The purpose of this study is to investigate the properties of external flames taking into consideration the combustion of excess fuel gas ejected from fire compartment by conducting a small-scale fire test. The results of this study are as follows : a) The values obtained by dividing the critical heat release rate Q_<vcrit> of external flame by ventilation factor AH^<1/2> and temperature factor A_T/AH^<1/2> correlate to each other and the relationship between Q_<vcrit>/AH^<1/2> and A_T/AH^<1/2> roughly plot linearly. b) Dimensionless values obtained by dividing the height of the average flame tip measured along the central axis of external flame by the representative length of the opening are approximately proportional to the two-third power of the dimensionless heat release rate. c) A correction value Δz calculated from the dimensionless heat release rate, which is calculated from the total rate of heat release of flame ejected from an opening, can be used to predict the temperature of external flame at its central axis, taking into consideration the heat release rate due to the combustion of excess fuel gas.
For the purpose of examining vibrational and acoustic characteristics of a boarding interior finish on a reinforced concrete wall, vibration measurements with the discrete calculation method were carried out. The influence on the sound radiation power by factors of the boarding wall; materials of the board, types and intervals of the backing, depth of the air layer, are examined using the RC structural model. The results of measurement mentioned below are obtained. When the interval of the backing becomes wide and the depth of the air layer becomes deep, the magnitude of the acceleration in a low frequency range tends to increase. The characteristics of the sound radiation efficiency have a hollow in the frequency range of about 500Hz-1000Hz. The making of the boarding wall with lesser sound radiation is capable by combing the both characteristics of the increasing vibration and decreasing sound radiation.
This research aims at clarifying the relationship between air leakage through the building envelope and indoor thermal environment in winter. Laboratory experiments were carried out by using a full-scale research house, which is built in a climatic chamber, and in which an exhaust-only ventilation system was emulated. The influence of the amount of cracks on the indoor thermal environment was quantified. On the first floor, the temperature gradient becomes larger, especially within the space lower than 1,300 mm above the floor. On the second floor, the effect of the air leakage is not so clear as on the first floor.
In order to avoid condensation problems, the behavior of heat and water in porous building materials must be understood. Especially in cold regions, liquid water may freeze in porous building materials and cause serious damage. The purpose of this paper is to simulate numerically experimental results of freezing processes in ALC wall under constant outdoor conditions. An analysis under periodically changing outdoor temperature is also done in order to show the influences that external conditions have on the freezing-thawing processes.
To investigate thermal sensation caused by the different wavelength of solar radiation, subjective experiments were carried out with 63 subjects, namely 30 males and 33 females. Three kinds of wavelength bands including almost visible (0.3-0.8 μm), near-infrared (0.8-1.35 μm) and middle-infrared (1.7-2.3 μm) were tested at radiant intensity of 1220 W/m^2. Those were irradiated on back of subjects' hand through a hole with 4cm diameter. Experimental results showed that subjects felt hotter and more painful for the visible and middle-infrared radiation than those caused by the near-nfrared one. In addition, the ratio of stimulative sensitivity for the equivalent radiant intensity was calculated to be 1.43 : 1.00 : 1.67 for visible:near-infrared:middle-infrared.
Today in Japan, with the homes built more air-tight and thermally insulated, they lack sufficient ventilation, causing higher humidity and increased condensation indoors. This type of environment fosters proliferation of mites, growth of fungi, and accumulation of house dust - all allergens - causing residents living in such homes to suffer from allergy. This report discusses a newly developed system that allows engineering evaluation of the activity of mites in order to maintain comfort in the human living space of homes and control mites, or the major indoor allergen in Japanese homes. Using an image processing technology,the system directly observes mites with its built-in camera and analyzes the observed behavior of those tiny mites and evaluates through a computer-based image processing, thereby providing engineering analysis of the influence of mites on chemicals, building materials, utilities, indoor environment, and building structure. This mite image processing system is designed to obtain a correlation between the analysis results obtained from the image data of mites and their activity and perform quantitative evaluation of the activity. It provides quick evaluation related to mites in the home environment, such as effect of mite-killing or -repelling chemicals, effect of different levels of temperature and/or humidity on mites, and the biology of mites in the home environment.
Six seasonal surveys were conducted to investigate the characteristics of indoor environment and occupant comfort in a high density heat load office building with multi-national workers. Horizontal air temperature difference of 4.6℃ was observed on the same floor. Indoor air quality was generally within the existing level of IAQ standards. Occupant comfort and reported frequency of SBS related symptoms were closely related to thermal sensation votes. A significant neutral temperature difference of 3.1℃ was observed between Japanese female occupant group and non-domestic male group. The thermal environment was found to be a major factor affecting occupant comfort in the concerned office.
