a system of maintenance over time. Among the 50 historical records extracted for the purposes of this study are balance accounts in which maintenance expenditure was broken down into two types of cost: human and material. These accounts reveal that the maintenance of religious buildings depended largely on the economic activities of the region. The version of the mechanism developed in the pre-Meiji era to maintain the religious buildings managed by the villagers of Kosuge persisted even after the Meiji era. Moreover, although the maintenance was carried out and overseen mainly by the people of Kosuge, the scope of the broader economic activity relating to that maintenance would have varied according to the scale of the maintenance required and according to the nature and requirements of any given building; a regional economy would then have developed using money collected locally to pay for human and material resources.
This study is a report to clarify the enactment process of the Kenchikushi Law for Architects and Building Engineers after WW II by reviewing GHQ (General Headquarters, the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers) documents. The author had found this process only from the documents written in Japanese through his previous studies. During allied era, in case of the submission to the Diet of the bill, all the bills needed to obtain agreement from GHQ. For this reason, by reviewing the GHQ documents, there is a possibility to clarify how GHQ evaluated this bill, what kind of negotiation they had, and so on. In this study, the author tried to find the details of negotiation between Japan and GHQ by reviewing the GHQ documents which were collected in National Archives at College Park, Maryland (NARA II), National Diet Library, Japan (NDL), and Building Research Institute, Japan (BRI) The results are as follows:
1. Sections in charge of this Law in GHQ were Economic and Scientific Section (ESS) and Legal Section (LS). Industrial Production and Construction Branch, Industry Division, ESS inspected the structure of this Law, from August 1949 to January 1950. LS checked the provisions of this Law, after February 1950. The person in charge at ESS was Earl F. Stanek, who was the industrial specialist of construction. 2. Earl F. Stanek initially recognized this Law as “While not being perfect or up to Stateside standards, it represents a basis on which a better Architects License Law will eventually be developed.” But he finally indicated that it should be changed upon the qualification of Kenchikushi. The reasons not to change the chapter were as the qualification of Kenchikushi, Ryoichi Naito, Ministry of Construction thought that the qualification needed to follow the actual condition of Japan. Stanek accepted Naito’s reasoning. 3. LS pointed out the fact in Chapter V: “Registration of architect's offices is required, although the architect individually must also have a license” was irrelevant and should be avoided. But as the reason for the chapter of Architect's Office in this Law to remain, GHQ thought Ministry of Construction intended this chapter as their source of revenue to help administer the law. Against the indication of GHQ, Ministry of Construction had agreed to almost all these of this Law, but they never accepted these two requirements. 4. There were different and various opinions between Ministry of Construction and the Association of Nippon Architects (ANA). Some officials of Ministry of Construction agreed to the original opinions of ANA. And, the executives of ANA agreed to the bill of Architects Law which was created by Ministry of Construction as “contractors may retain architects in their designing sections,” but some members of ANA did not agree. Finally, they tried to force GHQ to change the provisions of this Law. In previous surveys, no one ever clarified these facts during enactment of this Law, which however has been proven by this study.
This article checked 33 sketches drawn from 1887 to 1888 remaining in J. Condor's sketch book, and made a consideration on these, the following points are obvious. This sketchbook left by J. Condor is kept in University of Tokyo. This book was donated to the University of Tokyo from Helen, Condor's daughter, around 1966, consisting of four albums and one notebook. Hiroyuki Suzuki had already summarized about the age and place name written in the sketchbook, according to this, sketches with years of 1870 - 77 and 1901 were drawn abroad, those in 1880 - 1900 were drawn in Japan. However, the purpose of the Shimonoseki trip that Condor made in January 1888, including Suzuki, had not been pointed out in the past. Suzuki needed stricter proofreading for this album in the future, but its work has not advanced. Therefore, in this paper, considering the sketch by condor, which includes the above-mentioned sketch of Shimonoseki from 1887 to 1888 and the description of the sketch related to these, the contents of the sketch and the background of the creation are clarified. In the sketches by Condor in 1887 to 1888, 10 sheets were reported in the past in Nagoya, Shimonoseki, Onomichi, Hiroshima and Kyoto, but of these, memos of sketches, which was conventionally considered as Kyoto, can be judged to be Senzaki located in Osaka from the proofreading with others. During this period, the point at which the sketch by Condor was made is consistent with the period and place of these Survey for the 1st and 2nd Capitol Building Stone Survey. For this reason, sketches by Condor in 1887 to 1888 can be judged to be drawn by Condor when investigating the building materials for the 1st and 2nd parliament buildings. In the sketchbook, we can see 23 images in total, including 5 images that describe dates and locations from 1887 to 1888, and 18 sketches drawn in Nagoya, Gifu, Osaka, Setouchi, Onomichi, Shimonoseki, without date, other than the above 10 images. From the contents, it can be judged that these 23 sheets were drawn in the 1st and 2nd Capitol Building Stone Survey of Condor. The sketch drawn from 1887 to 1888 remaining in the Condor sketch book were drawn mainly in the interior such as a floor space around the tokonoma in the inn used in the 1st and 2nd Capitol Building Stone Survey. In addition, these inns and ryotei were buildings belonging to the highest class at these places.
