The objective of this article is to evaluate space formation of rumah susun ( Rusun ) ( apartment house or flats ) in Surabaya Indonesia, focusing on the common spaces for the new models of Rusun. This paper clarifies how to use the dwelling unit that is very limited to 18 m2 ( 3m×6m ) and common living space. The dwelling units can be classified into several groups in terms of space divisional and additional pattern. Kitchen ( dapur ) and even bathing space ( kamar mandi ) tends to be installed in private dwelling unit and, but common space is used variably by compensating the narrowness of dwelling space. Based on the analysis of data obtained by our field surveys, we aim to propose guidelines for renovation and future design of rumah susun.
KIP ( Kampung Improvement Program ) has been highly evaluated by successful results to improve kampung environment and to activate inhabitants. On the other hand, public housing does not necessarily obtain the effective success. It is the end of 1980s that new strategy called Rusun Project had started. 14 Rusuns were constructed in Surabaya until 2017. Rusun Dupak and Rusun Sombo designed by ITS Group headed by J. Silas are the very unique examples which maximize the common space.
The major points this paper clarifies are as follows. Our field studies clarify profiles of inhabitants, many of which still belong to low income group. Space division and addition of dwelling units are classified into several patterns.
O : Original dwelling unit without any addition ( Prototype A ). Households who use a part of dwelling unit. The interesting facts is that 14% of households live in the part of dwelling unit ( ≒9 m2 ), although the area of dwelling unit is limited to 3m×6m=18 m2. A : 15.1% of households use dwelling unit without any addition. Dwelling units are divided into two, ruang tamu ( living ) and kamar tidur ( bed room ). All the households except O and A, that is, 75.6% of households, add spaces to dwelling unit. There is household O and O+, A and A+ who add rooms in veranda or mezzanine ( O+ ). B : Households who add dapur (kitchen) to dwelling unit. 66.2% of households has their own dapur. Households tend to have their own dapur. The kitchen space in common space is used in general as storage. C : Households who add kamar mandi ( bathing room ) to dwelling unit 21.0% of households install kamar mandi in dwelling unit. D : Households who add dapur and kamar mandi to dwelling unit. Common space are used variously for cooking, washing etc., judging from the furniture and goods laid out. We find many goods overflowed from dwelling units, for example, bed, study desk, shoe box, cupboard, and bicycle, and so on, because dwelling units are so small. It tends that the goods overflowed are more in the upper floor and in larger floor.
On the other hand, common space functions well as common living for the communal life in the floor. Shops used to open in common space. This article suggests several points to be considered for the new model of Rusun, for examples, how to overcome the narrowness of the dwelling unit, how to design space formation to accept addition and reform, how to deal with the needs of personalization of kitchen and toilet-bath room, how to design common space and so on.
School classrooms are obliged to set the aperture ratio to 1/5 or more of floor areas according to the Building Standards Law, and a large window opening is provided. In recent years, in the design of school facilities aimed at energy saving, window design is contrived to realize daylight use. However, providing a large area for daylight and taking in more sunlight is not directly related to the reduction of lighting energy. It is necessary to improve the uniformity of luminance and remove glare through architectural design such as a daylighting method and shading devices. Also, it is needed for users to turn off artificial lighting when the luminance is sufficiently obtained by daylight. Therefore, it is necessary to organize the problems of a school's daylighting and lighting plan, including the user's environmental adjustment behavior.
This study aims to indicate the environmental light conditions of classrooms with contrived windows, the actual use of artificial lighting and light shielding devices, and the problems and the possibilities of daylight use in school buildings. In two elementary schools where the daylighting method was contrived, we measured the light environment and surveyed its use. Additionally, we conducted a trial to reduce the use of artificial lighting with the cooperation of teachers and children.
From the measurement result of the light environment in the classroom, it was confirmed that the distribution in the classroom with multiple windows is more uniform, compared with the standard design type of school building with windows on the southern one side. Also, in the classroom with multiple windows, the recommended illuminance was satisfied at any measurement point on a sunny day, and the average luminance also fulfilled the design criteria. However, in winter, when the curtain was closed to avoid the incidence of direct light, the brightness ratio between the window surface and the inside of the classroom was large.
According to the survey of the use of the light shielding device and artificial lighting, it was indicated that the light shielding device is not only used for direct sunlight but, also, for shielding the eyesight. Artificial lighting is always used regardless of the brightness in the classroom.
From our results, we summarize factors to pay attention to reducing energy consumption by the use of daylight in school buildings. In window design, it is important to make the distribution of brightness uniform. Concerning light shielding devices such as curtains, it is necessary to examine light transmittance and reflection characteristics to shield daylight appropriately and to prevent glare and a high luminance ratio. Additionally, it is necessary to consider a switch system for artificial lighting that can turn off light on a brighter side and illuminate a darker side.
To reduce lighting energy in school buildings, environmental adjustment actions of the user also become necessary. In the trial to reduce the amount of artificial lighting, which collaborated with fifth-grade children, it was seen that the children understood the objective and importance, and adjusted the amount of artificial lighting and curtain use. As a result, it was indicated that energy savings from reduced artificial lighting could be realized if children were led to understand the proper light environment and the method needed to adjust the level of artificial lighting.
