The purpose of this paper is to reveal the values underlying the “People’s Plan”, a social housing policy addressing community-driven in-city ISF relocation. By overviewing the project outline and analyzing the official guideline documents, significant features of the policy and methodology were clarified. Metro Manila’s comprehensive organizational and institutional system was established recently to ensure the sustainability of policy implementation. The methodology for individual communities, which indicates the planning flow and necessary aid of stakeholders, was designed to realize community-driven initiatives aimed at autonomous community development. The effectiveness of
the implementation process will have to be examined in the future.
In this paper, the habitation history, building repair history and the circumstances that result in a rental contract is regulated on the share house repaired wooden private house in Yamaguchi Prefecture. At the same time, the contents of the repair work are grasped and the feature of living style of tenants and space evaluation are explained by the habitation condition analysis of youth single-households with observational research. The examples have space conditions suitable for shared house and repair is itself made by the contractor, and that was reproduced as a shared house of cheap house rent. The degree of satisfaction of a tenant's share habitation is high, so these wooden private houses are model examples that show the possibility of practical use as share house. Also in local cities, the new demand of youth single-households is expected, so in the inside of local cities where the decrease in population proceeds, the policy that uses as a share house the wooden vacant house stock is the housing measure that should be promoted from now on. The main points of promotion of practical use as share house of such wooden vacant houses are as follows. Firstly, spreading the system that the professional contractor borrows a vacant house from the owner at the market rate house rent before repair, holds share house-oriented repair and collects moving-in applicants. Secondly, raising the real-estate agent who makes a lease of a shared house as the professional. Thirdly, education of the share house lease enterprise to vacant house owners. These are pointed out as the main subjects.
【Objectives】 The condition of elderly residents in nursing homes in Japan is deteriorating, partly due to Japans super-aging society which is leading to more elderly people with severe health conditions being admitted into nursing homes. Because of the elderly residents' physical disabilities and severity of their dementia, they are both unable to communicate with each other and unable to experience much freedom of movement, so most residents can only stay either in their bedroom or the nursing homes common areas. Past reports on residents who have severe dementia mainly focused on the residents and their surroundings, however this study focuses on the care staff's approach toward elderly residents, in which their presence and caring methods are essential to actively stimulate them. Unit Care and Care Work in Sociology by Oka (2016) states that the recent ways in caring for the elderly with dementia have changed due to multi-tasking, therefore this paper will analyze the following concerns; ·The relationship between direct contact care work and the common spaces in the nursing homes. ·The relationship between the concurrent care and common spaces ·The relationship between the time order of care work and common spaces In addition, another purpose of this study is to clarify the interaction and establish the relationship between the residents, care staff and the facility's floor plans. Therefore, this paper divides the care staff's tasks into direct and non-direct care work and then carefully analyzes direct contact care and how this is connected with the floor plans of two specific nursing homes.
【Methodological approach】 Two nursing homes which have similar management styles and levels of dementia were selected for this research, however their common spaces are completely different. One is located in Hiroshima and another is in Tokyo with floor areas respectively of 4604 m2 and 4114 m2. Qualitative surveys ware carried out by one observer in both nursing homes regarding the following points: ·Movement and activities of 3 care staff in one unit ·Movement and activities of 10 residents in one unit ·Interviews with 3 care staff in one unit
【Main findings and conclusions】 ·Various spaces and appealing sceneries are important for residents who are able to experience moderate freedom of movement in the nursing home. ·The care staff's sympathetic approach toward residents is important especially for those who are unable to experience freedom of movement. ·More direct contact care takes places in the nursing home which has 4 common spaces because of the assistance procedures during meal times. ·More concurrent care situations leads to an increasing amount of direct contact care which is beneficial to the residents, therefore the appropriate layout of the living room, kitchen and work desk is essential in order to increase these situations. ·To further increase direct contact care, a second living room like Chanoma is positioned between the residents bedrooms, in which care staff have to pass through, therefore staff can care for residents before entering the residents bedrooms, and it is positioned near a toilet and washstand, therefore staff can care for residents after using them.
Child care facility is the place that the infants who differ in age and parents spend in the same space, so the consideration of exclusive space reservation for babies less than twelve months old, and corner setting according to age stage, etc. is required. The examples secured tatami space indoors exist in a part, but the classification of space sphere corresponding to infants' age in the space of one room or the concept of corner setting is not clear. It is common that corner setting of facilities is individually held to experience of the facility staff or reference in the example of nursery school, etc. Although it is not necessary to require the level equivalent to nursery school, in order that the increase in facilities continues to be expected, the examination from a viewpoint of architectural planning is required. In this paper, firstly, the relation between floor fitting and installation mode of corner is regulated for the childcare facilities that building form and area differ. Ssecondly, parent and child's behavioral patterns are explained based on the investigation of utilization with two types of floor fitting and corner arrangement, and the function of space composition and corner setting is considered. The relationship is found among floor space, floor fitting, and corner arrangement pattern with childcare facilities playroom. About the present space compositions of playroom, (1) the model divided into tatami and floor space and made tatami space baby's place (2) the model constituted only from floor space with many corners can be called the main two types. The reason is conjectured that the difference of facility institution person's view to the place for the baby less than twelve months old in playroom is reflected. It is difficult to hold clear corner classification according to the developmental stage with the facility of only the flooring, and the dynamic play acts of the infants more than 1 years-old were seen by the side of 0-year-old babies. On the other hand, with the facilities divided into flooring and tatami in floor fitting, tatami served as the clear boundary, and it became the stabilized place for 0-year-old babies and flooring place served as the place of dynamic play of infants more than 1 years-old, the usage according to the developmental stage was verified. Therefore, the method of securing tatami floor space fixed as the place for babies less than twelve months old is effective as a method of sphere classification of play place according to infants' developmental stage.
