The aim of this study is to consider the phenomena of urban renewal of Dutch housing developments. This paper focuses on characteristics of exterior spaces differentiated in renewal of Bijlmermeer. Firstly thirteen types of exterior spaces are classified by integrated analysis of housing buildings, external functions and entrances. Secondly the way to differentiate exterior spaces is clarified through the comparison between the renewal method and the typology. As the result, three levels of intervention are defined and it is revealed that middle level is efficient and effective to form diversity and ambiguity.
The aim of this research is to gain some basic knowledge which helps planning a sustainable development of suburban new town community by analyzing conditions & intension of participation about community activities by residents. We research in typical suburban new towns in Kansai-area, which are Woody-town & Fower-town in Sanda-city. Main findings are as follows: 1. residents hope machizukuri under the leadership of the citizens but they show a negative attitude toward community activities 2. there is a high correlation between intension of permanent resident and conditions of participation about community activities 3. there are some differences among residents of different building-types about conditions of participation about community activities.
In Japan a change in philosophy and the approach of care for the people with dementia has also been applied as an alternative form; Group Home (GH) to the traditional institutional form around 1990. The GH building type is divided into two types, one is new houses build for GH (newly built type), and the other is an old building used as a GH (renovated type). Among the renovated type, old Japanese style houses are used as GH. In this study, six group homes were selected for comparison. By comparing the space patterns of these homes, the purposes of the study are to clarify the difference in the quality of space between the newly built type GH and the renovated type GH. This study leads to some conclusions as follows: (1) In the public space of the GH, like the living room, dining room and kitchen, the continuity of space is the most important point. It is necessary for residents to see, hear or feel other people's presence at every point inside the GH. This is crucial elderly people with dementia feel lonely and fearful when they are left alone. (2) As for the reasons why the old Japanese style house could give a positive influence to the residents, we believe it is not only the space elements, but also some psychological effects. The old house could encourage an atmosphere where residents and staff feel they are family members.
In Japan we have national curriculums in elementary schools. Ministry of Education of Japan settles several learning units of each subject per each grade and the learning content. So teachers have to teach the same contents of all subjects, but they can choose learning space, the learning methods, and learning equipments and environments as they think. I think it is important to grasp the patterns of combinations of what teachers can choose for planning learning space in elementary schools. The purpose of this study is to extract several representative patterns of combination of learning space, the learning methods, and learning equipments and environments per learning units per each grade of life environment studies and drawing and manual arts.
The objective of this study is to provide some suggestion on the establishment of leading Japanese science centers in 1980's. The results of the analysis are as follows: 1) Several Local Ministries of Education constructed large science centers with hands-on exhibits in 1980's as the following project after construction and renewal of schools for highly increasing pupils and students in cities with peak in around 1980-85. 2) Pioneers of the project were such cities as Sapporo, Sendai, Yokohama, Kobe, which were designated by a government ordinance. 3) Science Centers opened in 1980's by Local Ministries of Education, focusing on science education, became a prototype for ones some prefectures would planned in 1990's. 4) The concept of Nagoya City Sciene Museum opened in 1964 as a museum of industrial technology was not succeeded to any others built in 1980's
This study focused on residents' changes in space-use and behavior due to moving from the old assisted living home to the new one. Behavior tracking survey and interview with residents were carried out at both homes. 1) As residents became accustomed to the new environment, they realized merits of private rooms. 2) Most residents appreciated group living, but the risk of small-scale living is that interpersonal problems can increase. 3) There are great differences among individuals in changes in space-use and behavior. 4) At the old home, roommates affected residents' space-use and behavior.
The objective of this paper is to analyze the service providing regions of home visit nursing/home help offices and their organizations in Copenhagen and Japan, then to observe how they influence the providing services and even the elderly people's lives. Conclusions are, (a) Denmark's services provide shorter duration but more frequent visits, and cover wider time span of a day. (b) Causes of such distinctions include differences in policies, amount of family nursing, and size of service region. (c) Japanese sizes of service regions are much larger, thus moving-loss becomes significant, making it more difficult to provide shorter and frequent visits.
