Self-Renovation(SR), which can be defined as customizing house done by tenants themselves, or some construction company with tenant’s planning, is focused in this report. The purpose of this report is to clarify the relationship between rental systems of contract, management and space of dwelling units and self-renovation by tenants in rental apartment houses. We interviewed 23 lenders, such as real estate agency, building owners, property management company and designers of house renovation, about a lease contract and condition of dwelling units. Additionally, we visited 40 houses and interviewed residents the process of SR, satisfaction and feeling of attachment to their house, and surveyed SR by recording part and taking the photograph.
What we can conclude from this report is the following. · The Rental system that allow tenants to renovate their house by themselves realize the modernization and personalization of dwelling unit and increase tenants satisfaction and feeling of attachment to a dwelling unit. · We showed that rental systems have two tendencies. The first one has soft mechanism that encourages tenants to do SR aggressively and hard condition that has a lot of room for SR. This collaborative rental system could realize personalized modernization of dwelling units by large scale SR. The second one has soft mechanism that weakens motivation to do SR and hard condition that has a little room for SR because lenders renovated dwelling units in advance. This simple and easy rental system could encourage tenants to personalize dwelling units by small scale SR. · It is assumed that regeneration of old and decrepit dwelling units should be done in collaboration with lenders and tenants. Owing to this, we indicated that it is important to coop with various tenants flexibly and to prepare mechanism to reduce the burden of SR.
This study targets "welfare facilities" and "large shopping centers" used by the visually impaired and focuses on methods of "maneuvering to and searching for" concerning restroom environments for each facility. This study checked for the presence of differences for visually impaired individuals with differing attributes as well as for different facilities, targeting processes such as how visually impaired individuals reach the restroom entrance, how they find open restroom booths, and how they look for fixtures and devices in the restroom booths like the cleaning buttons. This study also clarified the influence of relationships between visually impaired individuals and their companions, the number of people in user groups, and the usage purpose and scale of the facilities upon methods of maneuvering to and searching for restrooms. The results of analysis confirmed the following points.
1. Half of the respondents could not read braille even though they had received training. Also, all respondents were visually impaired individuals over 20 years old. 2. Regarding the method of maneuvering to a restroom within welfare facilities and large shopping centers, over half of the respondents had a companion guide them. This is particularly prominent in large shopping centers. However, in shopping centers with large floor areas, it is also common practice for sighted individuals to go to restrooms together with a companion. Thus, it is difficult to consider the practice of "having a companion as a guide" to be a "special method of maneuvering" for visually impaired individuals only. 3. Large shopping centers also add the additional conditions of large restroom interiors, multiple restroom booths, and confusion. As such, over half of large shopping center visitors rely on guidance from a companion all the way up to an open restroom booth. 4. On the other hand, for welfare facility users, even people who rely on companions to guide them up to the restroom will look for open restroom booths on their own. Most of the companions were guide helpers, and reasons given for this include, "I feel bad about having to have someone guide me all the way to the inside of the restroom." Concern for"other people" is influential in this.
Introduction Many previous studies have researched the characteristics of pedestrian flow and measured the values such as the flow rate, speed and density, on the basis of the investigations of pedestrian movements in urban streets, stations, theater and others, in normal situations. There is a case that their results were used for the estimation of evacuation time. However, Most of these studies did not research the pedestrian flow passing through an opening in a wide space such as a room or hall in architecture and a public passage. This paper focuses on the characteristics of pedestrian flow during passing through an opening in wide space in detail, using the experiment. Purpose This study aimed to identify the characteristics of pedestrian flow during passing through an opening in wide space under a range of the opening width. The effect of an opening width on the pedestrian flow during passing through the opening in a wide space was elucidated, on the basis of the each transition of the specific flow [person/m/s] and walking speed [m/s], density [person/m2], and the walking trajectories. Methods The experiment was conducted on subjects walking and passing through the opening in the 6000-mm wide space. The experimental conditions were varied according to the opening widths and the distances between the opening and the start position of the subject crowd. The opening widths were set to one of the six levels under a range from 800 mm to 2400 mm The distances between the opening and the start position of the subject crowd were 1200 mm and 6000 mm. The number of trials in the distances of 1200 mm and 6000 mm were 3 and 1, respectively, in each level of opening width. The experiment consisted of 24 trials on the basis of combinations of two experimental conditions. The 96 non-handicapped subjects, all walked and passed through the opening in each trial. Results The parts of results of this study are as follows: 1. When the opening width was multiples of 600 mm, the specific flow in the case that the distance between the opening and the crowd are 1200 mm and 6000 mm, were the same. 2. When the opening width is multiples of 600 mm but that is 2400 mm, it is assumed that the walking speed and the density during passing through the opening in the case of 6000-mm walking distance to the opening are higher and less than those in the case of 1200-mm, respectively. 3. The specific flow in each case that the distance between the opening and the crowd are 1200 mm and 6000 mm, were not much difference between the opening widths from 800 mm to 2400 mm. The averages in the case of 1200mm and 6000mm were 2.59 person/m/s and 2.49 person/m/s, respectively. 4. When the width of the opening is from 800 mm to 2400 mm, it is assumed that the specific flow in steady state is about about 2.40 person/m/s at minimum. Conclusions This study set out to derive the characteristics of the transition and the steady state of the pedestrian flow during passing through the opening in the wide space. The results obtained will be useful for calculating the time for people to evacuate in the event of fire, using mathematical expressions or computer simulation.
In architectural designing methodology, it is important to refer to experienced designers for skilfully developed
thoughts and the ability to form ideas. The information required to learn designing philosophy of experienced architects
is enveloped within a stage of abstract expression and is thought to be explicitly expressed in word. Thus, in this report
we read the discourse of an architect, Louis Kahn and understand his designing philosophy, develop a method of idea
forming as a designing support tool to be utilized for architectural designing, and examine its effectiveness through a
designing experiment by students.