Owing to newly introduced ideas such as "normalization" and "inclusive society", as well as a heightening awareness in the rights of persons with disability, welfare measures for such individuals in Japan have gradually switched from supportive services at live-in facilities to those that enable them to maintain a normal life in their own communities/regions. To do so, a network must be built either among all relevant organizations so that specialized skills and knowledges may be shared at community/region level, or within one single organization which is capable of fulfilling various functions in each community/region. This study has chosen to focus on the latter, which is defined here as a "supportive service network" (hereinafter abbreviated as "supportive SNW"). Furthermore, this study has aimed to trace the development of such supportive SNW through the recollection of the transformation from facility-type supportive measures to community-type supportive measures, as well as to identify changes incurred on the lives of network users through prior examination of the activities of one such service provider. The following results were found: 1. Case study of target service provider showed that supportive SNW has evolved through six different stages, namely "1. residential facility-type single supportive service", "2. residential facility-type comprehensive supportive service", "3. residential facility-type comprehensive supportive service/group home-type supportive service/consultation-type supportive service", "4. residential facility-type comprehensive supportive service/community-type supportive service", "5. community inclusive-type supportive service network enhancement period", and "6. community-type supportive service reconstruction period", as it sought to expand its scope of community services from helping persons with disability living at facility to helping those living at home. 2. Analysis of user data throughout all stages of supportive SNW development showed that 1) it has enabled users to utilize different services according to needs; 2) overall, it has helped the smooth transition of facility users into group homes; 3) group homes can be divided into four types, namely "community living transition type", "community living transition/group home return type", "community living transition/facility return type", and "group home only type", and for persons under normal employment, as current services were unable to deal with aging and severe disability, some users have been moved into facilities through "supportive SNW"; and 4) a new "life-type" service has been introduced to cater for the diversity of personal needs risen in the the place to live and the place to employments/daily activities.
The societal requirement for safety and security in Japanese living environments has recently increased due to a declining sense of community, a growing number of marginal villages and other factors. Meanwhile, there have been very few safe-community (SC) studies in the fields of architecture and town management, and no studies have addressed the intentions of self, community or public help. Against such a background, this paper is intended to highlight the activity status, awareness and characteristics of residents in the pre-SC certification acquaintance/promotion period and in the post-certification activity period to clarify awareness structure concerning self, community and public help before and after certification. The main achievements are as follows: 1) The awareness of SC activities for self-help that improved after the certification than before certification were (2) Safety in educational facilities, (3) Agriculture and forestry safety, (5) Prevention of suicide etc., (6) Security and safety of children, (8) Security and safety of people with disabilities, (9) Crime prevention, (10) Disaster control and (11) Fire control. Particularly, the awareness of (9) Crime prevention and (11) Fire control were increase about 20%. 2) Although awareness levels for (6) Security and safety of children, (9) Crime prevention, (10) Disaster control, and (11) Fire control were lower, awareness of community help was higher than that of self-help and public help, indicating a need for subjects to help one another in communities both before and after certification. To improve community help awareness before any further decline, it is considered necessary for neighborhood associations and other entities to implement initiatives toward new activities and contribute to existing activities. While many current efforts and programs are for individuals, it may be possible to start with efforts enabling neighborhood associations to participate as implementing bodies once their sense of community as residents' autonomous organizations has been fostered. SC activities support the prevention of external injuries and the promotion of safety and security; the promotion of self-help and community help is not a major purpose of such work. However, in terms of the promotion of safe and secure town development based on collaboration among residents, communities and government bodies in Japan, where mutual support within communities is an issue, the outcomes of this study are considered significant because they help to clarify the structure of awareness among locals before and after SC certification based on the determination of their intentions regarding self, community and public support from an SC perspective. The findings of the study include the observation that the intention of SC activities was not uniform and differed for individual types of activities, and that the needs of high-risk households for activities related to community safety and security were clarified by analyzing the attributes of such households and their intentions by activity types.
