Northern Part of Flores island, Indonesia was hit by earthquake and tsunami disaster in 1992, which killed 1,712 people. Indonesian Government prohibit to live in tsunami prone site of impacted area and constructed resettlement sites for those who are forced to move out from their original location. A adaptation to new environment is very difficult task for victims and there exist some resettlement sites that was abandoned within a few years. This paper deals with the relocation process of victims at resettlement site of 1992 Flores earthquake and tsunami disaster. And following points were clarified in this paper, though many people have moved back to the original location where is still prohibited to live on, 94% of housing in the resettlement site is occupied. Those who continue to live in the resettlement site are those who do not have a land at original location, e.g. they lost their land for disaster, they rented house or lived with their relatives at the time of earthquake. It says that the reason why they continue to live in the resettlemet is not because they fear for tsunami, but they do not have a place to live in without resettlement site.
The aim of this study is to consider the trend of the support for the aged parents based on the residential relationship between parents and children. On this paper, we made clear as follows. The lodging household which the aged parents reside with children family is decreasing recently. Instead of the lodging household, Semi-close residential rerationship is increasing. Semi-close residential rerationship mean that children family take up their residence at halfway between their work place and parents house to keep a balance between support the aged parents and convenience of commuter trip. There are mutch contact and support for parents by children family in the semi-close residentiali relationship.
This paper aims to clarify the actual conditions and characteristics of voluntary greening on balconies of a multiple dwelling house by making observations and an interview survey for the balconies and the room (s) facing them. The results are as follows : 1) Residents place potted plants in front of doorway and fence for ventilation and lighting, where they have no cloth pole to do housework, and where they enjoy the view form the inside habitable rooms, on top of furniture and things. 2) Ratio of the balcony area except for voluntary greening on ground floor is lower than that on the second floor and over.
This article discusses the process of defunct villages after World War II in Japan. The findings of this study are summarized as follows : 1. According to the comparison of different versions of maps (1:50,000) published by Geographical Survey Institute, Figure-3 was acquired. As many as 2922 villages are estimated to have been lost in Japan between the end of World War II, 1945, and the year 1990. 2.Close observation of the maps shows that 2336 (79.9%) of the defunct villages are lost for the reasons of "their general factors", while 586 (20.1%) are lost because of "their particular factors". The particular factors consist of village transfer caused by submergences in dam constructions, village evacuation affected by the locations of other public facilities, and so on. 3.Densities of distribution of defunct villages caused by their general factors reach higher in the southwestern Japan than those in the northeastern Japan. There are some prefectures where the defunct villages resulted from their general factors are distributed more densely. Those prefectures are Wakayama (288 cases/10,000 km, and so forth), Ehime (213), Yamaguchi (195), Toyama (155), Shimane (155), Miyazaki (154), and so on. 4. According to the census, the densities of existing villages classified into the village type of 50 houses or less are higher in the southwestern Japan. At the same time, the densities of defunct villages caused by their general factors are relatively higher in the southwestern Japan than those in the northeastern Japan. There are also large regional disparities in value among prefectures.
The purpose of the study is to clarify changes of key settlements' location in rural area from analyses of person trip and use of living facilities, in this volume. Oguni Town in Niigata Prefecture was chosen for investigation. A questionnaire survey was made to residents of the town in 1998, analysed and compared the result of the same survey with the data in 1978. As the results, expanse of living sphere, urbanization of life style and increase of intercommunication with surrounding cities are found as well as decrease of daily relation with neighboring settlement. Improvement of living environment in rural area should be developed from viewpoints of these changes of living sphere and key settlements.
Recently, the area of wasting land, such as abandoned land, disposed refuse land, disposed material land is increasing,in suburban area. This background is the decline of farmland value by the serious situation of agriculture, and high demand for urban land use by facilities for travel. This paper clarify the diversity of wasting, categorizing wasting land, and analyzing the process of its wasting. Abandoned land can be categorizing in the view points of the curse of abandoning, attribute of land owner. Urban land can be categorizing in the view points of formation of wasting, attribute of land owner, maintenance worker.