The aim of this study is to clarify the connective relationship between building and the ground in contemporary Japanese houses from both point of view of shape of house façade and continuity with foreground of façade. Firstly, shape of house façade is analyzed from two hierarchical viewpoints: first and second outline shape of façade. First outline shape of façade is defined by the proportion of height to width (Table 1) and the change of width from bottom to top (Table 2). Second outline shape of façade is defined by the shape that was cut by the arrangement of window (Table 3). Then 9 patterns of shape of house façade are classified by combination of first and second outline shape of façade (Table 4). Secondly, continuity with foreground of façade is analyzed from the grounding form of footing (Table 5), the arrangement of materials in foreground (Table 6), similarity of finish of façade and foreground (Table 7) and the existence of architectural element forms visual or circulative continuity with street (Table 8). Then 6 models of continuity are determined by combination of these analysis (Table 9). Finally, 11 types of the connection are determined through these two frames of relations (Table 10). Comparing the types and patterns (Fig. 2), these two contrastive tendencies of characteristic about connection of house façade to the ground are clarified.
·Type (1)-A, (1)-C, (4)-A, and (4)-C have a characteristic of emphasized connection of house façade to the ground by stability of shape and continuity with foreground. Type (5)-I has a characteristic of weakened connection by instability of shape and discontinuity with foreground. These two group of characteristics of “emphasized” and “weakened” connection are both in the trend of consistent correspondences between relationship of shape and continuity. ·Type (4)-I, (2)-C and (5)-C are in the trend of inconsistent correspondences between relationship of shape and continuity. Among them, type (4)-I has a characteristic of instability of shape and continuity with foreground. Then, type (2)-C and (5)-C have a characteristic of stability of shape and discontinuity with foreground.
These two tendencies suggest that the connection of house façade to the ground in Japanese contemporary houses are mostly divided in to these two diagram: emphasized and composite relationship of connection.
The purpose of this research was to discuss the political situation associated with Tsuyoshi Tamura during the selection process of notational parks. The research subject was the political process to establish the National Parks Law. In particular, this paper focused the discussion of the National Parks Law at the Imperial Diet; then the characteristics of Japan's national parks have been examined. In this paper, establishment of national parks was considered as one of the policies and has been analyzed from the following three perspectives: 1) National parks had a function to expand local interests 2) The 59th Imperial Diet was not only an opportunity for the two major parties, Constitutional Democratic Party (hereinafter “CDP”) and Constitutional Association of Political Friendship (hereinafter “CAPF”), to discuss the policy regarding national parks, but also the opportunity which CAPF criticized CDP's Interior Minister, Kenzo Adachi. 3) As national parks could influence local interests, conflicting local interests surrounding national parks existed within each political party. Thus, these conflicting interests were reflected during a discussion at the Imperial Diet. As a result of this analysis, it was uncovered that the idea of national parks was never clarified even between the two major parties based on the discussion at the national parks bill committee. The actual discussion point of the national parks bill committee was for CAPF to strike CDP and Adachi and also to prevent CDP from exploiting the national park idea for the election. The councilors who belong to CAPF actually had a hidden agenda to establish national parks in their supporting regions, while criticizing CDP's utilization of national parks for their political purposes. However, as they all try to develop the fundamentals of national parks based on their own interest to promote them within each of their constituency, even within CAPF, the vision of national parks was not consistent in the following points: the objective of national parks, locations, the scale of the area, conservation policies, utilization, and strictness of regulations. It has been revealed that the Imperial Diet thus did not function as a place to discuss national park ideas further. Due to the conflict between the two major political parties, Tsuyoshi Tamura was appointed to provide scholarly objectivity to the selection results of national parks. According to the analysis of the reasons for submission of the National Parks Law bill, urgent issues were raised such as the legal protection of industrial development like hydroelectric power, and the protection and control by National Park Plans against unsystematic tourism development. On the other hand, utilization development and visitor promotion were not specified as an imminent goal, and these were positioned as an overall large-scale purpose driven by national parks. Policy menus regarding international tourism did not exist; therefore, cooperation with the Ministry of Railways also did not exist. In addition, cooperation with the Ministry of Education did not exist. Taking all of the above into consideration, this bill was submitted only for the imminent purpose of protection and control of natural landscape.
This study aims to clarify the mechanism of communal lives in 17 fishing villages in Onagawa area before the Great East Japan Earthquake, in order to discuss about theory and methodology for rehabilitation of damaged area with continuation of area's context. Interviews were conducted to 46 residents, chiefly composed of members of self-governing bodies and fishery cooperatives, to ask questions about fishing, daily activities, and religious activities. Spatial and social resources, such as fisheries, public and religious facilities, cemeteries, and events are managed and maintained by pluralistic and multiple layered relationships among 17 villages as followings. (1) Fisheries have been utilized and managed by agreement of traditional territorial boundaries representing shore rights with each village, and by prefectural regulation, which gives fishing right to a fisherman individually. (2) Cooperative relationships of fishery's management between villages, which adjoin or opposite across the water each other, are established in seven cases by 11 villages. (3) Only one case, in which common ownership of a cemetery, is found between Tsukahama and Koyadori village. (4) Five names of Shinto shrines are used commonly among 14 villages. (5) Six temples, which include three temples outside of Onagawa area, are utilized commonly among 16 villages. (6) Three elementary schools are shared by 16 villages. Number of items, which represent relationships of common ownership and utilization, counts one to seven by each village, and its average per a village is about 4.2 items. The village, which is counted most items, is Izushima village with seven items, and secondly Terama, Koyadori, and Iigohama village with six items. Enoshima with least items is counted one. Relocation to the heights or raising land for rehabilitation from a disaster, sometimes tends to be planned regarding only factors of lands. Possibility of rehabilitation planning, which considers mechanism of communal management of fisheries is highly expected, because social relationships between lands and fisheries are formed interactively.