Although many people are interested in the relationships of room layout and happiness and there are many books of room layout or design published including the books of house physiognomy, there are few researches examining the relationship of physical characteristics of dwelling including room layout of dwellings to the evaluation by habitating people in appartment house. This study aims to clarify the relationships of physical characteristics of room layout to the habitant activities, interpersonal relationship of family, evaluation of layout, evaluation of indoor, indoor environment and evaluation of life. The author conducted a large scale online questionnaire survey via the internet to the habitant living in apartment house in Tokyo metropolitan area. More than 1000 respondents answered the questionnaire and 851 valid samples were obtained. The questionnaire inquired about the physical characteristics of dwellings including room layout, fitting and windows and characteristics of apartment building, indoor activities and outdoor activities in the apartment premises and evaluation of room layout, environment, daily life, indoor community and outdoor community, personal attiributes such as income, and so on. This article copes with the physical condition of exlusively owned part of apartment building, habitants' activities and evaluation. In order to reveal the relationships, the samples were cross tabulated by the combination of the answer of spatial characteritics, frequency of activities and evaluations. Physical characteristics were categorized into two to four groups by the character of living room such as size, orientation, connevtivity, visibility, proximity, fittings and windows. Also, number of bedrooms, corner unit or not, number of bedrooms facing to south, floor area, number of windows and floor level of the unit were categorized according to the number of respondents. Furthermore, fifteen items of frequency of activities of husband, wife, children and family were categorized. Ten items of interpersonal relationship of family, six items of evaluation of layout, eight items of evaluation of daily life and ten items of evaluation of overall quality of life-style and life were also categorized according to the distribution of respondents' answers. Independence of categorized anwers were test by χ2 values, and adjusted standardized residual values were analyzed. As a result, many relationships among physical condition of dwelling and respondents' subjective evaluation were found and statistically confirmed. Overall relationship is as bellows. Physical condition of dwellings has particular relationships with frequency of activities and interpersonal relationships. For example, as living room is closer to entrance they have more guests, have breakfast more often in family, children tends to be more independent. As it has more sliding door, children study more in living room and they feel stronger family ties. As for the evaluations of satisfaction and quality of life, they are strongly related with the size of living room, floor area and number of windows. In terms of the azimuth orientation of living room, activities has various relationship such that husband help with housework and children proactively study at home in north living room, family enjoy spending time more often in east living room, while evaluations of many items are simply higher in south living room.
Introduction The government of Japan is pushing on the improvement of the elderly housing with supportive services for the measures toward an aging society with a declining birthrate. Hereinafter, such the elderly housing with supportive services is called “EHSS”. However, floor area of the dwelling unit in most of EHSS is very small like the room for a nursing home. Our life become steady by having the bases of the daily living in own home. This study aims to obtain knowledge about the improvement in quality of the dwelling unit in EHSS by investigating into the effect of floor area and the walking ability on selections of the bases. We were investigated on the daily living among the residents living in EHSS by the semi-structured interview. The objects are 6 housings, and 20 residents living in these housings (Table 1). Result There were three types of the dwelling unit Flat type, Kitchen type, and Sanitary type (Fig. 2). Floor area of Flat type was over 40 m2, and Kitchen type was over 25 m2, but Sanitary type is under 25 m2 of all cases. Focusing on the area of the room, “over 40 m2” was about 25 m2, but “over 25 m2” and “under 25 m2” were very small about 13 m2 (Table 4). There were many patterns of selections of the bases. The most popular base was “table and bed” and “only table”, and second was “only chair”, “chair and bed”, “only bed”, and “low-table and low-chair”. That is, the seating styles in the dwelling unit are able to divide into three styles: Floor-sitting, Chair-sitting, and Using a bed (Fig. 3). The seating styles was indifference with floor area. Whereas speculate that the number of bases has being influenced by floor area (Table 6). And it is assumed that the seating styles are relevant to the degree of disabilities of the stand-up motion and the walking action (Table 7). Conclusion The selection of the base appears to be exist four patterns (Fig. 4). Pattern 1 is the type of leaving the bed and establishing several the bases. This type is spending all days leaving the bed, and activities are different on each the base. Floor area of “over 40 m2” show a marked tend to this pattern. Pattern 2 is the type of leaving the bed and establishing only one base. This type is spending all days leaving the bed, and almost activities are acted on this base. Floor area of “under 25 m2” show a marked tend to this pattern. Pattern 3 is the type of using the bed besides establishing the other bases. This type is use the bed even if the behavior other than sleep. The residents in this type tend to have disabilities of the stand-up motion and the walking action. Pattern 4 is the type of using only the bed. This type is spending all days on the bed. The residents of this type have been using the wheelchair all the time. To be extended the area of the dwelling unit is effective in satisfaction of the life styles for the residents' hope. The move at senior stage give the elderly stress out the physical and mental condition. For build new life smoothly in EHSS, the low quality of the living environment is the problem to be solved.
This report explains the concept of arts in health in the UK is and how it is implemented and financially managed by which organizations in British hospitals. In the UK, artistic activities are understood to contribute to the comfort and recovery of patients and the people around them. These activities are offered through partnerships between the government and arts in health organizations. Arts in health activities are diverse. We can classify them into eight fields, including arts in psychotherapy, arts on prescription, participatory arts programs for specific patient groups, arts in healthcare technology, arts-based training for staff, general arts activities in everyday life, arts in the healthcare environment, and arts in health promotion. These activities are offered strategically with specific objectives and targets. The targets are not only patients but also the people around the patient, such as a patient's family, visitors, medical staff, and citizens. While British hospitals have profited from various artistic activities in healthcare since the 1970s, most Japanese hospitals do not use them. This is due to the Japanese belief that medical treatment by experts is the most important function of a hospital, not recuperation. UK arts in health organizations are classified into four types of organization in partnership with hospitals: the internal section of National Healthcare Service (NHS) hospital type, the hospital charity type, the exclusive to specific NHS hospital type, and the independent type. An arts in health organization has three functions, including arts in health activities, research and development (investment, provide grants, development of resources, and investigation on efficacy), and organizational management (fund raising, public relations, and report). The importance of these three functions differs depending on the social and historical background of the organization. The three leading hospitals in the UK—Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, Royal London Hospital, and Great Ormond Street Children's Hospital—are filled with diverse visual art work collections of museum quality, selected by an art manager. These collections are installed to enhance the well-being of the people who use the hospital. Information about the practices in these three hospitals demonstrates the benefits and the costs of arts in health. These three hospitals have specific art management organizations, which provide various art programs in their hospitals, conduct research in collaboration with universities and other researchers, and manage finance and promotion to sustain their activities. They work for their own specific hospitals, but they possess autonomous human and financial resources. In the UK, the intervention of art in healthcare provides useful health outcomes, such as enhanced feelings of happiness and well-being, and the reduction of national medical costs. This view is shared by the government, policymakers, NHS staff, and arts in health organizations. Today, artistic activities are developing in Japanese hospitals. The UK model provides an excellent example of good practice, especially how to implement the autonomous management of Japanese arts in health activities.