In this study, we examined countermeasures and facility demands when taking in casualties at disaster base hospitals during a devastating disaster. In order to accommodate casualties during a disaster, several key areas must not only be made available, but must be easy for medical staff to use. These areas include a triage area, where casualties are prioritized, a red area for serious casualties, a yellow area for moderate casualties, a green area for minor casualties, among others. Here, we gathered feedback from medical staff regarding their concerns and requirements for the implementation of disaster facilities. Based on the data acquired through our investigation, in addition to clarifying the selection of triage and related areas, we examined the following related factors and the reasoning behind their importance.
(1) We used a t-test to determine whether there is a difference in value attributed to the distance between each area when the red area is being used for emergencies. Although a difference was not seen for the distance between the triage area and the red area, shorter distances from the red area to the scan room and to the ward elevator had higher values during emergency use.
(2) Many institutions had concerns about the ward elevator becoming unavailable, and we observed floor plans that included all areas, including casualty reception, on the first floor. However, given the current conditions of some buildings, plans to limit disaster medical areas to their first floors were abandoned.
(3) While devising disaster plans, many concerns about the flow of staff and patients between the different areas of the facility were raised. Particularly, concerns about the length or duplication of flow lines were raised.
(4) Using multiple regression analyses to clarify requirements for desired building facilities, assigning priority to each area, we revealed the following priorities: consideration of the weather in the triage area, the ability to appropriately deal with serious illness in the red area, the securing of space in the yellow area, and a clear division from the red area and the green area. When addressed, each of these factors effectively increased the satisfaction of staff within each area.
(5) We analyzed the proximity desired between areas using Sheffé’s pairwise comparison method. A close proximity between the triage area and the red area was most strongly desired.
The quantitative analysis results revealed that it is desirable to plan flow lines connecting each area and the floor plan between the areas in advance, and, with consideration to flow lines, to incorporate appropriate furniture and supplies into the floor plan design. Meanwhile, due to factors such as site condition, continued usual usage of the site, building costs, and so on, it is sometimes difficult to incorporate all of the desired design factors that take into consideration the acceptance of casualties during a disaster. However, by prioritizing maintenance factors in a facility design that is adopted based on the viewpoint of the medical staff, it is possible to establish a facility at which medical staff can easily accept casualties during a disaster.
As the number of younger generation is decreasing, the number of the closed public high schools is increasing in Japan. In fact, Kanagawa prefecture has closed twenty-four prefectural high schools since 2000. Therefore, knowledge about how to use closed high schools is increasingly important. As a step to gain the knowledge, this paper clarify both of (1) state of utilization of closed high schools by a prefecture rather than municipalities and (2) specific issues of utilizing closed high schools unlike to elementary or junior high school due to facilities and catching area of schools.
The targets of this research are twenty-four closed high schools in Kanagawa prefecture. Kanagawa was chosen as a subject because the prefecture is a forefront prefecture of using closed prefectural high schools.
This paper analyzed use of closed high schools by the following three steps. First, the authors collected both transitions of policy regarding prefectural high schools and the number of closed public schools within the prefecture by bibliographic research and inquiries to municipalities. Second, the authors investigated use of twenty-four closed prefectural high schools and their surrounding communities by research in literatures which are school’s summary booklets of the prefectural archives, Density Inhabited District (DID) data by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, web site of local newspapers, and the proceedings of prefectural and municipalities’ assemblies. Finally, the authors interviewed with Kanagawa prefectural educational board and eight presidents of surrounding residents' associations to consider their opinions about the utilization of closed high schools.
The analysis revealed following main results.
(1) The integration of public high schools is determined by the prefecture with consideration to broader perspective on the prefecture. Therefore, local municipalities do not have opportunities to discuss with the prefecture about integration of high schools although they are most influenced by the school integration. The authors propose that it is important for local municipalities to participate the discussion.
(2) There are differences between high schools and both elementary and junior high schools, which are sizes of schools and local residents’ attachments toward schools. Local communities do not have particular attachment to closed high schools regardless distance from central urban area. However, as land prices are different depending on the locations, schools in rural area have fewer potentials to be used by private sectors. It leads to create an issue that closed high schools tends to be kept to be unused in rural areas. In the case that private sectors use the land, there are three ways of securing publicness of the lands; splitting lands into private and public sectors, making private sectors to develop public facilities and lending lands to private sectors. It is appreciated by local residents that enabling access for local communities to parts of new facilities developed by private sectors. Based on the results, the authors consider that it is important that prefecture keep publicness of closed prefectural high schools in using it.
This paper aims to explain the time and regional feature of elementary school consolidation process, after regulating the relation of transition of the number of schools and consolidation based on the database about the number of pupils of elementary school and established and closed schools in 1948‐2010 in Chugoku region.