The government in the early of Joseon dynasty, Korea built ‘Chi-so’, which was an administrative institute to the each of every administrative district (Boo-Mock-Gun-Hyun: Upper level to lower one) for governing and the place with Chi-so was called as ‘Eup-chi’. The ideal place for Eup-chi was selected by the Feng-Shui theory, and the master plan to arrange Chi-so was applied by the principle of arranging in the capital area, ‘Han-yang’.The studies of the Eup-chi are the main parts of studies for understanding of the Joseon cities. Those are, however, mostly focused on a major city, a castle city, or the cities with ruins preserved well. The purpose of this study is to clearfy of spatial composition to the case of ‘Yeonsan-Hyun Eup-chi’ at the end of 19th century as focusing on its regional township without castles in the suburban districts of ‘Gun-Hyun’. There is the only map with the arrangements of Chi-so, which illustrates formally in large with Feng-shui elements. On the other hand, there is ‘Ryang-an’, a record of land management in real, and a map in this study is constructed from the one in 1901. To understand the real land uses, it is examined by comparing with the Feng-Shui-map, 1872, the Land-Registration-map, 1914, and the photomap, 1948 and by contrasting with a town chronicles. Moreover, the study uses field investigation with listening local voices to restore master plan of the Chi-so. To sum up the results, it shows as follows: First, Yeonsan-Hyun Eup-chi was facing west in spite of the belief to face south in Feng-Shui theory on the geographic conditions and its school, Hyanggyo(a government-run provincial school), was located at the right side among the Chi-so, which is the opposite in the building principle of the capital area. Storehouses, called ‘Eup-chang’, and official guesthouses, called ‘Geak-sa’, were apart from Chi-so, a local administration, and they were in good places to connect with the central administrations of Han-yang. Second, the Chi-so had only a tiled roof, unlike the surroundings, and gatherd together in front of Zousan(the major symbolic mountain on the back side of Eup-chi, as guarding a town). The Feng-shui axis from Zousan to Ansan (this mountain closes the space in front of the Eup-chi to contain energy from main mountain) was applied to the axis of Chi-so. This axis of the master plan in Chi-so extended outside and gave a distinctive image to the township of Eup-chi. Third, a main entrance such as a gateway of a castellated Eup-chi was on the entranceway of the symbolic axis(above writen), on which a provincial governor approached to Yeonsan-Hyun Eup-chi. Fourth, private houses were in cluster around the Chi-so, without illustrated on the Feng-shui map. Another type of road, which was different with the roads surrounding the houses in farmlands, made a structure of Eup-chi. This road was three-way intersection, following the Feng-shui theory to avoid as an X-road. Lastly, a periodic market was opened next to Eup-chang, a storehouse, on the public lands, because it requires the easy way of accessibility to the other periodic markets in neighbor towns. Therefore, Yeonsan-Hyun Eup-chi has the central level of ‘Hyun’ township from building Chi-so under the national governing ideology. In doing so gradually, it can take a spatial form of urban shape from housing clusters, road system, and a periodic market to barter. Also, two main springs for water supply and a public square in front of a gatehouse were acting for public space.
The aim of this study is to create a comparative framework in which to clarify morphological and evolutionary trends of cultural World Heritage (WH) zoning. Firstly, “core” and “buffer” areas for European and East Asian properties are extracted from WH registration maps and its compositional elements are defined. Secondly, properties with “individual core” are classified according to the shape, size, proportion and extension of the 2 areas in 11 basic types and 2 subtypes. Thirdly, according to repetition and adaptation of these types for “collective core” properties, 5 distribution subtypes appear. Here, strategies towards area definition can be defined. Besides, significant differences in regional approach can also be remarked. Finally, types are located in time and connected to their contemporary heritage concepts. As a result, this method produces an objective reference framework that allows understanding the different geo-cultural trends in WH zoning morphological definition and their novelty.
This article developed a new method to obtain optimum urban forms minimizing the moving cost from each point to the central district center with consideration of floor height. By applying the method to linear cities including hierarchical spatial structure, this article aimed to clarify the effect of various factors including floor height on the optimum urban forms, and to verify the differences of the optimal urban forms with consideration of floor height from those without it in the previous studies. This article assumed hierarchical district centers and transportation system according to the stage of life needs. Based on the assumption of compact city system, this article calculated the optimal urban form. The Optimal urban form is defined as the city to minimize the total travel cost from each houses to the central district center via the nearest district center. Conventionally, the urban model to minimize the travel cost was defined without considering the floor height. In order to make the urban model more realistic, we formulated a new urban model considering the floor height and calculated the optimal urban form. When the urban model has multi-layered horizontal floors in the vertical direction, the formula of the travel cost include the integer variable expressing the number of floors. Therefore, we cannot use the integration to cost calculation of height direction and this makes the calculation of the optimal urban form difficult. In order to overcome the difficulties, this study, as the first step, calculated the optimal urban form of a linear city. This linear city can be considered as a city developed along a railway or highway, or as a section of a city. As a result, when the total floor area is given the urban form that minimizes the travel cost was uniquely determined. The result also showed that the obtained optimum urban forms are similar when only the total floor area changes but that they are not similar when the travel cost of the vertical movement or of the bus change. The comparison between the two optimal urban forms, one of which takes into account the floor height and the other of which does not take into account, showed the following three results. First, when we consider the floor height, the height of the city is generally lower than the urban model without considering the floor height. Second, the distance between the district centers of the former model is larger than that of the latter one. Third, because the area from which the central district center is the nearest grows, the population accessing the central district center directly increases. In other words, when considering the floor height, the city is expanded in the horizontal direction. The article left three issues for further study. First, the city model should be extended to the three-dimensional city model. Second, the review of suitable travel cost and other factors suppressing the highest height of actual cities is necessary. The horizontal size compared to the vertical one obtained by this study is extremely smaller than that of the actual cities. By adopting the appropriate travel cost and by considering other factors including the limitations of construction technique or building cost, more realistic urban forms may be obtained. Third, it is necessary to compare the actual city forms with this city model. The factor except the travel costs that decides real city forms may be found by comparing two. With that in mind, it is necessary to indicate the rule of compact city system.