INTRODUCTION In local cities in Japan, it is urgent to make public services more efficient in order to respond to the declining birthrate and aging population as the declining population. Demand for emergency transportation, which is one of public services, has been increasing in recent years. From this background, the purpose of this study is analyzing the optimum location of fire departments. The point of view of this research is to minimize the response time by confirming emergency services dispatched and absent situation. METHODS We calculated the average response time for the optimization algorithm with dispatch simulation based on past actual dispatch data. The step outline of the dispatch simulation is as follows. 1. Confirm emergency services dispatched and absent situation. 2. Demand occurs. 3. Calculate traveling time from all emergency services to the demand place 4. Search for emergency services with the nearest. 5. Dispatch the nearest emergency services, if they can dispatch. 6. If they cannot dispatch, Search for the 2nd nearest emergency services. 7. If they cannot dispatch, Search for the next one. 8. Repeat steps 1 to 7 to end of the year. In addition, the unit of evaluation was taken as the average response time for one year. Furthermore, we compared with the p-median model which is a conventional location model. It is possible to reproduce the place of demand generation and the allocation of the ambulance in this simulation. This makes it possible to optimize the extending distance of travel distance compared with the nearest ambulance. RESULTS The results are summarized below. Average travel distance of the year / Maximum travel distance of the year Current location (13 facilities and 13 units): 2798.11 m / 20343.96 m Median model (13 facilities and 13 units): 2431.31 m / 19944.68 m Simulation model (13 facilities and 13 units): 2360.12 m / 18750.97 m Simulation model (12 facilities and 13 units): 2398.93 m / 18750.97 m Median model (12 facilities and 12 units): 2604.14 m / 22536.70 m Simulation model (12 facilities and 12 units): 2506.33 m / 20405.53 m The results show the median model shortened distances is about 367 m and the simulation model shortened distances is about 438 m compared with the current location. It can shorten distances about 399 m compared with the current location even if one of those facilities is reduced and two ambulances are arranged at a facility which one of the other. Furthermore, it was found that it is possible to shorten about 292 m even in the case of abolishing one of those facilities and one of those ambulances. CONCLUSION We indicated that there were many cases where demand occurred during dispatch, and the delay of arrival time to the site due to this. From this, it was suggested that it is important to consider not only the nearest facility location but also the next facility location when we decide on the location of the fire department for reducing the travel distance. In addition, it can shorten the arrival time to the demand place by preventing cases that cannot dispatch during the dispatch to the other demand. In other words, not only the location of the facility but also adding the ambulance have an effect on shortening the arrival time.
Osaka city has been rapidly urbanized since the end of the Meiji period, and the population of the city was more than 1.5 million in 1916. However, this development has problems such as price hike and poor living environment. How to stabilize the expanding citizen's eating habits for Osaka city at that time was an important policy task. Therefore, Osaka City opened the temporary public markets at 4 locations in April 1918 in order to adjust the price and provide inexpensive and stable daily necessities. Thereafter, 60 public markets were planned because of citizen's popularity. At the time of the second city limit extension (1925.4), the arrangement of the public market in the new city area was discussed. This study aims to clarify the formation of retail commercial space focused on Public Market in pre-war Osaka city on following 3 aspects. 1. The public policies and roles of the Public Market were analyzed through Osaka's Council Minutes. 2. 35 locations of public market established since October 1921 were classified into 4 types “Old city area”, “Traditional town”, “Newly developed area” and “Rural area”. 3. Interview survey for 65 shop owners since pre-war indicated the relationship between the formation of shopping street and public market. The main results were summarized as follows. 1) The public markets that were opened after being referred to as "establish a public market for resident of the newly opened area" in the city council of October 1921 are located from residential-industrial coexistence area to residential area in the wake of the second city limit extension (1925.4). In addition, it became clear that they gradually increased its location to area with high open space rate. 2) The public markets in the old city area opened near the public facilities constructed in the Meiji period. The public markets in the traditional town has been established near the old roads and temples that have relations with the area from long ago. The public markets in the newly developed area opened near the public facilities planned at the same time. The public markets in rural area opened on the old roads and approaches of temple. In this way, it was clarified that Osaka city arranged the public markets of pre-war to be the core of the retail commercial space planned differently for each site. 3) The formation of retail commercial space was classified into 3 patterns. First, the public market opens in existing shopping streets. And shopping streets develop by gathering stores and private markets. (For example, Kujo, Nigiwaimachi and Abeno public market) Secondly, when the public market opens, stores will gather, and the shopping streets will form. Later, the shopping street develops in stores independent of the public / private market. (For example, Tsuruhashi, Hirano, Izuo, Kagaya, Kitatanabe, Ikuno and Anryuu public market)Third, the private market opens first and the public market opens. Shopping streets form by stores gathering each other. (For example, Tanabe public market)
In this study, a site along the old road of Yabuhara- juku, Kiso Village is covered. It aims to grasp the change of occupational occupation for 70 years from the end of World War II to the present as well as the change of frontage of the building site and to clarify the character of the group along one road. It also aims to obtain knowledge useful for regional revitalization, along with effective knowledge for the occurrence and progress of vacancies and vacancies, which are viewed as problems in recent years, and the resolution of progress.