Extended use of buildings with refurbishment has come into important with the rise in demand for sustainability. Past researches proved disentangling base building and fit-out enables easier interior refurbishment in multi-unit residential building. However, disentanglement is not a sufficient condition for appropriate refurbishment, because building characteristics e.g. story height, floor area and lighting condition of dwelling unit effect on the choice range in designing fit-out. It implies such building design parameters, which constitute building total design, are not independent; they have complex relationship. The purpose of this paper is to describe this relationship quantitatively by analyzing lots of multi-units statistically.
This paper aimed 1) to grasp actual aspects of individual resident's daily living in a group living type facility for people with intellectual disabilities, and 2) to acquire the knowledge towards a future planning, through analysis of physical, social, and individual elements which may be factors of residents' selection of their 'Particular Place.' In this paper, each resident's 'particular places' were extracted, and the factors of selecting the 'particular places' were analyzed based on the detailed observation of 49 residents' daily life. The result shows; 1) aspects of using space are different according to resident's attribution such as sex, age and with or without autism, 2) shared spaces are often occupied. Especially in facilities with Group Living Method, residents spend much time within their unit, 3) the residents whose intellectual disability is mild, without autism, and whose sex is female can more easily select their place and they are synthetically conscious of their surrounding environment, 4) the resident who is seldom conscious of their surrounding environment even can have the consciousness to a place. 5) The [place] element is important even to residents with low consciousness to a surrounding environment as well. We observed that those residents also tend to stay at their 'Particular Places,'
Since 1949 China has built over 86,000 dams and resulted in a huge number of involuntary resettlers up to 12,000,000; the impact from the resettlement to the Chinese society in general has been phenomenon and till recent years the Chinese people has been getting concerned about the resettlers' living conditions and welfares. In the resettlement scenario the resettle housing turns out to the major concern since the housing unit most directly affects the living quality of a resettle family. Yet in China the resettlement housing has been long neglected and none of any research in this subject matter has been done so far. The writer of this paper, after the site investigations from 16 resettlement housing zones in China, is trying to offer a systematic, analytical evaluation on the resettlement housing policies and current housing conditions in Chinese Dam Resettlement.
This paper aims to clarify how to form Civic Center in Castle area in relation to Castle-Towns basis analyzing cases of prefectural capital 17 Cities based on Japanese Castle-Towns from Meiji and Taisho era to the early Showa era. Findings are as follows: 1) Government and municipal offices tended to be dispersed, 2) The whole government and municipal offices tended to be located outside Castle area, but those which formed Civic Center tended to be located inside Castle area, 3) Paying attention to "Class" and "Axis" as space elements of making Castle area, as a result of analyzing relationship between those and Civic Center, we discover various Urban Design method of Civic Center such as Discrimination by locating Prefectural office in the site of the main enclosure of a castle and making identified and symbolic Urban Space by locating government and municipal offices together along moat or skirts of a mountain or main streets.
The purpose of this research is to show why consumer chose a centrally located urban shopping center or a suburban shopping center in a city, and using quantitative analysis which present factors influenced the customer's choice. The results show that the majority of shoppers under 20 years old chose the central shopping center because of a variety of factors including service, facilities, merchandise, and convenience of public transportation. On the other hand, those shoppers 30 to 50 years old with families chose the suburban shopping center because of the convenience of shopping by car.
The reduction of CO_2 emission has been one of the key issues in the field of city planning for protecting the global environment. This study aims to construct the method for quantitative analysis in district scale on the relationship between land use condition and CO_2 emitted by personal trips and to evaluate the impact of the land use control and mass transportation network development to the CO_2 emitted by personal trips with using the person trip survey data. Through the quantitative analysis on Fukuoka City, the proposed method enables to categorize the districts and to simulate the environmental impact of mass transportation introduction from the view of CO_2 emission.