In this report, we optimized the division of heat source equipment based on a method using Hamiltonian Algorithms, as a means of resolving the mixed integer programming problem, from the standpoint of achieving appropriate equipment scale. As a result, we confirmed that by using this method, it is possible to derive the number of heat source equipment divisions, the capacity of the divided equipments, and the method for operation on a minimum equipment scale. We thus confirmed that this method is effective in the optimization of heat source equipment division. In addition, we will report on characteristics related to equipment division with regard to heat demand patterns by using this method.
The purpose of this study is to establish the new calculating method of fixture requirements for railway stations by applying a simulation technique based on the characteristic factors of stations. In the previous papers, we showed the results of analyses on the passengers and their behaviors of toilet utilization in the East Japan Railway stations. In this paper, as part three, we made a proposal for the new calculating method of fixture requirements for railway stations based on the analyses of fixture usage. The main contents are as follows ; We showed the calculating method and the calculating conditions by simulation. The arrival patterns to each fixture in the toilet were set up from the investigated values. Also, the duration time of occupancy and the service level of waiting time were shown in each fixture. The maximum permissible waiting time in each fixture was set up from the questionnaire survey on the opinions of toilet utilization in buildings. The Monte Carlo simulation technique was applied for the calculation of fixutre requirements based on these calculating conditions. The numbers of fixture requirements were shown on the relation of arrival rates in each fixture. The calculating results were compared with the existing fixture numbers in the investigated five stations of the East Japan Railway.
The objective of this paper is to clarify the cooling effect of going-up sea breeze along the canal on thermal environment in the center of the city. Field observations of air temperature, humidity, wind direction and velocity were conducted in summer, 1994 and 1995 in Nagoya.These climatic conditions were measured at stationary points (the mouse of the canal and the center of the city), and moving observations points along the canal by car, around the canal on foot, and at the center of the city on foot. The sea breeze went up Horikawa canal up to 9〜11km in daytime in the maximum. In that case, the stronger the sea breeze blow, the lower the air temperature in the center of the city was. In case of the sea breeze went up not so far, the cooling effect of sea breeze appeared only around the mouse of the canal. The wind velocity on the canal as a whole were stronger than that in the street. In the center of the city, cooling spots appeared in the boulevard and the small park. As a result, two canals in Nagoya can act as "Wind trail" which introduces cooling air to urban hot climate.
Water bodies in urban area have been expected to mitigate the urban heat island as well as green space. In this paper, we showed the results of observations about heat budget at river water and moving observations to clarify horizontal extent of its thermal effects. Diurnal variations of sensible heat flux estimated by several methods corresponded closely with each other, though these values didn't exceed 100W/m2 even in the peak about midday. Estimated heat storage term occupied more than 90% of net radiation during daytime. According to the numerical simulation, observed water temperature variation required equivalent heat conductivity for actual stirred water about forty times as much as that of stagnant water. This heat balance is completely different from that of green space characterized large latent heat flux. On the other hand, horizontal sensible heat flux from adjacent built-up area to the river space also estimated by eddy correlation method at riverside terrace. Turbulent heat flux across the river-edge amounted to 250W/m2 in daytime, which greatly surpassed vertical sensible heat flux at water surface. The horizontal limits of river-effect along the street crossing the river were about 300m from river-edge, and there was no clear relation between this limits and wind speed.
1. The purpose of this research is to make the map of solar power generation of the whole country to examine the validity of each region in Japan. Then this research calculated effects on an economical and environmental evaluation when solar power generation was introduced in detached houses. 2. By using the system of solar power generation effectively, investigation of the actual condition of the energy consumption and of the actual measurement of electric energy consumption are carried out. The effect of solar power generation are examined by comparing it with the electric energy consumption that was consumed in detached houses. 3.The effects on an economy and environmental evaluation are examined by introducing the detached houses in seven prefectures in Touhoku area of Japan. Finally the validity of the system of solar power generation are examined.