The former YabuHara-juku which is the subject of this research is one of the lodging towns of Nakasendo and is an area that was responsible for the inn. Although the growth of the wood industry represented the opening of the railroad in the latter part of the Meiji era and the growth of the wood industry as a representative, but since no further large-scale development took place, the frontage along the highway in the former Yabuhara-juku and the site ratio have been relatively maintained Conceivable. However, in recent years there has been an increase in vacant lots and vacant houses in the cityscape.
In this research, we are planning to grasp the change of occupational occupation over the 70 years from the end of the war to the present for the premises along the Nakasendo in the former Yabuhara-juku along with changes in the frontage of the building premises, and the structure of the group bundled along one road It aims to clarify. It also aims to grasp the occurrence and progression of vacant lots and vacancies seen in recent years and to obtain useful knowledge for resolving them and to obtain useful knowledge for regional revitalization. From 1945, 1965, 1965, 1987, 2008, 2017, it is aimed at the site along the highway in Kisonaga Oshima Harajuku, Kiso-gun, Nagano Prefecture. (2017) to analyze the 5s.
In the analysis, we investigate the change of the site frontage throughout the former Yabuhara-juku and clarify the position where change is occurring. Next, we derive the pattern of change of occupation and grasp the occupation which is the main cause of the change of townscape. Finally, we will examine the structure of the highway road by guiding the way of group change along the typical highway from the combination of site frontage and change of occupation and considering where they are located in the former bush Yabuhara-juku.
As a result, the relation between the frontage and the change in occupation was derived. As a trend of change, there are cases where the extra large scale entrance changes to a new public facility or shop locally though it is a small number. Meanwhile, occupational occupations are maintained in the sites that are seen numerously like medium sized entrances, and the same tendency to change from merchandising stores to private homes and vacant lots and vacant houses is seen, and these changes are caused by changes in the old roads in Yabuhara-juku. It is found that it is the character of the space along Nakasendo.
Suburban cities are suffering from aging and abandoned houses along with the out migration of particularly young people. Suburban cities, considered as bed towns, have infrastructure including roads and housing complexes from the times of the major development of residential housing. Such infrastructure is capable of receiving potential migrant population from over-populated areas. In order for both current and future residents to maintain a comfortable living in suburban communities, the study looks at the subjective happiness of residents as a factor determining intent to settle. A social survey was conducted to 700 households in Hinosato District located in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan, and collected over 500 responses with the response rate of 72 %. The survey structure is composed of the lifestyle of residents, surrounding environment, occupation, and other factors that supposedly affect intent to settle. The survey revealed the highest correlation between intent to settle and the subjective happiness among others using Pearson's correlation coefficient. With that result, the stepwise multiple regression analysis (MRA) was conducted using SPSS. It shows that intent to settle is determined by four factors, namely happiness, natural environment, convenience (living environments) and social capital. A second MRA is performed to examine what variables influence the four factors. As indicated in Figure 4, the determinants of each factor vary and barely overlapped. Firstly, happiness is determined by health, employment and motivation for public participation. Natural environment, the second determinant of intent to settle, is affected by comfort of living environment, safety / security and cultural environment. Convenience of living environment, the third affecting variable to intent to settle, is determined by employment, welfare services and education / child raising values. Lastly, social capital is affected by practice-based environmental awareness, public participation, satisfaction to work-life-balance, and natural environment. This indicates that happiness is a standalone value to evaluate people's intent to settle on top of the other variables conventionally used to examine intent to settle. Overall, the previous studies focus on the objective conditions including the convenience of life and the quality of surrounding environments to measure people's intent to settle. However, such an approach is based on that the determinants of intent to settle is not valued by the happiness of residents but by external factors. The happiness-intent to settle model, suggested by this study, allows a shift from the previous idea of directly linking living environments and intent to settle to the proposed theory that relates people's happiness and intent to settle. Putting a focus on happiness is considered to have a positive effect on the prevention of out-migration.