Although the definite number reduction of pupils was observed in city areas, there were comparatively little consolidation of schools until 2010. However, in the mountainous area, the rapid reduction of the number of pupils continued after rapid economic growth, consolidation of elementary schools were not avoided. However, correspondence of regional governments was not equal, there were many governments which streamlined at early stage, and there are some governments which streamlined the small-scale school availing of the merger of Heisei period. Even after the merger of Heisei period, the old administrative boundaries after the merger of Showa period correspond with school zones in 2010, and one elementary school has been maintained fundamentally.
But if the trend in recent years which the number reduction of pupils continues is taken into consideration, the further reorganization will be predicted enough from now on. Therefore, in the regional governments of large area which include the mountainous areas after the merger of Heisei period, by positioning the school reorganization as the part of public-benefit facility reorganization plan, reexamination of the school arrangement plan including the role of public elementary school in the area, pupil's attending-school method, etc. is required for the local community maintenance of the old government area.
The aim of this study is to clarify the relationship between behavioral characteristics and spatial distribution in the interior space of a small nursery school, analyzing three aspects: the time zone, age and the child. The aim is to outline the basic principle for a plan of a nursery school. In previous research, few studies have focused on small-scale nursery schools. As such, the results of this study are considered to be one of the basic materials for designing future facilities of nursery school.
The facility for investigation is a small scale nursery school named “A” in one of the 23 wards of Tokyo city. Nursery school A is located one minute walk from the nearest station and is located on the first floor of a steel structure with three floors. The area of the nursery school A is 51.3 m2 (nursery space 37.5 m2), where 12 staff members (director: 1, nursery teacher: 4, cook: 2 part-time: 5) work. Capacity of nursery school A is 15 children, who are taken care of divided by age. A nursery room consists of three spaces separated by rail and a movable shelf ( 0-year-old space, 1-year-old child space, and free space for meals etc.). The survey continued for 3 days from August 16th to 18th of 2017 (from Wednesday to Friday), when the weather was generally cloudy. Eleven children (6 children in the 0-year-old class: 5 boys and 1 girl, 5 children in the 1-year-old class: 2 boys and 3 girls) were observed, and whose behavior and location were recorded every 15 minutes in the plan. The time of survey is from morning (8 am to 12 pm) excluding the nap time zone, and the afternoon (2 pm to 6 pm).
Analysis contains the types of behavior of children, distribution of children of time zone and space zone, based on the observation survey. In addition, the characteristics of behavior of children are viewed by time, age and person.
The results showed the behavioral characteristics and spatial distribution of the child from the behavioral observation for children of the small-scale nursery school (0 to 1 year old class) were clarified as follows.
1 Children's behavior can be classified into dynamic behavior (wandering, playing with toys, frolicking and frisking) and static behaviors (playing with picture books, being desultory and gazing) and so on.
2 Regarding to the spatial distribution of behavior, 0-year-old children are biased towards the space where a nursery teacher can be seen; while 1-year-old children, in the case of dynamic behavior, concentrates to the center of the space, and in case of static behavior, are biased toward a space where nursery teacher can be seen.
3 The duration of the action of both groups of children changes around nap time (around 12 o'clock).
4 Behavioral characteristics common to children of 0 and 1 year old are playing with toys and frolicking. In the 0-year-old children static behaviors such as gazing are seen much more.
5 Personal behavior varies widely among individuals in the dynamic behavior of frisking.
In this research, we analyze how the population distribution structure in population decline process is related to the distribution of living convenience facilities in local cities with declining population. The purpose of this research is to obtain knowledge for realistic urban structure planning. We target Hakodate, Aomori and Hachinohe with declining population.
We will grasp the relationship between living convenience and population change within Urbanization Promotion Area. For this purpose, we analyze from the following three viewpoints. They are viewpoints of proximity with three perishable foodstuffs store, convenience of public transportation, comprehensive living convenience. In this study, we analyze the change of Population Accumulation Index (PAI) from 1995 to 2015.
As results, the following points were clarified.
The PAI of Area accessible to three perishable foodstuffs has not changed greatly and has decreased with almost the same tendency as the population declining trend in the whole city.
As a result of analysis by areas of each time distance to central station, PAI is decreasing in areas with high traffic convenience.
On the other hand, PAI is increasing in areas with low traffic convenience.
As a result of analysis by areas of comprehensive living convenience, PAI is decreasing in areas with high comprehensive living convenience.
In areas with high convenience, PAI is relatively high. However, in these areas it is clear that not only the population can not be maintained, but also the population is reduced more than the area with lower convenience.
From the above, it is extremely difficult to promote population concentration by improving living convenience.
This study investigates the location tendency of vacant houses, the situation of a local community, and the occurrence of vacant house appearance based on residents' intentions for a city area. The area chosen for this study was in Higashiyama, Kyoto City. This study’s purpose is to i) clarify the location tendency of vacant houses and specify a production factor, and ii) analyse, based on a questionnaire about the concerns of the residence area, the intention to change its habitation and community structure. The study also aims to investigate future countermeasures against the creation of vacant houses, including those regarding the local environment.