This paper clarifies factors of the difference in the ratio of three-generation households. The conclusions are as follows. 1. Classification with high ratio of three-generation households has many municipalities that ratio of inhabitable area and cultivated area are high. 2. Classification with low ratio of three-generation households has many municipalities that ratio of inhabitable area and cultivated area are low. 3. Many city parts are in high ratio of inhabitable area and low ratio of cultivated area.
Stakeholders evaluate value of building from the available information on building performance and quality. Economic value of building could be underestimated due to risk by invisible uncertainty if only insufficient information is available. Respecting on probable relevance between economic value of building and available information for stakeholders, the paper discusses on the framework of the method to enhance life cycle value of building by improvement of accessibility to the information through auto-identifiable device such as RFID that is embedded on building elements. The paper tries to specify categories of information that reduce risk by uncertainty on quality, performance and track record of building maintenance. Then it discusses the procedure to access databases through auto-identifiable devices embedded on building elements. The paper presents the potential that life cycle value of building could be enhanced by provision of information by embedding auto-identifiable information on building elements.
Construction managers need to access the real construction site to manage the construction project. They usually use sheets of paper and/or field notes. On the other hand, they have recently handled various types of digital information such as drawings, specification, and reports. As a result, a gap in time and space between the construction site and the office occurs. This paper reports the application of PDA (Personal Digital Assistants) as mobile computing system for construction managers on construction sites. First, the paper describes the aim and the essential element of the mobile systems based on computer-aided engineering. Secondly, the paper describes the use of design patterns of GUI (Graphical User Interface) to realize EUC. Thirdly, the paper introduces the systems with PDA: Progress Monitoring System, Inspection System, Position Check System and Checklist and Reference System. Finally, the paper confirms the efficiency of mobile computing in productivity, and shows the future of construction management with the mobile computing system on construction site.
Within the general trend of globalization, worldwide economic cooperation and technology transfer are common practice. International construction market is one good example of the activities that involve multinational participants from different political, legal, economic and cultural backgrounds. It is important to understand real situation in which each nation strive to survive in international construction industry. The purpose of this study is to analyze the management contents, times and consciousness of the construction site manager's between Japan and Korea. This study has been performed by survey, interview and site research. The number of study sites are 6, and the number of site managers are 39 persons. We clarified that the management contents, times and consciousness is different from work-importance. We can concluded that the most of time distribution is work at site and the most importance work is drawing check.
A questionnaire survey on the definition of homeless people that central governments of OECD countries regularly rely on as well as framework to monitor the scale of homeless problems has been conducted. Results of the survey shows that central governments in several OCED countries do not have their definition of homeless people, and that there is a great disparity in the definitions. In addition, it was found that few countries have established a framework to regularly monitor the number of homeless people. The result indicates that Japan is the countries that has the narrowest definition of homeless people, and one of few countries that have already established the monitoring framework.
This study aims to understand housing situation of Single Mother Households who are divorced or widowed in Japan. Recently, the greater rate of divorce or separation caused by changes in lifestyles and social status for women have been contributing to the growing number of Single Mother Households. However, these families are facing difficulties in seeking to be economically and socially independent As their income is just a fraction of the general households, under the profit-oriented housing provision, it is hard for many of them to own or rent housing because housing expenses for housing are still much of a burden for single mother households to bear.
The characteristics of the building arrangement and the architectural genealogy of the temporary imperial palaces called "dairi-no-tei" in the Heian era are analyzed in this paper. Imperial Palace consist of two main buildings called Sisinden(front side) and Jijuden(back side). Jijuden was used as the main space in daily life for Emperor and in the ceremony for celebrating completion. But in the temporary imperial palaces except "dairi-no-tei" as well as in the aristocratic residences, only Sinden(main building) was used as main space in daily life and ceremony. This shows the difference in the concept of the building arrangement between them. And the particularity of "dairi-no-tei" in the building arrangement has been traced back to Imperial Palace.