The basic factor of urban formation of colonial cities in Russian Far East was clarified by the comparison among the early city plans of Bragoveshchensk, Khabarovsk and Vladivostok, which were commonly constructed almost the same time, 1860's. By comparing extent of planning area, land condition, street pattern, dimension of street width and block, form and dimension of the land lot and the facilities, besides considering geopolitical background in those days, the completed form .of the city was not described in the initial plans and the principal objects to plan were 4 points of the configuration of fundamental facilities such as ; 1) extent of urban area, 2) form and dimension of land lots for sale, 3) location of graveyard and church, 4) location of wharf, market and open space for trading. Following this, it was shown that the initial plans could be understood as measures of securing military base and settlement in the frontier region.
The four big cities in the western part of Holland namely Amsterdam, The Hague, Rotterdam and Utrecht forms horseshoe-shaped urban ring which is very famous with its shape. The Dutch government has started to engage national planning just after the Second World War to intensify not to make Randstad Megalopolis like London and New York. This study aims to explore how this poly-centric urban configuration has been formed through analyzing the history of Dutch urban planning by periods and policy taken. We would finally find that the driving force of creating poly-centric urban configuration in the Randstad Holland stems from historical and cultural heritage based on the land reclamation and water management of which the Dutch has been engaged last several hundred years since 12th Century.
In this paper, we discuss the relationship between elderly people's activities and their neighborhood environment. We took four residential districts in Kumamoto city as the case ; two districts represent active districts in terms of the going-out activities of the elderly, while the other two represent relatively inactive districts. In these districts, we analyzed 628 sets of answers of the elderly people to the questionnaire, and investigated both physical and social conditions of their living environment using fieldwork data and statistical data. We analyzed in the questionnaire, the activity preference of the elderly in the daily life, destinations of their going-out activity, their evaluation of the neighborhood, and then, the relations between their going-out activities and the physical condition of each district. Findings are summarized as follows : 1) There are no differences in the activity preference of the elderly between the active districts and the inactive districts. 2) In the active districts, the elderly people's territories of daily life are formed densely in a relatively smaller area, while those in the inactive districts are extended sparsely. 3) In the active districts, several places that elderly people freely access through safety pedestrian network can be found within the walking distance. 4) In the active districts, the elderly highly evaluated the existence of comfortable environment of walking and convenient shopping facilities in each district. But even in the case that the district has only poor commercial service, they evaluated their neighborhood well if onlv they have comfortable walking environment and intimate relationship with neighbors.
This study summarizes the results of a psychological experiment conducted in order to assess continuous recognition of street layout based on the dominant hemisphere of the brain. The experiment was conducted in two areas : one with a grid-shaped street pattern and another with an irregular pattern of winding streets. Subjects were asked to memorize route by studying a computer-animated simulation and walk the route by themselves. Originally the experiment included 18 right-dominant and 21 left-dominant. Analyzing errors in the cognitive maps, it became clear that visual guidance alone was enough for the subjects, right-dominant, to understand properly its legibility.
This paper makes clear the role and problem of the aid system to develop the community landscape design in Urasoe city, though grasping the actual condition between residents' activities and the public support, including residents' opinions. As a result, the aid system had roles such as incentive of the community activit in a new theme, activation of communication between generations, the improvement of living environment. On the other hand, most of groups were in activities the first action period, having problems of the persons of ability, skills in practice and some were not related to the local community. To develop independent activity o residents, process supports are important corresponding to groups' characteristic, it needs to establish public support system including skills, personal training with the aid and have flexible use, and make system of crossing of the administration inside.
The aim of this paper is analyzing the legal system enabling German cities and towns to control street cafes. The conclusions obtained are as follows : 1. While restaurants and cafes intend to gain by an increased income, the towns intend to gain by an increased attractity of central urban areas, which makes the system a win-win situation for both. 2. German town statutes mainly try to ensure an unobstructed general use of public street space and exempt the towns from any liability for damages arising from public street space usage by sidewalk cafes. The statutes do not only apply to streets the town is responsible for, but also for streets governed by the Federal Republic and the Lander. 3. The statutes vary widely and are flexible enough to adapt to local as well as temporary needs. Even though Germany is known for strict guidelines in town planning, the statutes hardly contain any regulations about urban design, opening hours or management style.