This paper aims to identify the difference of housing development location and type, and middle-class residents' preference of housing choice between before and after the urban rail transit in Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR) and examine whether the urban rail transit prevents urban sprawling and its extent of the effect. From the comparison of housing development location and type (low-rise housing development and condominium/apartment) from the digital map in 2006 and 2013, it is found that housing development concentrated only in Bangkok city and Nonthaburi province before 2006 and it widespread to Northern and Southern provinces after 2006. However, in Bangkok City, housing development shifted inward after 2006. Before 2006, the major housing type is the low-rise housing development, which is consist of detached houses and townhouses but after 2006, the condominium/apartment became the majority. A questionnaire survey was conducted to middle-class residents with school-year children in BMR, and the result was analyzed by the conjoint method to reveal their housing preference. From the conjoint analysis, it is found that they consider the housing type (detached house) is the most important and next is the access to the train station. Conjoint analysis by each generation shows that respondents in 40s and 50s have the same tendency but 50s' attachment to the housing type (detached house) is much stronger than 40s. On the other hand, respondents in 20s and 30s have the different tendency, and they consider the access to the train station is the most important and the next is access to the main road. It is impossible to reveal the causal relationship between the development of urban rail transit and change in housing development, and housing preference. However, it can be inferred that development of urban rail transit leaded condominium development near their stations and its changed young generation's housing preference and this change lead housing location inward in Bangkok city. Thus, the result of this research implies that development of urban rail transit prevents housing sprawling in Bangkok City but its effect area is limited to the neighboring area, therefore now housing developing is still spreading outward in BMR. To prevent housing sprawling, the extension or new development of urban rail transit in the suburbs is essential. Also supplying larger units in condominiums near the railway stations in suburbs will attract household with children to live near and is expected to prevent sprawling.
These days, "a place for community" is attracting more attention. "A place for community" is the place operated flexibly, mainly as a cafe with a various activities such as class of hobby, exhibition or retailing. As the concern about social isolation growing, the place come to be expected to be a solution for the issue. However, with taking consideration of characteristics of group such as "bonding", the relationship made by "a place for community" may be have exclusiveness to outgroups. Especially because a bonding group strengthen common trait of group members in general, risk that individual trait causing isolation might be strengthen after group composed by " a place for community", and the group itself will be estranged from local society as a result. With this respect, this paper aims to clarify the actual condition and background of group isolation of "a place for community". Three following focusing point has set and different survey has conducted ; 1) "Visitor record analysis" to grasp situation that some of users have characteristic as a group and get “bonding”. 2) Questionnaires and interviews to frequent users of the case facility to grasp situation that the group members have trait harming relationship with local society, in common. 3) Questionnaires to the people familiar with local society and analysis about events held in the case facility to grasp the situation that the group is estranged from local society. As a result, following findings were obtained.
1) The number of frequent users has a steady state and frequent users tend to be fixed. The existence of steady state reveal the aspect of frequent users as a group, and fixed users means the exclusiveness of the group. These findings suggest that the frequent users of the case is "bonding" as a group. 2) Most of the frequent users have negative feelings to communication among neighbors and health problems in common. On the other hand, those frequent users are not necessarily the patient of clinic which operates the case, and their housing situation is almost same as the average in the district where the case locate. This finding suggests that the number of potential users is not so small, and a lot of "place for community" can get into the situation of group isolation. 3) Only about half of the target person from local society know the existence of the case facility and less than 30% people has understood what the case is doing. In addition, according to the analysis about events held in the case facility, it clarified that the large number of events held with medical and nursing association, and the number of events held with neighborhood or ordinary association in neighbor (e.g. restaurant, general store and NPO) is small. These findings suggest that the situation of case facility being estranged from local society, and have connection with medical and nursing association in contrast. 4) Findings about the common trait of frequent users and social relationship with outgroup of the case facility, correspondence between common trait of users and relationship with outgroup can be seen. This correspondence seem to be caused by the flexibility of “a place for community”, which is important characteristic of “a place for community” to make relationships among users and get users “bonding”. The important point of group isolation is that a factor preventing communication with local society plays a role during this process of “bonding”. 5) As a whole, "a place for community" has a risk that small group get “bonding” toward refusing communication with local society.
Assumed evacuation start time of residents set for the conventional disaster evacuation plan is somewhat based on the questionnaire result of the resident's evacuation behavior at the time of the past tsunami disaster. However, it is actually target time in the case of accelerated behavior under special efforts to start evacuation in about 5 minutes from the occurrence of the earthquake. The problem is that it is not consistent with the result of the questionnaire result of the past tsunami evacuation cases. At the time of evacuation drills from the assumed Nankai Trough Earthqake Tsunami in the three sites (Kure, Nakatosa Town, Kochi Pref., Utsumi (Miyama-no-Hama, Tadasu, Funatsu, Funatsu-Kita, Funatsu-Minami), Kainan city, Wakayama Pref., Fukui Town (Minato, Ohnishi, Kozu), Anan City, Tokushima Pref.), evacuation behavior of residents were recorded with video cameras and then questionnaire surveys were conducted.Since the correlation coefficient between the average evacuation start time after the alert siren of the tsunami warning in 3 sites obtained from the observation of the drills and the estimated arrival times of the tsunami is 0.775, it can be thought recognition of the estimated tsunami arrival time by the residents affects the evacuation start time. Alert siren times of tsunami warning in the evacuation drills were set as an action start point, the average individual evacuation start time was 2.42 minutes in Kure, 4.38 minutes in Utsumi, 3.82 minutes in Fukui. These average individual evacuation starttimes are within 2 to 5 minutes and it is within the assumed tsunami arrival time. However, if we look at the residents behavior preciselly after leaving their home, they gathered at neighbourhood spots in Utsumi district in Kainan City, and then it can be confirmed that the collective evacuation has started again and the area average evacuation start time is 6 minutes and 32 seconds. Consideration of individual evacuation start time is insufficient and it is very important for safe evacuation of residents to define area evacuation start time for disaster management plans at the district level. We examined and set four items, "Shortest distance to the coastline", "Shortest distance to the river", "Shortest distance to the water area", "Height above sea level of the house" as factors influencing the evacuation start time, but there was no clear relationship in the three sites. It is correlated that the preliminary participation broadcast before the tsunami warning siren was broadcast a plurality of times and that the neighborhood association agreed to collectively evacuate group by group and there was a group behavior action. Comparing the observation result of the tsunami evacuation drill with the answer of the questionnaire, it turned out that residents were evacuating earlier than the questionnaire result this time. Since this survey is based on actual measurement in the evacuation drill with the assumption of tsunami and its questionnaire result, it is examined under the condition that there is no frustration and confusion of the residents in the absence of shaking of the seismicity. As a future prospect, we found a relevance that can reflect the regional differences such as the distance to the sea and mountain in the area where correlation is recognized between the element and evacuation start time like the town of Fukui in the evacuation start time, and the tsunami evacuation Continuous research is desired so that it can be reflected in the district disaster prevention plan concerning.