It is known that French Jesuit Michel Benoit designed fountains and hydraulic machinery called "Shuifa" for the European palaces called "Xiyanglou" in Yuanmingyuan. Though Jesuit correspondence tells that the construction of Xiyanglou was initiated by the Qianlong Emperor after seeing pictures of European fountains, there are only a few studies on Benoit's role or his hydraulic machinery, and hardly any previous studies pay attention to the practical problems of their construction. Thus the paper aims to focus on the construction phase of the hydraulic machinery, to reveal the characteristics of the actural machinery in terms of its technology applied by Qing craftsmen, and examines the novelty and feasibility of the machines from their perspective. There are several letters by French Jesuits reporting that Benoit designed the fountains and hydraulic machinery for the European palaces. One of them describes how Benoit made "la célèbre machine du val de Saint-Pierre", which is thought to be "une Machine exécutée au Val Saint Pierre", described in Bernard Forest de Belidor's Architecture Hydraulique. Xushuilou and Haiyantang are known to have contained hydraulic machinery to raise the water and associated water reservoirs. The machine of Val Saint Pierre can be divided into two part: a crank machine using pin face wheel, lantern pinion, elliptical cranks and pendulums, and a reciprocating pump using piston or plunger. The former are mostly made of wood, and the later are of cooper and cast iron, with lead water pipes attached to its body. They have not been used in previous studies, but there are two architectural documents from the Qing dynasty that likely describe the crank machine and pumps of the hydraulic machinery in Xushuilou. Through the comparative analysis aided by Table 1 using the above-mentioned documents and Belidor's book, it can be observed that Qing craftsmen made some changes to the original machine in Belidor's book — for example they used bitumen, cloth and rope, and tin pipes to substitute for lead pipes. Another important aspect is the estimation of labor: the documents tell that one crank machine needs 100 man-days to finish installing, which is quite a lot compered to other water-related machines described in the same documents. Through the analysis of events relevant to European hydraulic knowledge transfer during the 17th and 18th century in the court aided by Table2, and supplemented by Table3 which suggests interpretations of the word Shuifa and related terms, it could be said that the book Taixishuifa published in 1612 was the origin of the word "Shuifa", which first meant hydraulic machinery and later both hydraulic machinery and fountains. It is known that the Yongzheng emperor has once ordered missionaries to make a fountain which was not realized. The author also found reports of a missionary's execution of portable fountains in 1717, and descriptions of Qianglong's order to execute Shuifa in 1771. The most important thing to highlight here is that several experiences of pump making during the reign of Yongzheng could have prepared the technical basis for the manufacture of copper pumps. Yet the substitution of the machines of Xushuilou and Haiyantang in 1763, and the demolition of them in 1795 were the crucial moments to explain that the maintenance and repairs of the crank machines were not easy for Qing craftsmen. It has been demonstrated that Belidor's Architecture Hydraulique played an important role when Benoit designed the hydraulic machinery placed in the Xushuilou building. However in the construction phase, the Qing craftsmen's experiences of various pumps might have played a more important role. Therefore, it could be concluded that the novelty of Benoit's machinery was limited.