Ozone depletion in the stratosphere is now recognized as a major environmental problem, because which results in a significant increase in solar ultraviolet radiation that reaches the surface of the Earth. The purpose of this study is to know daily accumulations of DUV, which is one of the biologically weighted ultraviolet radiation, corresponding to cloud amount and simplified weather classification. Through analysis of observed spectral ultraviolet irradiances, global solar radiation and cloud amounts at Sapporo, Kanazawa, Tsukuba, Kagoshima and Naha, the followings were shown : (1)The level of daily accumulated DUV at 5 observation points. (2) The relation between DUV and cloud amount. (3) The daily accumulated DUV corresponding to simplified weather classification in each region and in each month.
The objective of this paper is to show various user's methods for fulfilling requirements from the viewpoint of 'Mark of act' in exterior space. 'Mark of act' is defined as an object left by human act. As a result of the investigation, total 836 cases were observed, and four types of user's methods for fulfilling requirements were analyzed by the following items : 1) User's requirements, 2) Environmental restrictions. The results of this paper were as follows : 1) User's requirements were classified into 8 categories, and environmental restrictions were classified into 15 categories. 2) Some characteristics of user's methods for fulfilling requirements were clarified.
The purpose for this study is to understand the evaluation structure in a region. For this object, we made investigations for residents and experts about evaluations of regional resources in Haramachi-city. The results are as follows ; 1) Infrastructures were valued in the high, private places and sightseeing facilities were in the low, and nature and culture were in the middle. 2) The evaluation between residents and urban planners was more different than ecologists. 3) The resident's evaluation has influenced by their residential places and jobs.
The aim of this paper is to reconsider what apartments in urban area should be by examining the characteristics of morphology and usages in case of the planning of envelope and special composition of 169 apartments developed by private sectors in Osaka urban area before 1970. The analysis revealed that the tendency of flat exterior is due to the usage of grand floor as commercial spaces : the dwelling units are not independent but form a unity,' and indoors-communal spaces show individuality. These apartment planning is expected to be a good guide to urban housing and environment.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate degree of difficulty for going in and out of the house, which is tried correspondence to the comfortableness. The subject consisted of 5 persons, a typical post-stroke hemiplegia, with a wheelchair by spinal cord damage and 3 without disabled. In the task, five kinds of going in and out in the house and walking in the flat ground, were prepared, and the subjects were instructed to do at their comfortable speed. I used Beats Above Baseline Index to examine the phenomenon observed in these experiments. Beats Above Baseline Index is obtained by the required time for task finish and change in heart rate, and is applied to the evaluation of task difficulty. Results of Experiment: The person with low change of heart rate and Borg Index, they are indicated a waning in Beats Above Baseline Index. Subjects of aged and disabled people tended to carry out each task by taking long time, especially a type of elevater, and to exhibit few change in heart rate.This suggests that the constraint factor of the motor skill except for cardiopulmonary function, such as lowering of voluntary movement in the paralysis side may lead to the increase in time of task complection. Conclusions: It is easy for aged and disabled people to go in and out in their house with the machine to support their movement. I would like to put special emphasis that it is more convenient for disabled people move with an elevator and a few steps rather than a slope.
This study deals with residents' relocation from temporary group housing to the Group house. Behavior trucking survey were conducted one months before relocation, and one month and three months after relocation focusing on not only residents' activities but also conversation focusing on what kind of topics residents and care givers are talking with. The result suggested person-environment process following radical relocation for the elderly;!) The residents who have changed both physical environment and care givers through the relocation, tend to keep their private room, and away from common living room. On the other hand frequency of visiting to house mates' room were increased at one month after the relocation. 2) Daily conversation related to care activities were decreased and conversation related to care activity were increased just after relocation especially for the elderly who changed care givers. But three months after the relocation, new stable relationship were identified between new residents and care givers from the view point of verbal communication analysis.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the problems of relocation from a conventional living to a group living for people with dementia. The results are as follows. (1) After relocation domestic furniture in day rooms made more conversations in various groups among residents. (2) After relocation few residents continued to keep a conversation with the roommate in conventional living. But most residents had more social interactions with residents in the same group living unit and they had few conversations with residents in the other. (3) After relocation some residents had more than fifteen successive minutes for conversation in their private rooms.
This purpose of the study is to evaluate effects on behavior and personal character during nursing home renovation period. The results are the followings. Residents in temporarily unfavorable environment tend to spend more time in their private rooms. Relocation to better environment makes residents spend more time in public space more interactions, specially in case of residents who have private rooms type and ambulatory ability and higher mental status. Residents who were not affected much by environmental renovation, has personal character of isolation and independence.