The purpose of this paper is to make clear the following : (1) the Okinawa Housing Corporation was organized and this organization had the characteristic of housing project. (2) the Okinawa Housing Corporation had the characteristic technique and details of the planning management technology. (3) It is defined that the Okinawa Housing Corporation carried out a housing policy in postwar Okinawa The results are as follows : (1) The Okinawa housing corporation was an organization, which was able to do everything from construction to housing management in the background of legislation. (2) The main planning management technology had been carried out by established specifications. (3)The method of a continuous housing supply was carried out in the background of legislation, organization, and planning management technology.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the relation between personal community networks and the residential / public nursing service preferences of aged people. An investigation based on questionnaire has been conducted for aged people in Setagaya ward, Tokyo and Nishi Tokyo city, and Sako city. Nagano prefecture. Three types of aged ; Selective Networks Type, Restrictive Networks Type, and Individual Type were classified from, the view point of their supportive network. It was seen that Selective Networks Type aged who prefer social support from outside society rather than their kins or neighborhood, have a tendency to select housing with domiciary service. Importance of housing with domiciary for the aged will be increased in near future.
We investigated the relation between the network residence and "family consciousness". Households and houses were surveyed to be categorized according to the network residence. The following results were obtained. 1) The number of members of "family consciousness" surpassed that of household. 2) The relatives of spouse were included to the members of "family consciousness". 3) The younger married person held the family consciousness as including more households compared to the elderly person. 4) The detached owned house was recognized as a core of the network residence and "family consciousness".
In this paper, we made a detail study on the inner sanctuary of Imada-hachiman jinja shrine in Chiyoda-cho, Yamagata-gun, Hiroshima prefecture, which was built in 1324. It is the oldest inner sanctuary in Japan which has completely architectural details, and the built date of which is known by written document. It was built with many various ornamentations which are different from common style. The many various ornamentations tells us that the carpenter might not have known adequate building style. That means local carpenters existed as early as the end of Kamakura-period. The inner sanctuary of Imada-hachiman jinja shrine is very valuable to know local buildings of shrines or temples and local carpenters in those days.
This is a study on the state of Kumamoto Castle in the end of Kato Kiyomasa's days by studying the drawing "Higo-Kumamotojo-ryakuzu", which was painted by the private inquirer of the Hagi-Clan that made private inquiries The Higo-Clan in 1612. The main characters of the Kumamoto Castle are as follows ; 1. Tenshu was of independent style without Kotenshu. 2. The composition of the main Yagura of Kumamoto Castle was already completed. 3. Takenomaru was Kuruwa which had an important role because Takenomaru was the distance from Furusiro, and the composition of Kumamoto Castle faced not west but east. 4. According to the fact that the west side of Nawabari could not take advantage of Yogai when battles was occurred, the Nisinodemaru and Yagura were settled on this side to strengthen the Koguchi ; While the south-east side was still kept as a field and protected by Yogai naturally. Hence we can said the construction of Nawabari is very deliberate in the usage of artificial and natural elements.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the building activities that had happened in Tomizawa premises. In order to maintain groups of buildings, various building treatments were essential. These treatments can be summarized into two levels : one is fushin such as repair, extension, remodeling and reconstruction, and the other is maintenance such as cleaning and changing of shouji paper. In this report, I gathered data from the dairy regarding the building activities that had been involved in Tomizawa premises for 50 years. By translating the statistics gathered, this report will discuss the different kinds of craftsmen and their activity that had occurred in each period when the great number of craftmen worked.
This paper reveals the reason and the meaning of change in design for Tokyo City Research Hall, Tokyo Public Hall. Four main changes were made at the time of construction of the building : 1) change in location of the building site ; 2) change in the shape of the hall ; 3) change of structure and 4) modification of the overall design of the building. The most important factor influencing the modification of the overall design was Satoh's desire for the new building to provide a visual contrast to the Japan Kangyo Bank. He often discussed the need for "urban beauty." Satoh seized the opportunity in the aftermath of the Great Kanto Earthquake disaster to achieve "urban beauty" with the construction of this building.
This paper examine the works, activities and architectural ideas of Masabumi Ito within the movement of The International Architectural Association of Japan' founded in 1927. As a member of 'The Association', Ito played an important part for the edition of the periodical and the public relations. He wrote a large number of articles investigating the problems 'International' and 'Locality'. In the articles on 'International', Ito aimed to have the architecture that is scientific, technological, and rational. On the other hand he aim to have the architectures which esteem the climatic individuality. Then he aimed to solute the peculiar questions of the 'locality' by the 'International' method. Furthermore, he tried to esteem the principals in his architectural projects.