The method of investigation was analysis by GIS using building point data of vacant houses supplied by Zenrin. Next, we administered a questionnaire to grasp the consciousness regarding vacant houses and the habitation intentions of local residents. Moreover, we conducted a hearing investigation at the city office in Kyoto regarding the characteristics of the area and the vacant house situation.
The variables selected as tendencies of location were building area, the difference of altitude in a mesh, average altitude, and distance to a grocer's shop, bus stop, physician, and pediatric clinic (except for a section). First, our results showed that the probability of vacant house occurrence fell as a building’s area increased. This showed that it was easy for a small-scale building to become a vacant house. Next, we found that vacant house occurrence probability went up as the distance from a bus stop increased. The same tendency was seen with a pediatric clinic. However, as for the distance to a grocer's shop and a physician, vacant house occurrence probability fell as it increased. As a result, in areas with better convenience, such as those close to a grocer's shop or a physician, vacant house occurrence probability became high. Additionally, the probability for vacant house occurrence became low in areas where average altitude was high.
Then, we measured the tendencies of the area by examining the results of our questionnaire. In the west, householders’ ages were younger, there were many parenting households, and evaluation of the area was comparatively good. Since participation in neighborhood association activity was also high, we inferred that it was an active area.
In the central region, a householder's age and habitation years exhibited polarisation and it seemed that friendship within the neighborhood was also limitative. However, attachment to the area and the intention of future habitation were high.
In the east, a householder's age, family structure, and habitation years had comparatively various composition. The relationship with the neighborhood was stable and the attention to vacant houses was also prudent. However, participation in neighborhood association or area events was comparatively low, and it was especially doubtful that neighborhood association events would continue.
As a general trend, the rate of vacant houses was high in the west and in the center near a bus stop, a medical institution, a grocer's shop, etc., and the rate of vacant houses was low in the east where convenience was not good. Moreover, the potential for future occurrence was also the same. It was surprising that vacant house occurrence in areas where people's demands were high was predicted. In the center, since attachment to the area was also high, it was thought that this influenced intentions impacting vacant house occurrence since residents did not want to lose their positions.
Edward Relph, a Canadian geographer said that there are psychological connections named “sense of place” between people and place, and they are important in terms of making good places. In Japan, It is said that the urban developments without consideration of psychological connections have destroyed places and their social memory. The purpose of this research is to analyze the character and inheritance of “sense of place”, by observing habitual use of places inherited in university students in Takadanobaba. There were three investigations and followings were obtained:
1) The whole picture of places where university students usually use
It became clear that the places where university students usually use can be divided into fifty four groups based on the industry classification. University facilities, Izakaya, Ramen shop etc. were the most popular places. And it became clear that the places where university students usually use can be roughly divided into nine groups through analysis of purpose for using place. There are the places for intellectual activities, cultural activities, sports, shopping, drinking parties, eating, gathering, killing time and rest. Moreover, it became clear that university students were relating nine places with each other to be network.
2) The target youth’s formation process of Local-oriented mind
162 habitual uses of places are gained through the survey. They can be roughly classified into two actions. One is action done by using necessary items already prepared in the places, and the other is actions done by bringing necessary items from other places by themselves. The latter is done in the outdoor space, and it became clear that it is done outside of university more than inside of university. It is confirmed that most places where habitual use of places are done were located around each campus and Takadanobaba Station. And it became clear that many habitual uses of places are done in three types of places; places for leisure activity, places as node, and places for moving.
3) Actors for inheritance of “sense of place”
134 habitual uses of places are inherited beyond school grade. Groups or people keeping on planning events and the groups with multi-generation members are main actors for inheritance of the habitual use of places, thus they are considered to be one of the actors for inheritance of “sense of place”. And it became clear that two environments were important for the inheritance of “sense of place”; appropriate urban space for purpose and the experience of seeing behavior of others.
Recently, many suburban residents in Japan are facing problems when shopping for groceries. The two primary causes of these problems are store closure and an aging population. For example, when all stores in an area close, residents may be forced to travel further to other stores or remaining small stores might not be adequate for people’s grocery needs. Moreover, elderly residents of an area will not be able to use a car and their moving range become narrow and they will have difficulties with shopping groceries.In these areas, new stores seldom open, so creating shopping support services (e.g. a delivery or local chauffeur service operated by the residential association) is important to solve these problems. When a local government selects a suitable support service, it is indispensable to examine whether the service can alleviate people’s dissatisfaction with the difficulties in getting groceries.
This study aims to examine the desirable direction of shopping support services in Koma-Musashidai District in Hidaka City, Saitama, Japan, based on an analysis of customer store choice and store dissatisfaction. In this study, “desirable services” refers to services which can improve people’s grocery shopping experience . The researchers conducted a questionnaire survey on customer shopping behavior of people in November 2015. Respondents (N=611) were either householders or their spouses. First, we analyzed the relationship between people’s store choice and customer-based evaluations of the stores. From this, we summarized the problems people experience with grocery shopping.