The Urban Design Centers (UDCs) in Japan are practical urban design platforms for public–private–academic collaboration with three characteristics: space planning by collaboration, initiatives of experts, and a hub facility open to all people. This paper explores possibilities and challenges for UDCs in built-up areas in major provincial cities, through the UDC Matsuyama (UDCM) case-study. UDCM was established in 2014 to revitalize Matsuyama City center. Interviews of people involved in UDCM, literature surveys, and participant observations were performed. Investigations showed the following achievements and problems of UDCM. (1) Space planning by collaboration ·The double-tiered systems － a governing organization as a collaboration hub and an executing organization － enables experts to engage and collaborate in various field activities. Money management by the university counteracts the funders' influence. ·To create an appealing urban space, UDCM participates in urban renewal projects in a variety of ways. Shortly after its establishment, UDCM participated in the conventional project planning process, using connections with local government. Once UDCM's performance became known, private enterprises and local organizations directly contacted UDCM for consultation and project support. (2) Initiatives of experts ·It was necessary for UDCM to formulate a vision for the city to share with many stakeholders and to position its role. However, during start-up, UDCM relinquished this formulating vision for two reasons: it was difficult for a new vision to be consistent with existing plans if positioned within the planning framework of local government; and, if positioned as UDCM's own, it risked being unsupported because UDCM initially had no performance record. Following better understanding of UDCM's role and effect, discussions restarted in the third year toward producing a vision for the city. ·UDCM achieves a balance between specialized and local knowledge, and between practical and research power, using experts in many fields including academics with specialized knowledge and skills, retired local government employees with broad human resources and local knowledge, and private experts with rich field experience. ·Human resource development is critical in provincial cities experiencing a continuing drain of young people to large cities. UDCM enhances the community's power through a variety of programs. (3) Hub facility open to all ·Establishing rules for use and operation of the facility through lively and engaging discussions with residents, within the pilot program framsework, enabled organized operation of the facility in the city center where many stakeholders are present. ·The hub facility is used in different ways according to citizens' needs: a place to rest for people with little interest in urban design; and, for people with an active interest, to provide relevant information for beginners and to hold events and participate in human resource development. The UDCM case-study demonstrated three important points in adopting UDCs in built-up areas in major provincial cities, which have complex relationship among numerous stakeholders. ·Produce a visible result by flexibly participating in public and private urban renewal projects in a variety of ways under the organizational structure by public–private–academic collaboration. ·Formulate a vision for the city to share with many stakeholders, and move into action to realize it, in cooperation with citizens and experts in many fields inside and outside the city. ·Establish rules for use and operation of the hub facility through discussions with neighbors.
Africa is rapidly urbanizing. In most African cities, informal settlements, which develop outside of governmentally controlled urban planning, meet mushrooming housing needs. Informal settlements are now a widespread phenomenon, reaching not only low-quality housing of poor and low-income people, but also detached house and high-rise apartments of middle and high-income people. The purpose of this research is to empirically clarify the process of African urban development, with a focus on informal settlements, and to provide insights into the paradigms of urban planning in Africa. The study is based on the hypothesis that types of systems for creating and managing spatial order develop and influence the development pattern and living environment in informal settlements. Our preceding paper explored development patterns of informal settlements using survey data from Nairobi, Kenya, and showed that spatial structure in informal settlements was not uniform. We identified squatter areas with iron-sheet houses and unplanned layouts, neatly planned areas with high-rise buildings made of concrete blocks, as well as areas with intermediate conditions. In this paper, the land delivery process and mechanisms for securing land tenure in informal settlements in Nairobi are analyzed. Similar to the preceding paper, the case study was conducted onsite via field surveys in three areas with different development patterns in Mukuru Kwa Njenga, one of the largest informal settlements in Nairobi. We conducted interviews with structure owners, who occupied land and built structures on it without permission of the legal landowner, about the land acquisition process, community leaders concerning history of areas, and administrative officials and professors of universities about general information on informal settlements in Nairobi and their observations on participation. The analysis showed that pseudo-customary and pseudo-formal systems function together in delivering land and securing land tenure. The former system is community-based and characterized by a series of procedures for delivering land and securing land tenure: occupation of land in a traditional manner; unplanned site layout; oral agreement on land transaction; and influential community leader on land and people that belong to the community. This indicates that the system derives from the customary land delivery process and mechanisms for securing land tenure under the authority of a traditional chief in rural areas. The latter system is characterized by a series of procedures for delivering land and securing land tenure: land subdivision by profit-oriented external group, or developer; planned site layout; written agreement on land transaction; and issuance of forms as a proof of land ownership. This indicates that the system refers to the modern land registration procedure and urban planning standards － this is viewed as a way to upgrade the land price and give some legitimacy to their development. It appears that people use the two systems well, sometimes in combination as the situation demands, so that they ensure smooth land delivery and land tenure security. Lastly, we point out that these land-related systems are closely related to the governance structure and site layout planning: the pseudo-customary system is prominent in the area with an influential community leader and without a planned layout; and in the area without an influential community leader and with a planned layout, the pseudo-formal system is prominent.