This paper investigates the scenery floor composition on the main stage in opera performances, based on the research in the opera house, New National Theatre Tokyo, whose stage is fully equipped with technical systems of the highest quality, and where opera performances of its own are presented. By looking at features of the scenery floor composition, the usage of the stage machinery and stage equipments are clarified as they are main elements in composing a variety of scenery floors.
The purpose of this paper is to synthetically clarify the characteristics of sitting behaviors and sitting spaces in public art museums from the viewpoint of utilization of facilities. We classified the users' sitting spaces into six zoning types. The results are as follows : The ratio of sitting behaviors in exhibition rooms is the highest. ; Users who sat in exhibition rooms tend, to seldom sit on seats in other spaces ; The using types of sitting spaces are divided by the types of using purposes ; A restaurant can' t be to expected to reduce the ratio of users who sit in other spaces.
An objective of this study is to make clear fundamentals of environment for convalescence based on the look of patients' living at their home. In this report, three topics are described. One is the result of the classification of patients' living, and the second is the patients' attitude for "disease" or "illness" , the last is the meaning of environment of taking meals for patients. At 1992, the investigation was carried out for 39 patients through having some interview ,what were changed in their living comparing before with after taking disease, at their home. And results are as follows, 1 : Patients living are divided into 5 groups, and the certain type of familiar at hospitals is not for convalescence at their homes. 2 : Patients behavioral patterns are affected by their attitude for disease or illness, and their behavior are followed their own norms. 3 : Environment for taking meals is considered about why it becomes established to take a back seat to dayroom in hospitals, from some angles.
This study analyses sketch-maps drawn by subjects after we had them walk in a simulated circular space. The aim of this study is to clarify the characteristics of cognitive maps, comprising directions, locations of objects, distances. In our analysis, we were able to divide the sketch-maps into 4 groups based on the drawn locations of objects. The study resulted in 4 main conclusions. (1)All subjects oriented their cognitive maps with the starting position in the front, and the large space further ahead. (2) most subjects recognized the location of objects by the most simple schema-point symmetry. (3) Those with better distance cognition drew the whole site correctly. (4) Distortions in spatial cognition present at the initial view were, when continued, one reason leading to distortions in the cognitive map.
The abandoned farmland is increasing year by year, especially in rural area. In Hiroshima prefecture where shared 7% of farmland are abandoned. On the other hand, it is regarded the resources for the Rural Development as a Private Garden which conducted by the urban residents. Authors examine the differences on land use needs by the landlord and visitors from city. Main findings are as follows : (1) There are higher needs by the visitors to visit the countryside even they are living local city, case study's Higashi Hiroshima city. The needs are reflected to the various kinds of activities by the visitor's background of generation, environment of current residents, and experience of farming. (2) The Farm Landlord has confused to let out to the farm to visitors, reason of their memories of land and feel ill at ease villager. And, some time, the conservative thinking became obstacle to call the new development. It is needed to set up the new real estate association and make the land use plan for whole village area to ensure the suitable village environment.
This paper aimed to analyze the distribution of the existing total floorage of business use in Tokyo wards based on CIS building data and square grid system. It is difficult to acquire the complete and broad-based total floorage data of business use. To this end, we estimated alternatively the existing total floorage of business use by the 1/4 national standard grid square spaces using building polygon data of Tokyo Metropolitan Government City Planning Map System. We analyzed the characteristic of distributions of the business use buildings in Tokyo wards with the rate of buildings by total floorage ranges. In order to avoid the uncertainty in the number of samples using a small contributional block, we decided the optimum grid size based on Akaike Information Criterion.
We discuss the process of reconstruction in comparison with the attributes of housing blocks before the seismic disaster. We choose Sumiyoshi Area damaged by the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake,1995. 1.17. We classify the 215 housing blocks to 6 groups, defined by the dimensions of the area ,the density and the ratio of the mixture of three types of housings ; detached.timber apartment / row house, and collective house by non-timber structure. We made it clear that the development of housing replacement can be explained by the previous state of the housing blocks. This suggest the hints for how we should make the system, for the promotion of the reconstruction.
The purpose of this study is to make clear the relationship between the change in building use from housing to store and the ownership transfer in Sanneizaka Preservation District for Groups of Historic Buildings. Based on field survey in 1999 and detail maps from 1977 to 1999, this study analyzed the change in building use since 1976 (when this area was designated as preservation district). We analyzed also the ownership transfer using the register from 1945 to 1999. The following result has been confirmed : (1) There is a tendency of change in building use from housing to store. (2) The transfer of the ownership with trade and inheritance are related to the change in building use. (3) Most owners of the buildings which were change from housing to stores are living out of the preservation district.