The purpose of this report is to clarify the Japanese landscape gardener Shigemori Mirei’s theory about the gardening from his description about “Nature”. In this research, focusing on the account of “Nature” in his writings, we structure the meaning of Shigemori’s description. The meaning of “Super Nature” is drawn from “Nature” in a spiritual rather than a material dimension. Description on “Mother Nature” is treated as being produced by God, and at the same time, is regarded as God itself that made “Nature”. We perceive that “Eternal modern” refers to his own life, which he puts into his garden works.
This paper aims to understand the spatial characteristics of pilotis in modern architecture. Looking back to the past, there was neither physical nor mental restriction as to when and where to communicate. We can say that in the modern days, however, people are literally drawing boundaries to clearly distinguish the function or property of a certain space from another, leaving less and less ambiguously defined spaces. People are left with no opportunity to be in contact with the environment. The society today is forced to make efficient use of the limited resources they possess to live a full and sustainable life, requiring buildings and cities to create spaces that are open to the surroundings, allowing states of ambiguity without any apparent boundaries. It can therefore be said that the society is in demand for what we in this paper call “boundary spaces”; a “boundary space” is a boundary “line” with a volumetric or spatial thickness which not only defines the perimeter of a space, but also functions as a bridge to connect the worlds on both sides. There is no obligation as to who steps in to this boundary space, which would eventually trigger diversity in the activities within the space and its surroundings. Even though the application of piloti spaces has been a method frequently used in the architecture field as a strategy to create boundary spaces, it has never been evaluated as a device to create open spaces to house diverse activities. Based on such background, we set the main goal of this research to introduce a new conceptual framework of pilotis, in which piloti spaces are defined as boundary spaces to trigger unintended and uncontrolled activities that mediate all the possible architectural connections there is; the inside-outside, the private-public, the artificial-natural, and the architecture-city relationships. We begin this paper with a case study of pilotis in the modernist period, focusing mainly on the components and the layouts of piloti spaces that function as boundary spaces. The overall time span of the analysis is 55 years, starting from 1926 when Le Corbusier systemized pilotis as one of the elements of “Les 5 points d`une architecture nouvelle,” up to 1980 when post-modernist architecture became a trend. The 126 cases referred in this research were taken from 6 representative architecture magazines in Japan; “Shin-Kenchiku,” “Kenchiku Bunka,” “a+u,” “Kokusai Kenchiku,” “Kindai Kenchiku,” and “SD.” The essential dimensions of the piloti spaces could be measured with detail in every case. At one stage of the research we extracted the measurements of ceiling heights, the sections of the ceilings and the floors, and the furniture pieces placed within the space, all of which relate deeply to what is happening in the piloti spaces. By both examining these physical elements and referring to the way the piloti spaces are connected to the environment, we came to a general understanding of the characteristic trend that piloti spaces possess. We also considered the architects' intentions of integrating pilotis in the building design. The 126 cases were classified according to how the piloti spaces can be approached from the outside, along with how the piloti spaces are in relation to the interior spaces. Through the process we came to experimentally conclude that pilotis possess one or many of the following roles or characteristics: (1) a gate-like space to welcome people in from the outside, (2) an isolated backyard, (3) a front yard that allow diversity in movement, (4) division between the inside and the outside, (5) a correspondence to the topographical conditions, (6) a separation from the ground.