During Edo-Era Mouri-Han had some palaces in Edo, the capital of Japan. Through the examination of historical materials on the palace at Atarashi-bashi in Edo, following results are ascertained; (1) The palace was built at first in 1699 and afterward rebuilt four times. (2) It was used as a residence of lord's family. (3) In 1731〜1771 it was similar to palaces in Hagi, the capital of Mouri-Han. (4) In 1771〜1772 it was similar to the palace of Mouri-Han at Sakurada in Edo.
Studying "Osashizu-Goyo-ki" the followings were revealed. 1. The fundamental plan of reconstructing the main buildings of the Imperial Palace was laid down by Okajima-Kozuke-Jo who worked from April to December in the 8th year of the Tenmei era (1788) as one of the chief carpenters of Nakai-Yakusho. 2. He gave a technical support to the reconstruction works. 3. He assumed the responsibility for explaining to the nobles and officials of the Imperial Court the basic idea of his plan.
The length of beams in the structure of the religious facility in the hermit's cell (ANSITSU) of the Sin-sect Buddhism in the Higo-clan from KANEI 10 (1633) to GENBUN 5 (1740) was less than 2 ken and a half. In KANEN 3 (1750), the hermit's cell (ANSITSU), which has a length of beams of 3 ken and the religious facility and the residential facility were separated, was constructed. The hermit's cell (ANSITSU) with the length of beams of 3 ken was constructed from KANEN 3 (1750) to KANSEI 3 (1791), but owing to the decree of the Higo clan there was a fact which regulated the length of beams and the ridge direction in the religious facility of the hermit's cell (ANSITSU) should be less than 2 ken and 7 ken, respectively. Only 2 examples were to be found of the hermit's cell (ANSITSU) religious facility which had 2 ken in length of beams and 7 ken in ridge direction in KANSEI 3 (1791).
This paper is an analytical study on the change of processes in wooden structural techniques during in modern Japan. This change in processes was evaluated through the analysis of architectural technical books. The technical books used were those involved with the development of publishing systems and architectural trade education systems published in the late 19th century. These books explain practical applications of both Japanese traditional and imported wooden structural techniques. Through the analysis of these books, we understood the following. One is how the technical issues involved with wooden housing construction changed. The other is how those various technical issues were handled at the time.
The test for Portland cement, which was established in 1905, is considered to be the first industrial standard in the history of engineering technology in Japan. The test, which was used by dry mortar, was technically the same as that of the Japan's cement companies established in 1898. The superiority of dry mortar and stiff-consistency concrete in strength was officially proven through an investigation of the cause of concrete damages in the Yokohama Harbor under construction in 1893. Takayama who conducted the investigation recommended that the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce should determine the tests of dry mortar and stiff-consistency concrete as official tests for Portland cement. The officially adopted test was almost the same as a test, which was recommended by cerement companies in 1898. That clearly indicates that the cement companies have applied pressure to the Ministry to standardize their tests as official tests for Portal cement. The standardized tests for Portland cement, however, could not regulate, the methods of construction. Although cement manufactures enthusiastically proceeded the research on cement and concrete and actually pointed out some problems concerning constructions by using the cement and concrete, the techniques, which was utilized in the tests for Portland cement had not been come into wide use in the field of construction. The gap between theory and practice of the tests, therefore, remained as an unsolved problem in the following Taisho era (1912-26).
"The Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (1954)" is the first of the UNESCO conventions in the field of the protection of the cultural properties. This paper describes the process of adoption of the convention, and clarifies the concept of cultural properties and activities of Japan seen in its participation to its adoption. Japanese specialists attended international committees and insisted protection of "Places of Scenic Beauty" and "Natural Monuments", which were the original concepts of Japan. They also insisted that Kyoto and Nara should be protected as the whole city.