Results showed that people’s store choice depended on their personal characteristics (e.g. age, family structure) and their mode of transport. Results also showed that people’s store evaluation could be classified into two factors: quality and accessibility. People who drove used higher quality stores located farther from the district. People who could neither use a car nor travel far easily tended to choose a smaller, nearer store (Store A) with lower perceived quality. Residents’ inconvenience when shopping was found to be related to low accessibility and poor store evaluations, especially regarding groceries sold.
Based on these findings, we analyzed the need for the existing delivery service and local chauffeur service. Results suggested that if a customer of Store A used a delivery service more than once a week, their inconvenience was ameliorated. Even the chauffeur service, though limited, could get rid of people’s dissatisfaction with Store A’s accessibility. In addition, if the moving ranges were extended and people could reach higher quality stores, it would help resolve the dissatisfaction with accessibility. Even if expanding the service area was difficult, the result of this analysis suggested that delivery service, strengthened cooperation with the current residential organization, and relatives living near respondents could play important roles in resolving people’s dissatisfaction. As the number of children in the district living with or near a respondent is increasing, this could alleviate dissatisfaction because the child could take the respondent to a higher quality store that is farther away.
Findings of this study are applicable to those on other similar suburban residential areas in Japan. To resolve the problems related to grocery shopping in these areas, it is important to pay attention not only to store distance but also to various other sources of dissatisfaction (e.g. quality of items, stock and availability, etc.). In addition, it is necessary to provide better shopping environments by not only opening new stores but also improving existing shopping support services.
This paper explores the role played by housing inheritance in stratifying people’s housing situations. In Japan, as in many other mature home-owning societies, the distribution of existing housing wealth over generations within families progressively acts as a novel mechanism in widening inequalities. The aging of the population leads to an inevitable increase in property inheritance, resulting in the differentiation of housing and asset conditions among offspring generations. Many inheritors on lower incomes live in inherited housing, while those on higher incomes tend to rent out inherited properties. Meanwhile, a number of residential properties that are located in rural areas and that are inherited by urban households remain vacant with almost no marketability. The paper stresses the importance of housing inheritance as a new key driver for reshaping the contour and structure of housing stratification.
In Japan, the second-hand housing market has remained underdeveloped, reflecting the construction-oriented housing policy system. Therefore, the market is not expected to play a significant role in the redistribution of existing housing. Meanwhile, families have been positioned as one of the keystones of Japan's housing approach. Consequently, the family system, rather than the housing market, plays a particularly definitive role in structuring mechanisms for redistributing housing wealth. In this context, increasing inheritance will become more important in determining housing circumstances surrounding offspring generations. Thus, Japan's ultra-aged and property-based society will likely undergo increasing disparities between affluently propertied families that further accumulate housing assets over generations, modest families that have a tendency towards the dissipation of their housing assets accumulated in the past, and perpetually renting families that are increasingly being excluded from mainstream society. This suggests limitations imposed on the family-oriented system of distributing housing wealth in terms of expanding inequalities.
After the Nobi earthquake that occurred on October 28, 1891, at that time, it was record using widely spread photo machines, but there are many pictures of which the photos left today do not know the shooting place, it will be a problem when investigating disaster and considering the way of reconstruction. Therefore, I have summarized several articles on photo collections photographing disaster areas of the Nobi earthquake, pointed out that Mr. Miyashita Kin was deeply involved in the editing of "Meiji-24-nen setumeisyo". By the way, it turned out that there was a possibility that other than Mr. Miyashita Kin was involved in the formation of the "Meiji-24-nen setumeisyo". Therefore, in order to consider the establishment of "Meiji-24-nen setumeisyo", this paper aimed to reconsider the examination of the "Nobi zisin syasin" which is currently in the Aichi prefecture library, the relationship between "Meiji-24-nen setumeisyo" and "Meiji-24-nen syasintyo", and the following became clear.
"Nobi zisin syasin" was composed of photos attached to the mount on which the names of Miyashita Kin, Aoyama Saburo, Nakamura Bokuyou were printed. In Nakamura Bokuyou's pictures, 17 out of 20 were matched with "Meiji-24-nen setumeisyo" about communication number and explanation title. From this, it can be thought that Nakamura was involved in the creation of the "Meiji-24-nen setumeisyo". “Meiji-24-nen syasintyou” was produced by re-editing “Meiji-24-nen setumeisyo” and unexpected “Meiji-24-nen 10-gatu 28-niti sinsaisyasin”, etc.
In the city of Angkor, where heavy rainfall occurs in the rainy season, it is important for maintaining urban functions that rainwater drains rapidly. This study focuses on the drainage system of khmer architecture in Angkor pirood. In this paper, we aim to clarify the drainage system of Pre Rup temple established in 961.
There are 16 drainage channels in the temple. In this paper, we examined cross section shape of these drainages from the survey data and examined the drainage capacity. And, from the level survey data of the foundation, the foundation settlement was examined. Then, we analyzed relationship between the drainage capacity of the drainage channel and the foundation settlement.