In the early!920's, Benton MacKaye appeared as a conservationist, a forester, a geotechnist, a philosopher and a regional planner, who eventually founded Regional Planning Association of America along with Lewis Mumford. This paper introduces Benton MacKaye's achievements and background in terms of the regional planning in the 1910's, the 1920's and the 1930's. Trying to utilize the theory by Benton Mackaye, this study aims to find the indigenous toward the regional city in the United States. It is concluded that MacKaye's philosophy can be the origin of today's sustainability. Therefore, the concept of Benton MacKaye would be needed even more today, as 21st century begins.
It is very difficult to manage a construction project without a well-managed document set. Some new technologies help us to manage information among a lot of project participants, which are highly segmented and specialized in the construction industry. Building Data Management System we developed - BDMS for short - is one of the solutions to keep consistency of information. BDMS is already used in a couple of real projects. In this paper we discuss some theories of important issues for design document management: version control, privilege control and approval control of design documents.
This study aims the systematic flow for the planning and improvement of schedule on typical floor in high-rise building construction, considering the learning effect and the change of volume of materials between floors. This paper describes the outline of simulation system for schedule on typical floor as a computer-aided engineering tool. It includes the function, the composition based on EUC ; End User Computing, the role of application softwares and the flow of simulation. The system uses two indexes ; balance loss and smoothness index in line balancing to evaluate plans by simulation. Finally, this shows results of simulation and confirms the effectiveness with case studies.
This paper tries to calculate the number and the ratio of households moving into the rented housing. For this purpose, we proposed the method of computation by using the data available from Housing .Survey of Japan, and analyzed the result from the viewpoint of locality. The main conclusions are as follows, 1) The average ratio of households moving into rented housings is calculated as 14.8%. This figure was calculated by the method using the index data of "Duration of Living in Previous Residence" and "Place of Previous Residence" of households. This figure is about 10% higher than that by the former method. 2) This figure is lower in metropolitan area, especially in Kinki region. On the other hands, the figures in outer regions of Japan as Hokkaido, Tohoku, Shinetsu, Hokuriku and south Kyushu are higher.
The-study shows that council housing stock transfer has been recently implemented as a way for council estate regeneration,not as a privatisation. Through the transfers local housing companies (LHCs) have been established. It has implicated that the characteristics of the transfers has been changed. LHC is regarded to be more accountable than existing housing associations and more acceptable to local authorities (LA) and tenants. LHCs have taken wider role in housing and urban regeneration. As LHC has been established, the role of LA has concentrated to strategic one. It is necessary for LHC, LA and local community to make partnership for comprehensive regeneration through the transfer.
The purpose of this study is to obtain the information on simultaneous maintenance repair in office buildings based on the questionnaire survey. Collected data on maintenance repair were classified into three categories ; (1) renewal, (2) repair, and (3) new structure. Each category was further analyzed according to four factors! (a) cause, (b) time, (c) room, and (d) item of the repair. The change in repair frequency was also examined for different repair locations. The result indicated a similar pattern of repair frequency from different repair locations. It is likely that maintenance repair was often performed simultaneously for several structure items. In conclusion, for future office building maintenance, maintenance repair can be performed effectively not only by maintaining different items simultaneously, but also by separating maintenance repair periods of each item according to its different life cycle.
In the end of Edo Period, among the district of the Tokugawa shogunate estates for samurai, bukechi, occupied a lot of area in Edo, the residence of the shogunate retainers, hatamoto and gokenin, had complex form of living space. For example, the hatamoto residences located near the Edo Castle were used as not only the dwellings of owners, but another ones. This kind of form of living space came into existence under the influence of various social circumstances such as the collapse of the system to supply estates for samurai at large.
This is a study on the making panel paintings of Nishinomaru Palace in Tenpo eras and Honmaru Palace in Koka eras, Edo Castle. The results are as follows. 1. The order of making panel paintings was stepl proposal the theme of the rooms, step2 drawing preliminary paintings called "ukagaishitae", and stepS drawing panel paintings. 2. The works of Kano Seisen'in were drawing panel paintings, selecting drawing paper and gold leaf, estimating gold, etc. 3. The Osakujikata and Kobusinkata arranged drawing paper of panel paintings. 4. The painters realized architectures of Edo Palace through plans and "okoshiezu" to draw preliminary paintings.