Firmitas (strength), one of the famous Vitruvian triad, can be imagined as a magnificent building structure, such as the dome of the Pantheon, which is based on the high technologies of the Roman Architecture. It is, however, important to note that the word firmitas is mostly found in his Book II, where architectural materials are explained. This paper intends to examine Vitruvian firmitas from the viewpoint of material "strength" or "durability", and to trace its changes in encyclopedic works of Antiquity and the early Middle Ages, such as Plinius' Natural History and Isidore's Etymology. Isidore substituted constructio for the Vitruvian firmitas, but the word merely meant "consrtuction."
Verses of contemporary theatres have recently been used for interpreting the iconography of Versailles. However, the most important issue for this method has never been treated: what theatrical genre among various kinds of spectacles is proper for analysing the iconography of Versailles? This paper's purpose is to give a key to this issue, i.e. to find a genre that belonged to the iconographical world of Versailles, by analysing an attitude to DEUS EX MACHINA in the preface of the tragedy Iphig enie by Jean Racine among five theatres represented at the Devertissements de Versailles in 1674.
Through a study on the architectural designs of "Le Pavillon d'un Collectionneur" and, "Le Pavillon de Lyon et Saint-Etienne", the followings were made clear: The facade of"Le Pavillon d'un Collectionneur" was in harmony with its plan, because they were composed with the same grids geometrically. "Le Pavillon de Lyon et Saint-Etienne" was composed with two elements; the main body and, the zigzag-tour. As a result, it is important that the architectural designs of elements were influenced by many conditions such as "gabarit" and, they encourage architects to design elements of the pavilions.
A series of Japanese traditional townhouses in Kurashiki, which is called "Yashiki Type Townhouse" is analyzed with respect to the following 3 aspects. 1. Relationships between a series of General Townhouses and Yashiki Type Townhouses are analyzed. The similarities between these two series of townhouses are described with respect to their facade size and their ground floor planning. The prototype of the Yashiki Type Townhouse are defined through this analysis. 2. By tracing the construction history of several Yashiki Type Townhouses over age, the way of development of prototype of Yashiki Type Townhouses are analyzed. 3. The decision of locating the prototype, garden and other boundary structures for Yashiki Type Townhouses within property lines are analyzed. The process of deciding a location is correlated with townscape elements such as mountain and canals.
Most cities during the Choseon-dynasty had castles. By understanding such castles of the Choseon-dynasty, we will be able to understand not only the city of the Choseon-dynasty but also the present city structure. I clarified the location and the developing process of the castles of the Choseon-dynasty through this research. As a result, classification was made possible into two types of castles; the "Residential" type castle and the "Un-residential" type castle. Until the first half of the Choseon-dynasty, the "Residential" type castle was mainly and later when the war with the surrounding foreign countries ends in the first half of the 17^<th> century, the "Un-residential" type castle was highly developed.
The aim of this paper is to make an investigation into the modernization of urban space in the Jong-Ro district of central Seoul. Using primary material drawn from a detailed review of the newspapers of the period under study, two distinct dimensions to the analysis are described: (1) newly appearing urban functions, corresponding to "modern" urban space, and (2) transformations to pre-existing urban activities and functions under modernization. Under the first category, new political and cultural uses were identified, along with a new recognition of these novel urban facilities. Under the second category, the consumption spaces of Jong-Ro, the official road for the procession of the King, and urban planning processes are identified as beings continuations of earlier patterns from the preceding Chosun Period.
This paper aims to verify the effectiveness of proposal-oriented architectural learning activity by different young generations in collaboration with the community. High school students and college students participated in the workshop that this paper's author organized. They learned a lot from the work for proposal of renovation of "Nagaya". The followings can be pointed out from the analysis on the process and the contents, and the results of the workshop: 1) The learning activity with proposal enhanced the motivation of the participants. And workshop's results brought by young generations were also influential on the community that had a trouble on "Nagaya". 2) Though this workshop, the participants recognized the social aspect of architectural design and its design process, for example, the importance of communication.