As the result, it was revealed that the foundation settlement was large near the drainage channel with low drainage capacity. From this, with regard to the limited drainage channel assumed to function properly, it was possible to show the relationship between the drainage capacity and the foundation settlement with a certain probability.
Sambor Prei Kuk Monuments were functioned as huge-scale heritage of city between the period of Pre-Angkor and Angkor. These Monuments are regarded as "Īsānapura" and "伊奢那城" appered in Chinese historical documents and inscriptions. These Monuments were registered UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2015 based on the historical importance and the sites have been restored vigorously. However, the architectural study is not progressed actively, especially about the planning methods of brick structures. The purpose of this study is to revealing the method of planning the structure based on recent studies about dimensional planning of Khmer temple complex achived certain results.
Sambor Prei Kuk Monuments is bisected by O-Kru-Ker River and west Zone called "city zone" and east zone is called "temple zone". In temple zone, three main complexes of temple: North Group, Central Group and South Group, are situated, and many brick shrines situated in. These Monuments were functioned as capital of Chenla from 6 century. After transfered to Angkor period, these were functioned as provincial city subtend Angkor area. Recent studies of methods of plan Khmer temples in structures in Angkor period, reveal that the modules of architectural planning are "hasta" and "vyama" based on body length. In Pre-Angkor period. the values of module are estimated close to those. Therefore the purpose is to reason the value of module in times of Pre-Angkor and the basical planning.
Through the analyzing N1, N7, N8, N9, N10, N11, N12, N13, N14, N18, and N22, the value of module is estimated about 410 mm = 1 unit. However, some groups of module are confirmed as around unit = 420, 410 and 400 mm. The shrines belong to group of unit = 420 mm are rectangle plan and situated between middle and outer enclorsure. The shrines of rectangle plan is positioned in early times in Khmer history, so the larger module compared with other shrines may be possible to regard as low-level of construction. On the other hand, the different of value may be distinguished depending in module of finger intentionally. About the basical planning, for example of N13 tower, inner chamber is rectangle and outer wall is square plan. In the analyzed structures, the form of plan is the only and characteristic. The planning is regarded as secondly manipulation. Therefore, all plans of rectangle should not be placed in early times in Angkor easily. In additions to that, two tendencies are indicated those are relationship thikness of wall and innner chamber. About shrines of rectangle plan, the dimension of shorter side and thickness of wall proportional relationship. The directions of development transition are observed in two tendencies.
Accordingly, the result of analysis reveal the each basical planning and values of module. As the result, the values of module apprpach to that of Angkor-period. However, the different of these values are necessary to examine carefully. That the module of dimension changes significantly would not be expected in brief period. There is the possibility that shrines of rectangle plan are designed the way that is different with square plans. In addditon to that, the planning method involved with thickness of wall closely. The shorter side of inner chamber and thickness of wall is propotional relationship. It may be possible to obtain the structural index. Therefore, rectangle plans and square plans are different explicitly in methods of planning. It is supposed that the square plan is intend to expand the area of chamber. The age of planning is possible to evaluate with accurancy construction. On the other hand, it is necessary to analysis the detail of each and other sites.
Presupposing the ATBAT (Atelier des Bâtisseurs) as an international exchange organization, this paper considers the historical meaning and position of the exchange activities of the newborn ATBAT from the viewpoints of four key members: Vladimir Bodiansky, George Candilis, Gérald Hanning, and Gyoji Banshoya. The scope of this paper encompasses the period of their work in Morocco, via the manifestation at the Congrès International d'Architecture Moderne 9 (CIAM 9), up to the point of their separation. As a continuation of my previous paper “Part 1”, I employ the same historical methods and resources herein. However, in this paper I also conduct some planning studies, for the purpose of examining how the “Housing for the Greatest Number” movement led to the “Évolutif (evolutionary)” concept, and, finally, to the planning method known as “Habitat Évolutif (Evolutionary Housing).” Important consideration is given to the ways in which this last method was concretized through the exchange of members’ ideas, particularly Banshoya’s.
Following his struggles with Le Corbusier, and based on his experience working with Marcel Lods and Jean Bossu in African countries, Gérald Hanning became an independent urban planner. In this role, Hanning coordinated the environments around these architects’ masterpieces.
In 1951, ATBAT opened a branch in French Morocco, and Candilis became the director of that branch. Cooperating with Michel Ecochard who was the director of urban planning of the French protectorate government, ATBAT initiated the planning movement known as “Habitat Pour le Plus Grand Nombre (Housing for the Greatest Number).” As a well-known example, they realized their masterpiece “Nid d’Abeilles,” intended to provide housing suitable for the lifestyles of Moroccan people from rural areas. They advocated this movement at CIAM 9, held in Aix-en-Provence in 1953. It was here that they suggested the idea for “Évolutif (evolutionary)” housing.
In 1953, Gyoji Banshoya participated in ATBAT. Candilis was so willing to welcome him that he published Banshoya’s first masterpiece, “The Square House” in L’Architecture d’Aujourd’hui. For Candilis, the square house seemed an advanced example of the idea of Habitat Évolutif.