Central shopping districts in provincial cities have been declining since 1980's and it is in question about the importance of their existence. This paper estimates the value of the historicity of central shopping districts, and reveals whether it has been succeeded to functions characters as central shopping districts: places for communication with people and commercial activities since pre-war or not. This paper pays attention to Hideaki Ishikawa's serialization: “Sakariba Fudoki” as a historical material to grasp situations of central shopping districts in pre-war. In these essays, it was introduced “Sakariba” he had visited, and it was argued a role each sakariba has played. It is possible to regard as an essay has a historical value that he has analyzed central shopping districts in provincial cities comprehensively. This paper compares situations of central shopping districts he argued in 1930's with current situations of them and 40 cities he had argued became the target of analysis. In this paper, we verify whether characters as central shopping districts have been maintained in provincial cities since 1930's or not from two viewpoints, “succession of centrality in the city” and “succession of functions as shopping districts.” The first analysis verifies whether it has been succeeded to “centrality in the city” in central shopping districts Ishikawa argued in 1930's or not. In this paper, the concept of centrality is grasped from the following three elements. a. Pedestrian traffic in central shopping district is the most in city center. b. It is recognized that central shopping district is center of city in plans by local governments. c. Land price in central shopping district is the highest in city center. And this analysis verifies whether these shopping districts are applicable in all of these conditions or not. We reveal how many shopping districts have been succeeded to centrality in city by means this analysis. As a result, it became clear only nine cities: Asahikawa, Utsunomiya, Shizuoka, Hamamatsu, Matsuyama, Kumamoto, Sasebo, Miyazaki and Kagoshima were applicable in all of these conditions. Therefore central shopping districts in these cities were judged that it had been succeeded to centrality. On the other hand, though it had been recognized that central shopping districts in thirty-one cities had centrality in city center, it was judged that characters have been lost. The second analysis verifies whether it has been succeeded to “functions as shopping districts” in these nine cities or not. This analysis shows how accumulation and use of stores have been changing since 1930's. As a result, it was judged that it had been succeeded functions as shopping districts in only four cities: Shizuoka, Matsuyama, Sasebo and Kagoshima. In these four cities, it is seen common features in spatial changing of central shopping districts from 1930's to presence; it hasn't been put widening on a large scale in war damage revival planning in these cities. On the other hand, it has been put widening on a large scale in three cities: Utsunomiya, Hamamatsu and Miyazaki. Although these seven cities are war damaged cities, the principle of street plans in the above four cities were different from the remaining three cities. It is considered that there is a connection between widening on a large scale and succession of characters as central shopping districts. From the above, it became clear that it had been succeeded to “centrality in the city” in nine cities, and it had been succeeded to “functions as shopping districts” in four cities of nine cities.
“Obnoxious facility” is a general term for the facilities that are necessary for society but that people do not want to be located near their habitation. Moreover, the sense of dislike of such buildings is termed “NIMBY”. Until now, incineration plants, crematoria, and other public facilities have been famous as obnoxious facilities in Japan. Recently, however, it has emerged as a big social issue that many nursery schools cannot open because of neighborhood opposition movements. In the 1990s, homes for the aged were also subjected to strong protests against their establishment. It is supposed that the factors of the phenomenon that cause these welfare facilities—which fulfill fundamental social demands—to become obnoxious facilities, or conversely cease to be so considered, include not only the political promotion of their establishment but also changes in social consciousness. This research aims to examine the historical transition of welfare facilities for the aged and children as obnoxious facilities, and to consider the social background and problems. In this study, we examine the newspaper articles on the opposition movements against the establishment of these facilities as the basis to judge whether they became targets of NIMBY. By analyzing the texts of these articles and the specific planned location of homes for the aged and nursery schools opposed by the residents living in the vicinity, we clarify the causal factors of this phenomenon. In Chapter 2, we compare for seven public facilities the change in the numbers of articles on the opposition movements against their establishment to reveal the historical positioning of homes for the aged and children as obnoxious facilities. Both types of facilities experienced a particular peak for the number of corresponding articles. In Chapter 3, we analyze the contents of these articles and the location environment of 23 construction plans for homes for the aged detailed in these articles. From the late 1980s to the early 1990s, there were many cases where prejudice against homes for the aged seemed to be most prevalent, but after that period, such cases gradually disappeared. However, due to the lack of site selection procedures in the late 1980s, there were also many cases in which the government began promoting their construction in green spaces, parks, and public squares to secure a comfortable environment for the residents among dense urban areas. We clarify that the number of opposition movements against homes for the aged decreased because people came to accept them and they have also become beneficial for an increasing number of people with the advancement of an aging society. In Chapter 4, we analyze the contents of these articles and the location environment of 15 construction plans for nursery schools detailed in these articles. In the 1970s, there were some movements against nursery schools and a controversy among society over dealing with them as an undesirable noise source. Moreover, since the 2010s, the number of these movements had increased again and it continues to expand more steadily now than in the 1970s. We reveal that the major factors in the growing number of cases in recent years comprise the deregulation of nursery schools executed in the 2000s, the change of the psychological distance to children among society mainly caused by the declining birth rate, and incomprehension of the necessity of nursery school among the elderly who have never used it. With the increase in demand for homes for the aged and children, it is expected that these facilities will increase ever further and that the arguments of the opposition movements will become increasingly diverse. We need to discuss how to promote mutual understanding within local societies.
This study looks into the implementation of Brunei's Master Plan proposal for compact strategy of developments within the designated Urban Footprint zone. Although the Master Plan lacks regulatory support, this study found that private housing developments have been mainly concentrated within the Urban Footprint zone and a more compact urban form through infill and higher density developments is being realized. This may be due to government administrative processes, housing trend and market demand. However, if existing land distribution and issue of access is not solved, it will be a challenge to commit to this strategy in the future.
This study examines the spatial characteristics of sold properties through property transfer and regeneration programs by New Orleans City government after Hurricane Katrina. Property transfer and regeneration programs, the Lot Next Door Program and Auction, function to bring blighted properties into managed empty lot and new/renovated housing stock. It is demonstrated that location of sold properties have a strong correlation with neighborhood attributions such as income, race and property value which implies that government's programs function well only where has strong real estate market. There is some limitation, although, it is proved that these programs are effective methods for neighborhood-scale regeneration which is achieved by encouraging multiple stakeholders to construct housing and manage properties, not adhering to housing "re"construction by pre-disaster homeowners.
The Numazu Shopping District is distinct as it is the first and only shopping district to enact the Aesthetic Area Law. However currently redevelopment plans of the shopping district are being discussed due to aging buildings and decline in business demand. Therefore, it is essential to review the influences of the enacted Aesthetic Area Law upon shopping districts, especially from the point of view of the spatial changes in commercial and living space.