This study is to analyze the types of spatial composition within Buddhist shrines. The focus was on the spatial composition, the plan forms and the arrangement of worship objects (stupas and Buddhist statues). This research is based on 55 documented Buddhist temples in Central Asia. The shrine architectures have been divided into 4 types based on spatial compositions. The meanings of spatial composition also have been discussed by conjecturing how worship acts were performed in shrine architectures. For the purpose of this study, Central Asia is defined as: northern Pakistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Xinjiang Uyghur (Fig. 1). The plan forms were divided into the following types: single chamber, two-celled chamber which has main chamber and ante-chamber (having wing walls and without wing walls type), and the corridor type (a main chamber enclosed by a single wall/ two-celled chamber enclosed by a single wall) (Fig. 2). According to the classification of plan forms, the arrangement of worship objects was classified as I, II, III, and IV. The spatial compositions were analyzed based on the schemas. The shrine architectures have been divided into 4 types as the follows (Fig. 3): I. Worshippers face worship object inside or outside the chamber: Worshippers do not enter inside, and face to the worship object directly; Worshippers enter inside directly without wing walls, judging from its large scale; Worshippers enter inside through wing walls, judging from its large scale and the spatial composition. II. Shrine with axiality: the worship object is located at the further end of the shrine (in some cases, center of the shrine). There is the symbolic direction to the worship object. Worshippers face the worship object. III. Shrine with circumambulatory: the worship object is housed in the center of the main chamber. Accordingly, pradak?i?a (Buddhist devotional practice) is performed. IV. Shrine with centrality: the worship objects are placed on three sides or four sides of the main chamber. The plan forms of shrines are centralized plan such as a square and a cruciform. Axiality is a common characteristic in many shrine architectures. Axiality is necessarily component in the case of the two-celled chamber type shrines. In addition, it became clear that there is the shrine architecture includes some characteristics of spatial composition: axiality + circumambulatory, and axiality + circumambulatory + centrality. Over a long period of time, circumambulatory design was adopted for wide areas because it indicated the circumambulation ritual from left to right of the worship object. On the other hand, there were few examples of shrine architectures with centrality. It has been conjectured that centrality was a determinate factor judging from the aspect of geographical distribution. Based on the analysis, the meaning of the spatial compositions was considered. The conclusions are as follows: - Shrines with axiality means that the Buddhist world continues forward. - Shrines with circumambulatory were held for service of the cosmological Buddha. - Shrines with centrality had worshippers enclosed by the Buddhist world. It could be considered that “circumambulatory” and “centrality” is contrasting characteristics of spatial composition and suggests a change of meaning in the shrine architecture.
Public services have been usually provided by the government to the citizens, but in recent years there has been a shift in the structure of publicness and citizens themselves are developing some public services adapted to their needs and regional characteristics. Among them, gathering places created and managed by local communities, called here “common spaces”, have increased in various parts of Japan. Especially, many unused buildings are now being renovated as common spaces. This study aims to analyze and discuss these renovated common spaces from the viewpoints of design and management. The magazine “Shinkenchiku” and the “Tokyo kenchiku collection” yearbooks have been used as a source to select a total of 60 cases from 1995 to 2017. After checking the possibilities and permissions for interviews, eight common spaces created through renovation were selected. Semi-structured interviews were performed to architects and managers of each case, regarding management, design, evaluation of the involvement of the architect, and global evaluation of the common space. Regarding management, this study found that the role of architects was expanded beyond design tasks into other activities such as program conception, publicity, research, participatory design, management, etc. Also, the Existence of revenue program such as cafe, share house, guest house, etc, and the synergistic effect between them and the common spaces. Common spaces had diverse uses, such as gallery, lecture, meeting, library, concert, etc. The spatial operations performed in all common spaces were also analyzed. In order to do this, first the design intentions mentioned during interviews were classified. The spatial operations realized by the architect before completion were classified into categories such as “creating an intermediate area between inside and outside”, “creating a hall-like space by changing height levels” etc. The spatial operations before and after completion were classified into categories such as “creating furniture, finishing, and green by collaborating local residents“. The spatial operations by the manager realized after completion were classified into 3 categories such as “making partitions according to changing programs”. Regarding the evaluation about the involvement of the architect, the interviews showed both positive comments such as “architect's proposal of an unexpected ideas”, “making architecture attractive”, and negative comments such as “the problem of lack of functionality”, and “the architect gradually distancing himself away from management”. Finally, the global evaluation of common spaces showed positive effects of common spaces such as “creation of animation in the area”, “solving problems in the area”, and problems such as “lack of the expected involvement of local people”, “lack of organizational continuity”. This thesis clarifies the actual situation of a selection of common space from the view points of design and management in the hope to help them when they get involved in the establishment, design and management of future common spaces.
The Concession, up till now, have been recognized as a country in another. This study focuses on the British Concession in Tianjin, elucidate (1)The involvement Chinese people had in the operational management in the British Concession (2)The property development by Chinese people in the concession (3)The styles of the architectures in the Concession in Tianjin. The conclusion shows the concession area was not simply a country in another, the administration and the further development were largely done by Chinese, it was gradually utilized by Chinese people.