This led me to conduct some analysis of the planning for their co-research project “La Série Trèfle (Clover Series).” This endeavour was supported by C.S.T.B. and published in Techniques et Architecture in 1954. I note that the key idea of separating the skeleton and mobile partition which partly stems from the design of the square house, can be clearly seen to play an important role in the planning concept of “La Série Trèfle.” Just after the project’s completion, Candilis resigned from ATBAT and began his career as an independent architect with the team of Candilis-Josic-Woods. There, he profited from the idea of Habitat Évolutif. Hanning and Banshoya also left ATBAT, and moved to Algiers.
The most important roles played by ATBAT were (1) expanding the idea of a new housing style suggested by Le Corbusier based on their technical research; (2) examining its applicability to the general public, including slum residents in various Francophonie cities; and (3) innovating the planning methods of Habitat Évolutif. It is the case that the beginning of this concept can already be seen in Le Corbusier’s theories. However, it was ATBAT’s original contribution to provide a theoretical framework, based on their field work, for the realization of Habitat Évolutif. In conclusion, I point out that these novel constructions were made possible by the international exchange activities among the young architects and planners of various origins who were members of ATBAT.
This paper is a part of the researches to characterize and identify the architectural theory of Jun Itami (1937-2011) through all the currently available articles written by him. The keywords of the subjects were sorted out as a number of items and examined from the viewpoint of hierarchy of composition of the meaning by extracting important sentence. As the first level of his architectural thought, three items of【Joseon period】, 【South Korea】, 【Modern Japan】 were extracted. This paper is examining 【Joseon period】 consisted by the second level of two items of 《Objects》and 《Spirit》.
《Objects》 consists of the third level of three items of [Livingware], [Artworks], and [Beauty of objects]. [Livingware] consists of the 4th level of two items of〈Furniture〉and〈Ceramics〉 . [Artworks] consists of the 4th level of two items of〈Buddha statues〉and 〈Folk paintings〉. 《Spirit》 consists of the third level of four items of ［Confucianism］, ［Lifestyle］, ［Study of Muneyoshi Yanagi］, and [Beauty of spirit]. ［Confucianism］ consists of the 4th level of five items of〈Courtesy〉, 〈Nature and culture〉, 〈Yin-Yang〉, 〈Anonymity〉, and〈Influence on housings〉. ［Lifestyle］consists of the 4th level of two items of 〈Culture of sitting〉 and 〈Influence on housings〉. ［Study of Muneyoshi Yanagi］, consists of the 4th level of two items of 〈Theory of sorrow〉 and 〈Theory of line and white of sorrow〉.
First, Itami observes [Livingware] and [Artworks], or 《Objects》of 【Joseon period】in his own daily life, so that he felt those unique beauties that were created from close relationships with people of the day, their lives, traditions and customs. These concepts and senses had a great influence on his architectural theory. And as [Beauty of objects], he pursued about the background of the formative beauty and existential beauty of the 《Objects》 of 【Joseon period】, and he made a mention of the 《Spirit》 of those who value a life with the nature of those days when they were produced and used the 《Objects》.
Next, as the《Spirit》of【Joseon period】, he found that the society and life were established on several fundamental concepts in the culture of ［Confucianism］ which was flowing under the people at the time. Regarding ［Lifestyle］, he said about the relationship between humans and nature. he also discussed the beauty of Korean unique line and white as [Consideration to Muneyoshi Yanagi].
In this way, in order to explore the root of the beauty of 《Objects》 created by people of 【Joseon period】, Itami pursued the 《Spirit》 of the people of those days. It can be said that the knowledge and sense of 【Joseon period】 obtained in this way became the basis of his architectural theory and driving force of building design activities.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the walls newly planned in the Spanish cities between the mid-16th century and early 17th century were planned and evaluated by the military engineers, local authorities and Spanish Court. For this purpose, this paper is composed of two sections. In the first section, this paper analyzes the process of planning the new walls in Cartagena de Indias (Colombia). There were two basic plans, Acuña’s plan and Antonelli’s, which were evaluated and argued between the Spanish Court and local authorities. And this paper demonstrates that there are two important factors in the evaluation that influence the final decision in the Spanish Court, that is, “preservation of urban area” and “capability for defense”. Pedro de Acuña, a governor of Cartagena de Indias, intended to preserve the urban area including cistern and building site as much as possible. Acuña’s plan was supported by the local authorities since it provides more opportunity to develop local economy and trade. On the other hand, Battista Antonelli(1547-1616), an Italian military engineer, aimed to realize the walls with higher capability for defense by demolishing a certain amount of the urban area in order to create the more appropriated defensive line for the walls in terms of the art of fortification. Other military officers also seemed to support Antonelli’s plan since they probably considered it more effective from military’s point of view. So, these two factors were totally opposed each other. Based on these two factors, two basic plans were argued. As a result, Acuña’s plan which emphasizes “preservation of urban area” was selected as the one to be constructed. And based on Acuña’s plan, the actual walls were almost completed in 1631.