Yosuke Tetsukawa built many churches in Goto Retto of Nagasaki Prefecture and subsequently in Fukuoka, Saga and Kumamoto prefectures. The author, with the object of ascertaining Tetsukawa's achievements, conducted compiling date concerning his architectural career covering the period, 1906-1912. Based on the contents of contract for Kirifuru church listed in the opening sentences of Tetsukawa's so-called "Application for verification", the author hereby intends to clarify the details and process of contracted work, drawing of blueprints, the names and job classification of workers, construction expenses, and relation with missionaries.
This study aims to clarify architectural works of Chuta Ito (1867-1954) known as the first Japanese architectural historian and critic.This paper treats his 4 projects for Nishi-Hongwanji in the end of the Meiji era, and proves the characteristics of his architecture. Ito's projects are designed as fusion of various architectural styles, based on Historicism. The ornaments he loved (palmette, Kato-mado and Sumi-kazari) prove his tendency to making Inter-style architecture, for instance.
In this paper, we analyzed the design technique of Jing Kou Tian Hua among three Chinese classical architectural books. As a result, Ying Zao Fa Shi covers the ceiling's form, constitution, design technique, and range of application without the specific form of building, and the Kiwari was decided from the dimensions of the ceiling, its degree was short. Gong Cheng Zuo Fa Ze Lie deals with the design technique of this ceiling in relation to the Kiwari of Ting Tkng (VoL.7), and the Kiwari was described from the modules of the building's design, its degree was long and thoroughgoing. The design technique in Ying Zao Suan Lie was written as Gong Cheng Zuo Fa Ze Lie, but not the special form of building as Ying Zao Fa Shi.
The purpose of this research is to make clear what has resulted into the formation of the hallway in the Yao's houses of Dachedong Village. Based on data from fieldwork carried out in 1999, this paper first analyzed the building sequence of Yao's rural houses and pointed out the plan features existing in the two categorized plans respectively. Then, the relationship between the bedroom and the formation of the hallway is considered. Further attempts are made to find out the essential reasons resulting in the hallway's formation. As a result of the research, it is obvious that the changed number and positions of the bedrooms and the unchanged access method to the bedrooms from the main hall have resulted in the formation of the hallway. Additional factors in the larger context include changes in social-cultural conditions and limitations in geological-economical aspects of Yao's society.
The aim of this study is to focus on the publication of the international survey of constructive art : CIRCLE edited by architect ; J.L.Martin, painter ; B.Nicholson, and sculptor ; N.Gabo in 1937 in England, and to examine the role and the meaning of "Constructive Idea" and the influence to the modern movement in art and architecture in the 1930s England and also to examine the relationship between art and science in the Constructive Idea. The method of the study is to examine the fact through the historical material and existing research about CIRCLE, simultaneously, by addressing to the other movement of publishing by the group of artists in 1930s England.
The purpose of this study is to consider the formal composition of German modern architecture. Especially in this paper, the meaning of staggered form of federal school of ADGB by Hannes Meyer is analyzed by three dimensional perspective data with CAD and Meyer's text about his design method. As the result, the staggered form represented not only formal principle of this building "lockerung" and "schule im walde", but also, Meyer's universal design method, namely 1) dissolution into small space by architectural program analysis, 2) connection with environment and architecture by site analysis.
The purpose of this research is analyze the design method of Edmund Blacket (1817-1833) who was born in England and settled in the New South Wales colony in 1842. He designed many Anglican Churches, his works are well known in Australia, and he was appointed as NSW Government Architect in 1849. He uses Gothic style for Church Architecture and Classical style for commerce architecture. In this research, I did the constitution analysis of the facade of commerce architecture designed by Blacket which were built from 1850 to 1881 in Sydney. As a result, it was revealed that Blacket used Golden Ratio in composing the facade of commerce architecture. Also it was revealed that several patterns are seen to the usage of a golden rectangle, especially the formulas such as "Golden rectangle = Golden rectangle + Square " and "Square = 2 Golden rectangle + 2 Square" were used.
The study on the characteristics of outer space of daebang in Seoul and Gyeonggi province could be summarized as follows : 1. In the central domain of temples having been composed of both a main temple and a daebang, the former was regarded as a practical or symbolic worship object of the latter and these two buildings were settled within the distance of 75ft each other. It is the maximum length between a stage and an auditorium that we can see and listen to the actors on the stage. 2. In case of daebang with side wing room (s), the degree of view looking downward at the front window of it was usually within the limit of 30°, which was the downward angle of easy view permitting us to look out without any movement of one's head or eyes.