The following three objectives will be clarified: 1) The historical construction process and changes in commercial demand within the shopping district. 2) The changes in space utilization influenced by the commercial demand. 3) The changes in the view of Aesthetic Area Law of building owners. In order to clarify these objectives, the lifestyle between building owners within Numazu Arcade Shopping District will be documented.
First, the Aesthetic Area Law was enacted upon the Numazu Arcade Shopping District as a deregulation measure to construct buildings over the sidewalk. Through the review of commercial demand within the shopping district, it has been identified that there were three main phases that had an impact on the spatial transformation of the shopping district buildings. These changes were especially seen from the 1960s to the 1980s during the "Period of Commercial Peak", when many shop owners have expanded their buildings using their backyard space. This backward expansion was mainly cased by the regulation of the Aesthetic Area Law, as construction and expansion along the street side was restricted.
Next, in order to look into detail of the transformation and spatial utilization within the Numazu Arcade Shopping District, a fieldwork survey was carried out. As a result, during the "Period of Commercial Peak", there was a demand for stockrooms and living space for employees, and many shops expanded their buildings. Yet, when the shopping district hit the "Period of Commercial Decline", large portions of the expanded space became unused, and it was also identified that there was a shift in the social occupancy of the buildings.
Finaly, a hearing survey was conducted to identify the changes in view of Aesthetic Area Law between building owners. During the construction period, the building owners had maintained the townscape and took the Aesthetic Area Law into account. However, due to aging of the building and owners, it is becoming difficult to maintain the building facade and townscape. As a result, the importance of the Aesthetic Area Law had faded out within the building owners minds. On the on contrary, there are movements to improve the townscape of the shopping district, such as the installation of street furniture and plantation of flowers along the sidewalk. This act shows that building owners are raising consciousness of the townscape beyond the restrictions of the Aesthetic Area Law.
Winter cities suffer from heavy snowfalls and cold winds and must perform costly and energy-consuming snow removal. Within these winter cities, an urban design approach that considers public space environments and energy saving is required. This paper developed the concepts of smart block designs that reduce negative impacts of snow and wind as well as the saving energy during winter for winter cities. The study focused on the high-density blocks in downtown Sapporo, Hokkaido Japan (Fig. 5). Three urban block models, existing type, high-rise congregated type and skyscraper integrated type, were assessed by using snow and wind simulations in wind tunnel (Fig. 3). Climatic impacts of snow and wind in the public spaces were analyzed in Chapter 6 (Fig. 7~9). Using the results of the snow simulations, the energy requirements for removing snow in the public spaces were estimated in Chapter 7-1 (Table4). Building energy consumptions during winter in each urban block model were calculated by ‘Program for Primary Energy Consumption in Buildings’ in Chapter 7-2 (Table10). Based on the results of Chapter 7-1 and 7-2, total energy consumptions during winter in the urban block models were analyzed (Table10). The results of this study lead to five desirable urban block design concepts for high-rise and high-density building blocks in winter cities, and showed the relationship between block energy consumption and energy for removing snow as follows: [Desirable urban block design concepts]: 1) Skyscraper integrated type and high-rise congregated type presented fewer snowdrifts on the public spaces than the existing type. They were controlled by the urban block designs such as the unification of the building external facades and the heights of buildings, reducing the wind turbulence, thereby causing the fewer snowdrifts. 2) Skyscraper integrated type and high-rise congregated type presented less snow cover on the public spaces and less snow removal energy consumptions than the existing type. 3) Skyscraper integrated type presented fewer snowdrifts on the public spaces than high-rise congregated type. Because the buildings was taller in skyscraper integrated type, stronger deflected winds produces larger areas without snowdrifts. In addition, the roof of the podium in the skyscraper integrated type could catch the snow and reduce the snow cover on the public spaces. 4) Skyscraper integrated type presented less snow cover on the public spaces and less snow removal energy consumptions than high-rise congregated type. The snow removal energy consumption in skyscraper integrated type was about twenty percent less than in high-rise congregated type. 5) In skyscraper integrated type and high-rise congregated type, the external facades were set back from Kita 3 jo street and the open-spaces were set along the sidewalks. The snowdrifts were formed on the open-spaces and the snowdrifts on the sidewalks could be reduced. [Relationship between block energy consumption and energy for removing snow] Energy consumptions of snow removal were equivalent to about ten percent of the total energy consumptions during winter. In addition, saving the energy consumed by buildings will increase the ratio of snow removal energy to total energy consumptions during winter. It is important to consider not only saving building energy consumption but also the snow removal energy consumption for the smart block planning in winter cities. This study shows the relationship between urban block design and snow removal energy consumption and the importance of snow removal energy consumption in the total energy consumption during winter. Future related research will consider detailed urban design guidelines to decrease total energy consumptions during winter.
This study focuses on the relaxation of road use regulations following the implementation of the Law on Improvement and Revitalization of City Centers (Chushin-Shigaichi Kasseika Hou) in 1998. Since the law was implemented 18 years ago, events such as open cafes and morning markets have been held on public roadways in regional centers across Japan, allowing for the temporary installation of benches, parasols, and other such furnishings, attracting people, and increasing activity in the areas. This study is divided into three phases: a review of the processes which contributed to a relaxation of the regulations; an analysis of the sociopolitical motivations behind relaxing road use regulations; and an examination of the impact of regulation relaxation on events held on public roadways.
Since 1998 there has been a shift in focus from using this law to revitalize regional centers to using it to increase activity in metropolitan centers. When the law was initially implemented, there is little evidence that the government had any concrete ideas of how public roadways specifically, could be used; only that there was a need to relax regulations for regional revitalization. With the establishment of the Act on Special Districts for Structural Reform (SDSR, Kouzou-Kaikaku Tokku Hou) in 2002, the government began to collect data on the needs and requests of regional centers. From this information it became clear that the regulations relating to the use of public roadways needed reform. The cabinet ordered the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport (MLIT) to ease the regulations of the Road Law (Douro Hou) without changing the law itself. In 2005 MLIT issued a set of guidelines which would allow public roadways to be used for purposes other than transit.
