When the complex connected structures with many vibration modes received stationary random vibration due to broad-band excitation, if it is assumed that the natural frequencies within the frequency bandwidth are statistically distributed, the vibrational energy of structure-borne sound are solved by Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) method. On this method the connected structure is divided into structural elements with some similar modes, and the energy sharing of each element can be derived by dissipation and coupling loss factors. For analysis of structure-borne sound, the model of plate juction were made of concrete, and SEA was applied to between the connected plates.
As a heat transfer coefficient of external surfaces of a building, about 16 kcal/m^2h℃ is now used in Japan. Yet the value is said to be too large in the sunnier. When the above convective heat transfer coefficient is used, the sol-air temperature is presumed on the quite low side, which is on the critical side in the view of the cooling load. In this respect, Dr.Kimura suggested a convective heat transfer coefficient of 10 kcal/m^2h℃. In order to obtain the value experimentally, the method of measuring the convective heat transfer coefficient with a SAT meter and the pyrradiometer was devised for this study, and the convective heat transfer coefficient of the rooftop surface exposed to solar radiation at a low wind in summer was mainly examined through experiments. As the result, it has been made clear that, when the wind velocity is 2 m/s or lower in the daytime in summer, the convective heat transfer coefficient of the rooftop surface ranges from 7 to 8 kcal/m^2h℃.
Standard New Effective Temperature (SET^*, Gagge et al.,1986) is a single temperature index of human response to a thermal environment. Therefore SET^* can not individually describe each influence from thermal factors, that is, radiation, humidity, air velocity, clothing insulation and activity. In this paper, a method to individually express the thermal influences of radiation, humidity, air velocity and clothing insulation with the exception of activity in temperature scale are proposed. SET^* was indicated as the value adding temperatures capable of expressing the influences of the four thermal factors mentioned above to the air temperature of the actual environment as a basal temperature.
Many kinds of relaxation methods such as SOR are used for numerical simulation of flow field. The convergence of the relaxation solution becomes worse with the increment of number of grid points. Multigrid Method is useful for overcoming this difficulty particular to the calculation with large grid points. In this parer, the Multigrid method is incorporated into the SIMPLE-D method for the numerical simulation of stationary solution. The numerical procedure developed here was applied to the airflow simulations of 2D laminar flow and 3D turbulent flow in a room. The results showed that the calculation speed with Multigrid is several times faster than that without Multigrid.
An optical method for charcterizing a moving airborne particle is discussed in this study. The method isbased on Mie scattering theory, and refractive indices are used as a parameter of evaluating particles's characteristic. Refractive indices are obtained by measuring a pair of scattering intensities of a particle at different angles. It concludes as follows : (1) An optimal pair of scattering angles is examined by a numerical analysis. (2) An apparatus for the characterizaition of airborne particles (CAP system) is developed for the experiment. (3) The apparatus performance is evaluated by the experiment using PSL particles. The non-uniform intensity of laser beam has an effect on the changing intensity of scattered light. (4) The refractive index of test PSL particle is derived by the Mie analysis assuming the constant diameter.
In this report, authors surveyed the amount and pattern of reclaimed water consumption, and analyzed the operating condition of treatment facility and the variation of water level in each tanks according to the improved water level of reclaimed water receiving tank. For the purpose of optimization of operating condition in water recycling system, the relationships between the water level control and effective capacity of tank are conducted from the results of analysis. And authors simulated the operating condition of treatment facility and the quantity of make-up water in the reclaimed water receiving tank by applying the concept for calculation of tank capacity, considering time lag of water-level control, and estimated influences, and suggested for optimal control method.
In this study, living-style and energy consumption of houses in Niigata city are analyzed by questionnaire survey. And also indoor temperature is measured in each living room for a week. The results of the questionnaire survey, the quantity of energy consumption, and the results of the analysis by multiple regression method, are as follows. (1)The quantity of energy consumption of houses in Niigata city is obtained. (2)The quantity of electricity consumption is effected by the shelter efficiency, the number of persons in a family, the building area, and the income. (3)The quantity of gas consumption is effected by the number of heating apparatuses, the number of persons in a family, and the shelter efficiency. (4)The quantity of oil consumption is effected by the shelter efficiency, the time of heating, and the building area.