The object of the research project in this thesis is to distinct the features of Miao Tribe' s rural houses of FengHuang Xian in Hunan Province of China.According to the arragement and the analysis of the survey data,the rural houses have been studied in three dimensions.Through the actual investigations, the references and the comparison of other tribes' rural houses which have been investigated.the change of religious service place in Miao tribe's rural house is noticed. The religious service place were in one side of the rural house and have effected the disposition of hearths.However it has not been transmitted to our time and changed into center of houses. With the change of that,frame systems and ceiling compositions have also changed.As to the spatial order,the direction is at the center room perpendicularity with the direction of ridgepole in new rural houses. And the spatial construction of new ones are divided in the direction of the ridgepole.But the direction of spatial order in historical rural houses is parallel with the ridgepole and the spatial construction continious in the direction of ridgepole had been important.
In view of the existing theories on the history of Central Java, this study first re-examined the completion date of the ruins constructed mainly between the basin and the plain in the southern part of the area, which are believed to be the oldest among the Sivaistic candis with asymmetrical layouts for their temple complexes. Second, the author compared the styles of architecture used between the fore-mentioned Sivaistic candis, and the Sivaistic candis whose remains are to be found in the northern mountainous areas of Central Java. As a result of this examination, it is now believed that what probably happened is that the moldings, bases and plan layouts seen in the Sivaistic candis found in the mountainous areas in the northern part went through a succession of changes and that they made their way into the region of the southern part. As a result of these changes, Sivaistic candis with features of such new styles of architecture as semi-circular cornices, plain bases and asymmetrical layouts for the temple complexes came to be in the southern part of Central Java by 732 AD at the latest.
This paper is an attempt to interpret Fischer's architectural system, which built up the "imperial architecture" in Austria. In this study, the mixture of motif in "longitudinally oval + rectangle" used in his ground plans and some another related works, is analyzed by a systematic interpretation, namely by an analysis of the architectural process, the basic ground motif and the synthetic element of the geometrical form from the comprehensive viewpoint. The results of the analysis as follows: 1) The motif of "longitudinally oval + rectangle" in Fischer' s plans is exemplified by the plan of Rancy castle (designed by Le Vau). Engelhartstetten castle, a projekt of LustgebSude (plesure house) and LustgartengebSude (plesure house with garden) are other examples that are almost based directly on this motif. However, Hofbibliothek (Royal Library) in Vienna is developed into one united space without any partition walls. 2) Engelhartstetten and LustgebSude are using the similar fundamental composition of space. 3) LustgebSude built up the basis in the motif of "longitudinally oval + rectangle" and the motif of a concave fasade. This is added to other motifs, e.g. "an arrangement of three rectangle spaces on the same side of the fasade". 4) The device of the outside fasade of Hofbibliothek, which hides the inner oval sight, is derived from Turny casle (designed by Jean Marrot).
The aim of this study is, at first, to make dear outline of "Driehoeken bij ontwerpen van ornament" written by J.H.de Groot and, then, to clarify the intention of publication and the conception of the author from the texts in the writing. As the result, the following matters became clear. l."Driehoeken bij ontwerpen van ornament" was a joint work with his sister Jacoba, but the contents may say that it is de Groot's own achievement. 2. Contents of the writing seem to be a textbook of basic drafting technique and have unique characteristics of use a set square for designs of ornamentation. 3.As intention of publication, it could be assumed the use to industrial arts education, and, on the other hand, there was the principal objective in the spread of de Groot's own drafting method. 4.De Groot's conception in the work was to ask the world the spread of drafting method to occupy creation instead of imitation of past styles and natural forms if possible and the propriety. The drafting method and the examples introduced in the writing had enough contents and persuasive power for suggesting a possibility to a creation, and, in this connection, it became simultaneously clear that possible to point out the reason why the architects of the same period were attracted by the writing.
The aim of this study is to clarify significance of rigid frame structure in reinforced concrete that characterized and specialized the works of Mart Stam. As the result below mentioned five points become clear. 1. As the criterion of plastic design that corresponds to the reality of modern society, Stam advocated a notion called "collective configuration". 2. That idea was introduced into architectural design and took shape by introducing industrialized and standardized system. 3. Above system was to realize by using reinforced concrete as the material and rigid frame structure as the structural method. 4. A configuration in nature was recognized as the model. 5. Therefore, the gate-style frame was understood as the essential element for the process of configuration as the minimum unit. So concrete frame structure and Stam's idea were inseparably linked.