This research has clarified the influence of the conversion traditional housings in the historical environment by commercialism and tourism. The commercialized district (Nanluoguxing in Beijing, China), the representative place where is composed by old traditional housing, was selected to analyze. Analyze was advanced by using rate of modification by commercialization and extension with axis of streets and solid angle ratio. As a result, 1) the modification of traditional courtyard house is caused by the extensions by several residence and conversion as the shops and there are difference aspect depend on the street axis. 2) The street of north to south, there are modification of housing by commercialization and the street of east to west, there are modification of housing by extensions, because of the relationship between court yard house and streets when houses kept the southern exposure. 3) And the new openings by modification decide the spatial characters of each street. For such a reason, the historical environment is available to changed maintaining existing life of residence.
In this study, it has aimed to clarify the tendency of Bangladeshi' concentrated community, the quota of ethnic groups, the measure of council and the actual condition of Bangladeshi' life, after being based on the historical circumstances of immigration from Bangladesh to Tower Hamlets in London. Immigration which constitutes the international manpower movement has the tendency to advance living together in the receiving country by taking advantage of original ethnic network. Therefore, the housing problem in Tower Hamlets was clarified as the local characteristic based on the hometown, Sylhet District in Bangladesh.
This paper is a continued study and the aim is to examine the changes of territoriality in high-rise housing. The dwellers were surveyed regarding their daily lives on neighborhood by the questionnaire. As a result, it has become clear ;1）As Self-expression elements such as plant boxes are reduced, the usage of common corridors are decreased. 2）A sense of safety tends to be higher at the dwellings units with open internal space and flexible partition which enable dwellers to control privacy. 3) The evaluation about openness is increasing in long-term change and the elderly tend to wish it particularly.
The purpose of this research is to clarify the cost of construction and land about typical unit-type special nursing home. An analysis was carried out by statics of questionnaire for institutions throughout Japan. The results are following. 1. The total floor area par bed was different on region, but the costs per square metre or bed were not different in this research. In change over the years, each were decreasing from 2003, and the costs per bed was influenced on the area per bed and the costs per area. 2. The costs of construction were covered by subsidy, their own money and loan on most institutions. Subsidy was decreasing from 2005, instead of loan was increasing. Their own money correlates with years from the establishment of corporation. 3. Most institutions purchaced land by their own money only or with loan. The costs in the 23-boroughs, Tokyo and an area designated for urbanization are about two or three times high than other areas. 4. The costs of both construction and land were covered by official subsidy, their own money and loan on 95.4% of institutions. In the establishment of institution with land acquisition and construction, subsidy and loan are needed.
This paper aims to understand the human behavior semiosis through the probabilistic graphical model, in order to consider a spatial design from human behavior. The study is organized as follows; 1) Human behaviors are described. 2) Interactions between human behaviors and architectural/urban space are extracted from the description, and are classified based on C.S. Peirce's categories, 3) A Bayesian network is constructed from the classified data. 4) The human behavior semiosis is analyzed by the sensitivity analysis of the Bayesian network of step 3. 5) Spatial behavior modeling and simulations with Cellular Automaton are done based on the analysis.
Pregnant women often feel uneasy when they go through spaces crowded with pedestrians. They tend to avoid going out to town out of the worry that they might bump against others and cause serious physical damage to the unborn baby. This study examines the functional relationships between pregnant women's feelings of danger and several potentially influential situational factors. Subjects (102 pregnant women and 22 female students) viewed movies of a railway station taken at different times of day and rated how unsafe they would feel in each setting. Subjects also rated their feelings of danger upon viewing movies in which (a) a pregnant woman brushes past a couple coming from the other way, and (b) a pregnant woman encounters a pedestrian while going around the corner of a building. The results revealed that judgments of danger to be well related to type and amount of pedestrian flow as well as the degree of fear felt by pregnant women toward approaching pedestrians was correlated to the amount of time left to avoid collision.
When we describe a certain phenomenon, we express our phrases composed of appropriate words which are chosen from varieties of languages. Since the process where we create meaning of words is based on our own mental activity, one word would have numerous meanings. Thus, polysemy occurs in languages. For these backgrounds, there is a word: light, which has been described for various meanings of words in terms of linguistic activity by architects. Meanings from light are organized by their own several recognitions to space. In this research we consider polysemy of light as a description of words in statements by architects.
In our time, we seek for quality rather than quantity in interior-space. Curved wall space is one example and become comparatively popular of interior-space. The view point of this study is to investigate the effect which curved space exert upon one's psychology. Then in experiments, changing form of curved wall space make the different cognized spaciousness, depth and image of interior-space clear. And by means of comparing the aspects of space recognition in reduced models with each other the result of the experiments gave us some information which can be applied to interior-space design.