Also in 2005, the cabinet created an Act for Area Rebirth (Chiiki Saisei Hou) to support regional governments’plans for revitalization. The practice of collecting data, begun with the development of SDSR, had been built upon and improved, while the idea of relaxing road regulation was reinforced with the Act on Special Measures Concerning Urban Renaissance (SMCUR, Toshi Saisei Tokubetsu Sochi Hou), an act intended to help cities recover from the bursting of the economic bubble in the 1990’s. The focus of this act was to help Japanese metropolitan areas remain competitive with other Asian metropolises, such as Shanghai or Singapore. To this end, MLIT recently amended both their guidelines and the Road Law, as of March 2016.
Our research found that the needs of the organizers had a significant impact on the relaxation of road use laws. Before issuing the 2005 guidelines, MLIT engaged in a rigorous research process, gathering data on 570 existing events before conducting 41 social experiments relating to events held on public roadways, of which 15 were permanently implemented. In more recent years, as the cabinet has focused more on economic recovery and global competitiveness, the use of public roadways in metropolitan areas has become more common. In this way the motivation and procedures to relax road use regulations have improved significantly.
This increased ease in the processes involved in using public roadways for events, as well as the increase in political motivation to do so, is now effective in the Metropolitan areas. After 18 years, it is the time to rethink how it creates an opportunity for regional centers struggling with the combined issues of depopulation, decreasing birthrate, aging population, and change in industrial structure, to create favorable conditions for their community. By implementing the new civic tools available to them, it may be possible to arrange and customize the use of their public roadways to attract more activity and ultimately, more people.
1. Research Background At the beginning of the 19th century, Jan Cock Blomhoff (1779-1853, head of the Dejima; below, Blomhoff), Johan Frederik van Overmeer Fisscher (1800-1848, first secretary; below, Fisscher), and Philipp Franz von Siebold (1796-1866, doctor working at the Dutch trading; below, Siebold) left behind precious records of machiya (Japanese old-style town houses). These machiya, etc. models a Japanese person was asked to create that are held by the National Museum of Ethnology, Leiden (below, Leiden Museum) are very elaborate, and allow us to see what machiya were like at the beginning of the 19th century. 2. Research Objectives This paper aims to first present an overall picture of these Leiden Museum models, and consider what they show as historical materials. Then, I will focus on the Siebold Collection, and show that the models were made to highlight the relationship between buildings and the inhabitants' trades / occupations. 3. Categorization of the Leiden Museum's machiya, Etc. Models There are nine models in the Siebold Collection (three mercantile houses, two entertainment facilities, one house, one warehouse, one watch house, and one farmhouse), six in the Blomhoff Collection (one house, three warehouse, and two toilets), and two the Fisscher collection (one of a mercantile house and one of entertainment facilities). There are a total of 21 models when one adds the four that are unclear (Tables 1, 2). 4. Characteristics of the Siebold Collection's machiya, etc. Models The machiya, etc. models in the Siebold collection can be generally divided into streetscape and stand-alone ones (Table 2). Each streetscape machiya (Figure 4 Streetscape 1, 2, 3) show different types of trades / occupations (Table 4). If one looks at the streetscape models from planar layouts, it can be seen that without fail one model has a gabled roof and is on the corner (Figure 4 Streetscape 1, 2, 3). Furthermore, there are three building sizes: large, medium, and small (Figure 4 Streetscape 1, 2, 3). In other words, Siebold did not simply wish to share part of a streetscape but the characteristics and scenery of them by combining several representative types of houses. The farmhouse model (Figure24) corresponds to the private house that appears in Siebold's September 15th, 1826 survey journal entry entitled “Survey Travel to the Fishing Village Kosedo.” Looking at the interior design of model 27 “YASHIKI” (Figure 27), it can be seen that there are large rooms with SHOIN as well as small ones that are like SUKIYA (Figures 29-32). This model was probably of a house lived in by a person with a high social status. 5. Conclusion The Leiden Museum machiya, etc. models were collected between Bunka 14 (1817) and Bunsei 12 (1829) by Siebold, Blomhoff, and Fisscher. Within their three collections, there are streetscape models and those that standalone. The former show various trades / occupations. For the latter, we find a farmhouse, house, a house for a person with a high social status, and so on. In the case of the Siebold collection's machiya models, the rooms are finished differently depending on their intended use. They accurately show the interior design of machiya. The second floors are zashiki tatami rooms with a tokonoma alcove. Siebold did not only understand the relationship between trade / occupation and buildings, but also that interior design differed depending on people's jobs and social status.
The approaches taken to restore Chikurin-ji Main Hall during the Meiji era and the details of the project were elucidated through a study of “Chikurin-ji Preservation Society's Documents” with reference to other supporting evidence. The restoration, which started on January 20, 1911 and was completed on March 14, 1912, was supervised by Amanuma Syunichi, an engineer employed by Nara Prefecture. Assuming that the temple was constructed from the Bunmei period (1469-1487) onwards, the restoration took place approximately 400 years after the temple was renovated. The “renovation plans” called for the proactive preservation of old materials, and if they could not be reused, then they should be replaced with new materials that adhered strictly to the original format. The condition of the temple before the restoration was initiated was described in a report titled “Report on Damages”. While the exterior column spacing remained consistent with the existing form, the doors, windows, and frames were all replaced according to the previous format. The pent roof (gohai) added during the Keityo period (1596-1615) was not removed. The report indicated that the restoration work adhered to a specific restoration strategy, while also replacing the roof materials and changing the wooden boards used along the ends of the roof (oni ita) with ridge-end tiles (oni gawara). The dates in the ink drawings (bokusho) of the roof frames discovered during the Heisei restoration also matched those of the documents (heragaki) for the ridge-end tiles (oni gawara). Although the relocation and reconstruction of the Chikurin-ji Main Hall is not mentioned in the supplements to “The Index of National Treasures and Important Cultural Properties”, the study titled, “Request for Changing the Site of the Main Hall” and the attached drawings dated March 4, 1911 revealed that such a relocation was approved during the Meiji era restoration. Finally, a study of the “Chikurin-ji Preservation Society's Documents” revealed that the restoration efforts undertaken in the Meiji era made extensive repairs to the Main Hall due to concerns related to the severe damage and potential destruction by two rainstorms in 1907. Specifically, this undertaking was intended to preserve the condition of structures that existed before the Meiji era restoration. Since the records and ink drawings of the alterations that were made after the original construction are unclear, the work conducted during the Meiji era probably did not restore the Main Hall back to its original form. This is a topic that deserves comprehensive investigation in future.