In the second part, this paper discusses if we can observe these two factors mentioned above, “preservation of urban area” and “capability for defense”, in other Spanish cities as well. This paper analyzes six other Spanish cities where the walls were newly planned in the same period. Consequently, only in the plans for La Coruña, proposed by Tiburzio Spannocchi(1541-1606), an Italian military engineer, we could see the same relation between two factors as we could observe in Cartagena de Indias. In other cities, like La Habana(Cuba), Santo Domingo(Dominica) and Cartagena in Iberian Peninsula, we could also observe these two factors, but they were not opposed each other unlike Cartagena de Indias nor La Coruña. Therefore, we can conclude that the process of planning the new walls in Cartagena de Indias is not very common in those times. In Habana and Cartagena in Iberian Peninsula, the walls were newly planned in a certain period of time after the former walls were planned in order to preserve the new urban area which was not developed when the former walls were designed. In these cities, the walls were always planned based on “preservation of urban area”. In most of the cities, we could observe “capability for defense” like modernization of old medieval walls or introduction of fortification bastioned into medieval cities.
We also could observe other important factor that changes the plan of walls, that is, “construction cost”. In Larache(Morocco), a military port in the northwest coast in Africa, several different plans were proposed by Battista Antonelli in order to reduce the construction cost. In Cartagena de Indias, the construction cost was also evaluated, but it did not change the plan unlike Larache. In La Coruña, four different plans were proposed by Spannocchi after the English fleet assaulted the city in order to show several alternative options according to the amount of money to be invested for the fortification.
This study examines the distribution of traditional houses with domical vault roofs in Eastern Iran and Western Afghanistan to determine its boundary as well as the factors that impact their distribution. High-resolution satellite images, old photographs and literature from Iran, and satellite images and data from field surveys in Afghanistan have been used to determine their distribution. The findings of the study include maps showing the distribution of traditional houses with domical vault roofs which suggest that climatic and cultural factors are significant in determining prevalent types of roofs.
At the occurrence of the Tokyo Bay northern earthquake (M 7.3), about 3.39 million evacuees are presumed to be occurred in the entire Tokyo area, and it is assumed that about 2.2 million people will be forced to live in evacuation shelters. Based on this assumption, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government has designated evacuation shelters that can accommodate a maximum of approximately 3.28 million people, including the primary evacuation shelters and secondary evacuation shelters. In order to suppress various confusion and troubles at evacuation shelters, it is necessary to predict the degree of congestion at each evacuation shelter, and to consider about setting up evacuation shelters and measures for evacuees. However, the extent of physical damage, the number of evacuees, the scale of evacuation shelters, and their spatial distributions are not necessarily balanced, so it is not easy to estimate the degree of congestion at evacuation shelters. In this paper, we propose a model describing evacuation behaviors caused by physical damage at a large earthquake, and estimate the degree of congestion at each evacuation shelter in the Tokyo ward areas assuming the Tokyo Bay northern earthquake (M 7.3). Also, we examine countermeasures for reducing the congestion degree.
First, we proposed a shelter selection model that estimates physical damage (building damage, fire damage, water-supply failure, power failure, elevator inoperability) on a building unit basis, a model for estimating whether to evacuate or not, which evacuation shelter will be selected. The parameters of the shelter selection model were estimated using the survey data of the Kobe earthquake (1995) and showed that the size of evacuation shelters, the distance from home to evacuation shelters, and the school districts are strongly influencing. Furthermore, when these estimated parameters were applied to the survey data of the Kumamoto earthquake (2016), it was confirmed that the results show the same compatibility as the survey data of the Kobe earthquake.
Next, simulation analysis based on the evacuation behavior model was carried out assuming the Tokyo Bay northern earthquake (M 7.3). As a result, it was found that about 2 million people will evacuate to shelters throughout the area, and about 700,000 people will evacuate due to building damage and water-supply failure, respectively. Also, after 48 hours, more than half of the evacuation shelters showed the possibility of exceeding the number of persons that can be accommodated. In particular, in Arakawa, Sumida and Ota wards, the possibility that severe congestion exceeding the congestion degree of 3.0 (the number of evacuees is 3 times or more than the capacity of shelter) was shown.
Finally, paying attention to water-supply failure which is one of the major evacuation factors, we calculated the expected value of the number of evacuees caused by water-supply failure for each water-supply pipe (the value of sheltering importance degree coefficient). We executed a simulation to verify the effect of congestion reduction by preferentially earthquake-proofing from the water pipeline where this value is large. As a result, the number of evacuees was reduced by about 240,000 even by treating 0.25% (about 47 km) of pipelines of non-earthquake-resistance pipeline to earthquake-resistant. Also if the 2.0% (about 376 km) of non-earthquake-resistance pipeline was improved to earthquake-resistant, the number of evacuees decreased to about 170,000. We demonstrated that promoting earthquake resistance of water pipeline by referencing the value of sheltering importance degree coefficient is very effective and efficient means to reduce the congestion of evacuation shelters.