The role of the river which has an exaggerated space in city development is an important element showing regionality. Attractive planning of River Space is important thing for raise the identity of the city and city life with the amenity. In this study (1) Target at various river space from High-profile international city. (2) To devise expression in semiotic of the morphological characteristics in river space. (3) Shows the Model at composition of each river space and performed the analysis and classification. (4) Analysis of the morphological characteristic and sequence constitution and showed the changing point of the space. (5) Showing the morphological characteristics of each target to extract the patterns and their patterns of occurrence for each element.
This paper investigates stress recovery effect of greenery volume in an office space. Indoor greenery is expected to mitigate stress of occupants in an office space mainly due to the visual effect. Subject experiments are carried out to investigate the maximum effect of indoor greenery by changing greenery volume in a simulated office space. Two types of desk layouts are prepared for the experiments. Greenery volume and layout are modified in 6 types, including the control condition without a plant. Pulse rate and flicker value are measured and inquiry by the semantic differential is carried out for the subjects. As a result, the maximum stress recovery effect is observed when the greenery volume is in the middle ratio for the dynamic visual field.
Competition among cities to become attractive to visitors often leads to loss of place identity and a decline in urban quality for local residents. This study explores the urban identity of Alicante City through a Japan-Spain cross-cultural survey in order to compare visitor and local views. The results, obtained through fieldwork mapping and questionnaires conducted on-site, suggest general qualities of public space, some seemingly related to cultural background (e.g. cleanliness for Japanese, colorfulness for local Spaniards), others to different levels of familiarity with the place (e.g. convenience for locals), and finally qualities like ‘liveliness’ that seem to have a strong cross-cultural appeal. To overcome the loss of urban identity multiple factors need to be addressed. In the case of Alicante the enhancement of street liveliness, as a clear cross-cultural urban quality that seems to satisfy both locals and visitors, can be one of the relevant factors to be considered.
This study clarifies methods and characteristics of the first zoning designation by the city planning law(CP law) and the building regulation law(BR law) of 1919 in the cases of 43 small and middle scale cities. Zoning designation was delineated deliberately in order to limit zoning area into necessary minimum. General process of zoning delineation was from commercial, through industrial, to residential zone and zoning designation was obeyed zoning decision standard well. Although the first zoning system had only 3 zone-kinds, within such a limited situation best designation was sought in all examples. In many examples planners interpreted the zoning regulation as land use plan, not as building use regulation. Because zoning system was prescribed not under CP law, but under BR law, zoning designation was not utilized enough.
This study considers the possibilities of “Engawa-Services” by welfare corporations. The results revealed that approximately there is one exchange center in 1,600 elderly in Hokkaido, mostly managed by volunteers, municipals, or welfare corporations. The elderly at "Chiiki-shokudo" are positive about aging and scored higher points than average in PGC Morale Scale. The report also shows people lose friends and outing becomes less frequently as they age, however, they go to "Chiiki-shokudo" often. This indicates the significance of the place and their main reasons to go there are acquisitions of moderate exchanges, social roles, security, periodic activity, and etc.
The traditional townscape of Kagurazaka-KAGAI is appraised by citizens and tourists, whereas the structure of this townscape is not yet clarified. This paper clarified following three points. 1. Prewar Kagurazaka-KAGAI provided more mysterious townscape for visitors than present condition because there are more complex network of alleys and taller buildings. 2. The townscape, which has been rebuilt after the war, underwent big change. But some elements of prewar building design are inherited in KAGAI's buildings. Moreover, many ordinary buildings modeled after KAGAI's buildings in Kagurazaka-KAGAI. 3. We need more consideration how to control a design of buildings out of Kagurazaka-KAGAI.
This research aims to understand the problems occurring in each of the types of buildings and residents, based on the questionnaire survey of public housing and improvement housing that was implemented as a housing environment development project. The main indicators such as “very old buildings with single, elderly inhabitants,” “housing standard,” and “deteriorated housing” were first assessed by employing principal component. Then, using cluster analysis, the entire objective was divided into four types and the trend of problems for each type were analyzed. Research outcome may become reference data for the redevelopment and improvement of housing currently being implemented.