The authors work out the method that surface condensation of wall is measured by using Multi-Spectral Scanner(MSS), and experiments concerned are conducted on aluminum boards. The results are summarized as follows : (1) It was clarified that the data of spectral radiance acquired by MSS decline in infrared regions, especially at 1500nm and 2000nm, as surface condensation goes on. (2) Progressing degree of surface condensation was expressed by radiant intensity ratios, such as 1600nm/1500nm and 2100nm/2000nm. (3) Correspondence between spectral radiance ratio of 1600nm/1500nm and weight of condensation liquid water was analysed.
It was thought important to focus on the relationship between environmental and human relations with reciprocal action behavior and awareness .In the field of Environmental Psychology,this study considers the relationship between life behavior of local residents, and the expanse of the cognitive area.And grasping Existing Areas of Local Space. Finally,these aim at the development in Planning Methodology of Architecture and Local planning. Concretely, (1) Unit of Space at the frequency of utilizing the space in their production activities.(Behavioral Areas) (2) The relationship between the material constitution of local configuration, the system distinction of the ground and so on, and (the subsistence of the local resident subjects). Further (scene areas) (3) Mental areas have been formed in the relation between consciousness estimation and behavior, corresponded to the construction of the individual social group (consciousness areas).This study considers the possibility of how to plan new areas from existing areas when we grasp on awareness of the three points above.(how the local subjects gain subsistence.)
Characteristic of Tokyo YMCA old gymnasium were analysed on following five aspects. 1. Hide sports room, indoor swimming pool, running track, and bowling-alley were set UP first in Japan. 2. It is regard as the pioneer of multistory gym. In urban district in Japan, that's composition under simple structure is compact. Dividing between traffic line of player and it of spectator is clear. 3. It is regard as the pioneer of sports club for citzen. They could individualy enjoy various indoor sports as member. 4. It was designed on the model of YMCA gym. In USA. For example Dayton YMCA .in Ohio state. 5. It contributed to physical education world. The spread of modern sports, making rule of using pool and swimming competition, the spread of new swimming method, and trainning of social sports leader.
In this paper, the architectural composition of Japanese contemporary houses is typologicaly analyzed in terms of articulation and connection of space, defined as a materially framed interior volume : "room". Initially, the house is articulated into a set of rooms, and the synthesis of rooms is abstracted on two different levels : on the differentiation of the main biggest room, and on the connection between interior rooms, and also between interior and exterior. Secondly, typological compositions of the house are defined by combination of those syntheses, and a series of rhetorics are found which differentiate between them. Finally, the architectural composition of the house is structured into two poles of typological tendencies -acquisition of spatial continuity by the main room, and chain-like connection of articulated rooms.
The characteristics of pedestrian behavior avoiding obstacles is discussed in this paper. The results are summarized as follows : (1) The most appropriate method to define automatically the beginning point of avoiding behavior was found to sellect the point where the curvature is biggest. (2) According to this method, some distances between a point of a pedestrian starting to avoid and a point of a standing obstacle : Sx were measured. The Sx of each obstacle is different, and it's value is 6.74m for a person backwards, 6.82m for one sideways, 8.84m for one facing to and 7.34m for an object.
This is a research report about the actual condition and estimation of Shinsui Parks. We choose KOMATSUGAWA-SAKAIGAWA SHINSUI PARK in Edogawa city and we examine how many people used the park all year and how events did around it. The findings are following: l)Inhabitants living along the Shinsui Park value it as a convenient and refreshing place. 2)A great value of the Shinsui Park is its familiar usefulness. 3)Both inhabitants and users feel anxious about soiled water and vagrants. 4)Summer users want to have a convenient and pleasure time. 5) Inhavitants are contented with its natural features but sensitive to its sanitary condition,security and safety. 6)Most of inhabitants hope to join community events such as flower-viewing and cleaning operations. 7)Community events along the Shinsui Park have fostered a local unity of inhabitants.