This article considered “Maiko bricks” which J. Condor used in the survey of the Nobi earthquake; it's following points that become clear. The Kansai-renga-kabusikigaisya which produced Maiko bricks was located at Yamada at Tarumi village in Akashi country, current near Nishimaiko, Tarumi ward in Kobe city. The Kansai-renga-kabusikigaisya in Mariko was established at January, 1888, and the company continued until January, 1898 at least. The reasons why the brick was large include what the British engineer invited. The Shimeirou founded the Kansai-renga-seisakuzyo at first in Ozone village in 1886, Hanbe Wada increased the capital in this company in October, 1887 and succeeded business and renamed to the Kansai-rengaseki-seisakuzyo. Judging from capital ties, I can think The Kansai-renga-kabusikigaisya of the Maiko to have let the Kansai-rengaseki-seisakuzyo of Ozone move in 1888. Mr. Hunter posted Yoshiaki Nagami of subordinates to Kansai brick Co., Ltd. as an inspector and participated in the company, however, I cannot confirm the export of bricks by his the Hunter Co. The long distance dimensions are 7.8 sun, and, as for the slightly large-sized brick used for the former the Hunter's house, this is equal to the size of the Maiko bricks which J. Condor reported.
Previous studies have generally settled on the idea that the converted room on the parodos is a scenery storage room (skanotheke) in the Theatres at Megalopolis and Sparta. However, the function of the stone lines, which wad discovered from the floor of the skanotheke, has been a subject of controversy: some theorize that the stone lines serve as tracks for running a wheeled wooden stage construction, and others theorize that they are an installation for wooden background scenery panels. In this context, excavations in 2007 at Messene revealed a room surrounded by walls and three grooved stone lines on the east parodos of the Theatre. This paper carefully examines the state of the these three sites and their existing interpretations according to previous research, discusses these interpretations by comparing the sites, and proposes the most reasonable function of the stone lines. First, the previous studies of the scenery storage room and stone lines in Megalopolis and their interpretation are consolidated. Next, it is argued that the background scenery panel theory is appropriate based on comparisons with Sparta and Messene. The previous studies of the scenery storage room and stone lines in Sparta and their interpretation are then consolidated, after which it is argued that the wheeled wooden stage theory is appropriate based on mutual comparisons. Finally, the fresh survey results of the scenery storage room and stone lines in Messene are reported, a new reconstruction of a wheeled wooden stage construction is proposed, and the possibility of the existence of the movable theatrical device is remarked. The stone line 2 with V-shaped groove set in front of the orchestra in the Megalopolis Theatre was probably used to install wooden background scenery panels, while the stone line 1 in the scenery storage room did not have grooves and is believed to have been part of the wall. Although the movable wooden stage theory presented by Bulle (Bulle 1928) proved invalid for Megalopolis, Fiechter's reconstruction (Fiechter 1935/36) served to provide concrete details and showed a reliable course of interpretation for the stone lines in Sparta and Messene. The U-shaped grooves unearthed in the three stone lines in Sparta Theatre are entirely different from the grooved stone lines in Megalopolis. Rather, these resemble the three stone lines recently discovered in the Messene Theatre; here, Bulle's wheeled wooden stage theory (Bulle 1937) seems convincing. However, it is difficult to explain how a three-wheeled carriage on a single shaft moved in Bulle's theory. Instead, it seems more reasonable to conceive of two two-wheeled uniaxial carriages that ran atop four stone lines. It is likely that the stone lines were actually used since the grooved blocks were fixed to each other by iron clamps and the surfaces of the grooves were worn off. Conditions of three stone lines with U-shaped groove in Messene suggest that they were also actually used. Comparing the details of the recently discovered stone lines in Messene Theatre to the remains in Sparta, it is likely that there was an additional stone line apart from the currently existing three stone lines. It is most probably that the wooden proskenion and skene in the Theatres in Sparta and Messene were independent from each other and were designed to move mounted on top of a two-wheeled uniaxial carriage about 2.0-m wide. This new interpretation more reasonably relates the wheeled wooden stage theory with the state of the stone lines both in Sparta and Messene. In any event, the discovered skanotheke and its grooved stone lines in the Messene Theatre are tangible testimonies of the existence of movable stage construction.
This study examined the formation and transformation process of the Wadagumi Market constructed facing the Shinjuku Station during the post-war reconstruction period, as well as the changes in the main constituents of the market. The study examined the urban fabric of the Wadagumi Market and its surrounding area that were reconstructed every few years from the 1930s to the 1960s. Furthermore, the changes in land ownership were examined, and by comparing both, the change in the urban fabric of the market and the land ownership, the relationship between spatial changes and land rights are discussed. The district examined in this study has the following three characteristics. First, the nature of the district was different in the pre-war and post-war periods. The district was lined with warehouses and theaters pre-war, but post-war it was transformed by shops lining the entire district. Second, among the markets that originated as black markets in the neighborhood of the Shinjuku Station, this district was among the earliest to have market organization carried out by land-readjustment projects for war-damage reconstruction. Third, while the Wadagumi Market was constructed by one constituent, it had three types of rights related to building use. The following were the findings of the study. First, the Wadagumi Market straddled three city blocks and the building use rights differed for the markets of each block, being short-term leasing, long-term leasing, and building purchase, respectively. In the land-readjustment project for war-damage reconstruction, each of these three types of market were organized and relocated on land that was offered as a substitute. One of the markets that was relocated developed into what is today Shinjuku Golden Gai. Second, the control of the market by Wadagumi officials continued even after the Wadagumi was dissolved in July 1947. There was repeated reorganization by the proprietors, but the Wadagumi officials continuously assumed leadership. Third, there was dissolution of large tracts of privately owned land. The study examined the process by which the district concerned, which was owned by one constituent in 1930, was subdivided in the post-war reconstruction process and multiple landowners came to possess the land.