This study has the objective that focuses upon “the precence/absence of awareness of and the occurrence/no occurrence of participation in” Maul-mandulgi Projects in Munhwa-dong of Buk-gu in Gwangju City and residents' autonomous committee, which is a representative residents' organization of the village, that analyzes the participation factors, recognition paths, Maul-mandulgi Projects, residents' evaluation and potential support and that defines the characteristics and tasks related to the activities for Maul-mandulgi. As a conclusion, clarification has been made on (1)participation factors and recognition paths for Maul-mandulgi Projects (2)residents' evaluation of the Maul-mandulgi Projects (3)residents' evaluation of residents' autonomous committee (4)intention for participation in the Maul-mandulgi Projects (5)intention for participation in the residents' autonomous committee
In this study, we analyzed the attribute of condominium residents in Sendai city for proper management of condominium housing stock. Results are as follows: (1) Firstly Condominiums are acquired by 30-40s as owned housing, but time passed, the ratio of rental flats has been increasing. (2) Condominiums located in city center have demands for rental housing, but in the suburban area, rental demand level is low. (3) In the older apartment, there are more vacant dwelling units. And residents of the condominium with many vacant dwelling units tend to be more elderly. Today old condominiums are concentrated in the city center and their housing stocks are used as rental housings, but the demand for suburban apartments being decrepit in the future is the problemon the use of housing stocks.
The consequence from Koji Fujii was considered centering on the tearoom of the Nakano family residence. The main points of argument solved in this paper are as follows. 1. By construction of the tearoom of the Hiraike family residence, or the former Ogawa family residence, Dembei received influence from Fujii. 2. Dembei had adopted in the plan the lighting method and the ventilating method which Fujii recommends. 3. The influence from Fujii is seen in the Nakano family residence or the tearoom in Kyoto Botanical Garden. 4. He investigated the mere not a copy but original design, Dembei being affected from Fujii.
During Edo-Era there were several Ocha-yas in Kumamoto-Han. Through the examination of historical materials on Ocha-ya of Takase, Kawajiri and Sashiki in comparison with Ocha-ya of Hinagu, Notsubaru and Yamaga, following results were ascertained; 1)Plan of Ocha-ya was similar to each other among 6 Ocha-yas. 2)Some Ocha-yas faced main road and the others were detached from main road. 3)Some Ocha-yas combined with government office and the others were separate.
This paper takes up fire fighting of Yamashiro County Atago Haramura of the Edo period. Haramura was not in the mobilization range of the Kyoto town magistrate place or the Kyoto deputy official place. For this reason, the farmer got cooperation of the neighboring farm village and performed fire fighting. Moreover, a feudal lord's Fukujuin and the feudal lord's Hirohashi family are requested also for the revival fund. However, the report of a fire has gone to the Kyoto town magistrate place. Thereby, the fire of the frontier district was also proved that it is jurisdiction of the Kyoto town magistrate.
This research deals with the critic Karel Teige (1900-1951) who played a role as the important person in the modernization process of the Czech architecture in the beginning of the 20th century. This research is focused on the aspect as the architecture critic from his activity over many categories, and aimed for presenting peculiar positioning as the architecture critic in the history of European modern architecture and a part of his thought by analyzing a series of his manuscripts about architecture field.
It is in 1932 that Morita mentioned Valéry's ‘Eupalinos’ for the first time. How did he encountered Valéry. I guessed that there were some chances of the encounter in Le Corbusier's text, lectures at the Institute of France-Japan, and lectures and texts of philosophers in Kyoto University. Then published books, preserved documents were examined. Consequently it was revealed that Morita learned the outline of Valéry's works through the lecture in the Institute of France-Japan, and was leaded to ‘Eupalinos’ by Kuki Syuzo. Morita's understanding of Valéry's thoughts however was based on Platonism learned through Fukada Yasukazu.
This essay analyzes the urban spatial structure and the chronology of palace architecture in Lijiang, the capital of the Naxi kingdom, from the fourteenth century to the beginning of the eighteenth century under the rule of the Naxi Tusi (indigenous rulers). They possessed the following characteristics. There was no city wall and the steep terrain was exploited for defense. The palace buildings were located at the foot of Huang Mountain, at the summit of which there was a ritual altar Tiantan. The eastern direction had higher status, and the administrative (ruling) spaces and the residential spaces were arranged in a row rather than front to back. The Zumiao (mausoleum for ancestral worship) and the Shejitan were located front to back on Huang Mountain rather than to the left and right of the palace. In addition, the commercial district was to the left of the palace. The style of the palace buildings showed characteristics of the western region of Yunnan.
The purpose of this study is building the part of hipped roof angle rafter generation of the frame element generation system by cooperation of constituents in timber framework construction house. The part of hipped roof angle rafter generation is built as a multi agent system that the angle rafter modeled in the straight line cooperates with close angle rafters, repeats correction and decide the right position based on positioning rules by analyzing the positioning situation of angle rafter in hipped roofs and the information of the circumstances. In this study, the knowledge that is obtained on the building this part is reported.