This paper studies the idea of "qing-nang-jing", which is an authority of feng-shui in China. The contents of this paper are as follows. 1. Introduction 2. Study on existing research 3. Objective, method and significance of this study 4. Study : part one, part two and part three 5. Conclusion
This study is a research of office buildings stock and life time estimation in four wards of Tokyo; Chiyoda, Minato, Shinjuku and Taito, which are well known as main business area of Tokyo. Data were obtaind from the ledgers for fixed properties of Tokyo Metropolis at the date of Jan. 1st, 1991. Total number of office building units in the four wards was 10,854 and total floor area was about 26 million square meters. Most of the buildings were built after 1960 and those built before the World War II only remain in a very small amout. Estimated life time of whole buildings, in which a half of the cohot will demolish, is 36.20 years.
In this paper, the author clarifies the Total Schedule System for leveling the monthly production volume in a manufacture company which is the case example of CIM for Precast Concrete Housing Manufacturing. Through the implementation of the Total Schedule System which integrates each Department, that is, Marketing and Sales Dept., Design and Proposal Dept., Estimate Dept., Procurement Dept., PC Panel Production Dept., and Construction Dept., it became clear that the monthly construction completion volume is remarkably stabilized.
This paper reported the analysis of actual condition of foundation work of 15-unit detached housing on a site. The mesurement of productivity process employed daily work report. This paper said the characteristics of foundation work of plural detache construction as follows; (1) correspondency of work process (2) advantage of plural construction on day of work, laborer attendant and actual working time in each day (3) ratio of work day in a term of work (4) influence of placing concrete and curing on actual working time (5) variety of work progress of each sub-contractor
As a result of this study, we can point out the following things. 1. Quantity of condominium; The number of detached houses has been decreasing and the number of condominium has been rapidly increasing from 1970s'. The total number of condominium is about 3.08 million units and the proportion of condominium is 37.99% in Korea. 2. Characteristics of management system; The adoption contents of "Common Housing Management Regulation" is differenciated by the number of units, the condition of elevator system and the condition central heating system. Management of condominium is mainly operated by on site management staffs.
Renshichiro Kawakita's early two music hall projects, "Draft of REIGAKUDO" (1924) and "REIGAKUDO" (1926), were thought out the plan with the inspiration from the musical aesthetics by Kosaku Yamada, one of the pioneers of Japanese composers. One explanation for "Draft of REIGAKUDO" may be that it was designed as a Utopia for learning the modern Western art, in the sense that there were no institution like that in that time, in spite of Kawakita's great longing. In addition to that "REIGAKUDO" has the similar quality to "Draft of REIGAKUDO", one of the notable features is architectural space aesthetics as art against the idea that the architecture is a practical business was dominant over all in those days. It follows from what has been said that "REIGAKUDO" is characterized as Utopia, too. Designing the architecture as a Utopia in Kawakita's activities, lead to the attitude reforming the social environment and aestheticism, on the other hand.
Max Hinder (1887-1963), a Swiss architect, was born in Zurich on 20th of January, 1887. In 1924, after pursuing his career as an architect in Switzerland, Germany, Austria etc., he came to Japan. He resided in Sapporo for three and half years till 1927, where he worked on numerous houses including his own, two mountain huts, two missionary schools-the Fuji (1924) and the Hokusei (1929), the St. Franciscan monastery(1925), a cathedral in Niigata (1927) and other buildings, besides proposed a project for the architectural competition for the erection of a LEAGUE OF NATIONS BUILDING AT GENEVA in 1926. He moved to Yokohama in 1927 and continued his work untill the year of 1940, when he went to Germany. During these thirteen years, he designed the Jochi University (1931) and the St. Mary Hospital (1931) at Tokyo, a cathedral in Utsunomiya (1932) and others. He closed his earthly pilgrimage in Regen, a small town of Germany, in 1963.
The present papaer discusses proportional relationship between width of arch and that of pillar in the Roman commemorative arch until Julio-Claudian period. Between those width, having no relation with the difference of passages, we perceive simple ratios on intergral number. Among the various ratios, several of them are same in some commemorative arches. In the commemorative arch with three passages, especially, the ratio itself between each axial width of four pillars are common to that in the arch with single passage.
Mies used Wirling Squares to make the plan of House with Three Courts. Was it applied from the beginning of the design process, or not? From the analysis of the plans in the process it is found that Wirling Squares is not used at all in the halfway plans, but there are two kinds of square systems that are very similar to Wirling Squares. So it seems that Wirling Squares is not applied from the beginning and it is derived from the two square systems in the halfway plans.