This paper aims to describe the nationwide formation and spread of Yami-ichi (black market) after World War II and government's involvements in their processes. Then it tries to regard yami-ichi as a kind of universal activity of city more than extraordinary experiences through the grasp of nationwide cases and trace the various process of developments. We have overviewed the nationwide municipal histories of 100 cities which had a population of more than 45,000 people out of 210 municipalized cities in 1940 for this purpose. The existence of Yami-ichi can be identified at least 99 of 100 cities. Firstly, Yami-ichi existed at almost all of the cities with more than 45,000 people. They were very various in the point of name, location in the city and those organizers, and their spatial form could be marshaled as three-step model in chronological order. The time lags of the emergences of nationwide Yami-ichi shows the possibility of the indirect propagation more than natural generation in each cities. Though the famous cases of big cities have tended to be covered in previous study, this paper could trace the nationwide and various cases. Also though the violent cases around the terminal station in Tokyo have tended to be covered, this paper could trace familiar and common cases in every 23 wards including the suburbs. Secondly, various types of involvements made by GHQ and governments were clarified. They got involved with all of the process such as not only crackdown but also installation for their selves from the birth to death of Yami-ichi, and their types and level of involvements were very various. We are going to advance the research about the characteristic cases which were shown in this study in the future. Also expanding the survey to the cities which had a population of less than 45, 000 people could be found. The formation of Yami-ichi seemed to need a certain level of population and the hinterland. So we are thinking that we can clarify the forming conditions of Yami-ichi and their critical points by finding the city where Yami-ichi couldn't form and examining the conditions of them.
Amphawa canal community is chosen for this paper to represent another idea of how community response to the change from the townscape preservation project of the traditional community. Since 2001, many development project was launched by public and private sectors. With the cooperation of the community, the modification of traditional building as homestays is one approach initiated by community to stimulate the use of traditional buildings and to sustain the way of life of people in the community for support economic community in the area. The interviews of local people (users) who have transformed their houses to homestays from the beginning of the restoration plans in 2001 to 2013 aims to create better understanding from the users' points of view on the modification of their traditional living houses to tourist accommodation and homestays along Amphawa Canal. Homestay houses along the Amphawa Canal possess timeless architectural heritage with unique features and in material used, together with roof, door and window design, and ventilator style. From the users' points of view (homestay's owner) in Amphawa reflect a mutual concern to create recreational cultural activities for visitors in line with conservation of local identity of the place. Follow sustainable ecotourism concepts, all homestay owners aim to share cultural wisdoms and knowledge of their community with the tourists while also preserving original characteristics and authenticity of the buildings and environment. From the study show that ecotourism has pay important role in the community after the rehabilitation of the Amphawa floating market in early 2004. The changes occur in the Amphawa communities are tend to change for survival community which are key important for historical and cultural sites shown. It was found that the rehabilitation. in communities along the Amphawa canal in Thailand are bottom up process by activity model. The management in the community is modified to survive the cultural community by people in the community as the operator. The homestay experiences have supporting collaboration in community; the traditional ritual, place authenticity and identity, for example the morning food offering activity for the monk who rowing boat or walking pilgrimage along the canal, Boat tour, Fireflies sightseeing boat trip, etc. Even though follow the interview data, there has not been clearly controlled or subsidies support the modification of identity value of water based community in waterfront areas. These may affect to the changes of waterfront landscape. Furthermore, to control and maintain, survived and to protect the traditional water based community from many threatened by the Business and globalization, high competition of the accommodation which affects the images of the place, Still, it is essential to support protection activity especially in term of policy and regulations to protect the valuable places and important of culture material and maintenance, which is likely to limit in this community. In conclusion, a case study of Amphawa canal community with the use of the activity model by homestay. The approach that show the important of the water-based way of life can be survive through the strong of community participation. However, from this paper, it would be possible to point out that there are challenges between economic scale and regional scale. As current situation, the economic scale to control for business base on ecotourism. Then, the regional scale to sustain and keep identity of the place. By these two scale, it can be said this is the success of homestay business in Amphawa. This could be another idea of cultural conservation on traditional community, not only for conserve traditional building design but also sustain and succeed local identity through the cultural activities, traditional celebrations and local way of life.
The scope of education on building technology is not limited to construction supervision for architects and construction work management for constructors. In fact, when the 2008's reform of the Architect Act introduced the eight categories of designated lectures in accreditation of architect license in Japan, one of them was Building production, not Construction work. However, architectural courses of technical colleges and universities do not necessarily have the common understanding on education of building production. This paper is the third report of educational report series to facilitate richer education of building production in technical colleges and universities. By a review to nine textbooks of building production and a questionnaire survey to two hundred forty two departments of architecture, which the former two reports showed in detail, we made out the reference material for syllabus on lectures of building production. That contains a list of ninety-three educational headings of building production, two tables of three lecture types related to educational headings or construction business fields, variations of each lecture type on procedure, and instances of typical lecture procedure. This paper aims to evaluate the reference material for syllabus, and to discuss the future lectures and texts of building production. A new questionnaire survey to ninety-six departments of architecture has made the followings clear. Firstly, the reference material for syllabus is useful for revising syllabi on lectures of building production. Especially by the list of educational headings of building production, almost lecturers of all lecture types will check whether their lectures have enough educational contents or not. Moreover, the lecturers of lecture type II are able to add educational issues to their lectures based on the table of construction business fields, and the lecturers of type III are able to build up a new lecture scenario by referring to the variations on lecture procedure. Secondary, educational issues how to use existing buildings will become more important in future lectures of building production. Since two thirds of lecturers intend to add these issues in their lectures, that includes thirty percent of lecturers of type I although they scarcely give a lecture on the use of existing buildings. There is another approach to enrich the education on the use of existing buildings. That is to start a new series of lectures. In this case, lectures are necessary to have educational issues on renovation, facility management and real estate at least. Finally, future texts of building production should contain figures and tables that are suitable for projection in lectures. According to our questionnaire survey, lecturers of building production in technical colleges and universities point out luck of such educational materials. On the other hand, researches on building production have shown their results by various diagrams, which represent relations of construction subjects or processes of construction site works. In order to increase educational effectiveness, future texts are necessary to develop much simpler diagrams than the originals made by researches of building production, and to collect them in themselves.