In this study, tourist behaviour was analysed based on geotagged Flickr photo data, and a description of the ‘attraction’ of a place was provided from the viewpoint of a tourist's place of residence and their tags. This study is novel in the following ways: (a) it analyses tourist behaviour throughout Japan using the geotags attached to posted Flickr photos; (b) using the photographic data collected over about 17 years, it analyses changes in tourist behaviour depending on the season and the time of the day; (c) it analyses tourist behaviour based on users' estimated place of residence and (d) the ‘attraction’ of the photographed locations is analysed from the tag attached to the photo. This study is structured as follows, with the results presented below. In Chapter 2, we acquired Flickr geotagged photo data and clarified the spatio-temporal characteristics of photography related behaviour throughout Japan. In Chapter 3, we estimated the place of residence of each user based on the number of days they spent taking pictures in each country in the world. In addition, a strong correlation was confirmed between Flickr data and the rate of visits to each prefecture, and a high estimation accuracy of users' places of residence was confirmed. In Chapter 4, the prefecture preference was calculated for Japanese tourists as well as for tourists from 15 different countries. By preference-based clustering, the places of residence were clearly classified into three groups, namely Japanese, Asians and Westerners. Our analysis indicates with high accuracy that tourists from geographically and culturally similar countries visit similar places. Furthermore, from the distribution of heat maps and photographed places, we find differences in tourist behaviour depending on the places of residence such as Westerners visiting Kyoto. In Chapter 5, we analysed the relationship between photo tags and photographed locations. The tags were clustered by the k-means method based on their degree of asynchrony and were classified into 13 tag clusters such as ‘waterside’ and ‘railroad’, and their data were confirmed to be consistent with that of the actual place. In Chapter 6, we compared the distribution of specific tag clusters of Asians and Westerners at both city and town levels. This correctly represented the actual tourist behaviour, and we confirmed that the ‘attraction’ depended on the place of residence. We also found that Asians' preferences concentrated on relatively limited tourist spots as compared with Westerners' preferences. Principal component analysis was performed on nine-dimensional attribute vectors created by combining the place of residence and the tag, and we succeeded in finding quantitative indicators to help with comparing the ‘attraction’ of the prefectures using ‘natural attractions’ and ‘attractions of Japanese tourist’ as parameters. The study method in this paper is also considered an effective application of big-data techniques to another SNS. In addition, we will be able to construct a tourist distimation choice model applicable to every place of residence by tracing the posting history of users who were not handled in this study and setting the attractiveness variables of tourist spots using tags.
Hayakawa residence was reconstructed immediately after Nobi earthquake in 1891.13 floor plans were found in Hayakawa residence. Transition process of the floor planning of Hayakawa residence main building and annex was presented in 1983 by Dr. Nakamura, He drew comparisons among 5 drawings (historical material No41, 43, 45, 46, 49). However, we newly discovered 8 drawings (historical material No. 38, 39, 40, 42, 44, 47, 48, 53) and compared 13 drawings, which led to different opinions, and described in following text. The planning took place within 3 year (1891-1894) after Nobi earthquake in 1891. Especially, It is worthy of note that the 7 plans were considered in only 3 months after the devastating earthquake. The building became larger gradually in the all directions. 3 kinds of size were confirmed from the historical materials (historical material No. 38-53). The followings are found from 13 floor plans. 1) Historical material 39: an initial plan, because there are many notices about the new house floor planning. Historical material 40: a rough draft of the historical material No. 39. 2) Historical material 41: larger than historical material 39 and 40, written about length of the north-south direction of the house. There are many notices on the each room. 3) New ideas can be found from historical material No. 42.: (1) Historical material 42 is larger than Historical material 41, written about the length of the east-west direction of the house. (2) Though there was the bathroom at the east side of Niwa, they moved it at the east side of the building, and made the family entrance in the of the bathroom. (3) Though there was an alcove (Tokonoma) at the entrance room, they stopped making alcove in the room. (4) Many proposals were submitted about the style of the main guest room. The Buffering room called “Sayanoma” was made at the west side of the main building, so that the hallway did not become narrow, when they put Shoin to the main room. We can recognize a lot of investigations from the notice of the plans of historical material No. 41. (5) As the building became larger, the room of 2 jo changed into the tea room of 6 jo and Daime, because the building became bigger. 4) Historical material No. 47: the partial plan about the kitchen and bathroom at the north-east side of the house. 5) Historical material No. 43: the sizes of the adjacent rooms were rectified based on the physiognomy of a house of historical material No. 42. 6) Historical material No. 44: At the beginning of construction of the main building, the board drawing (Itazu) was created .This shows us the fixed planning of the main building. We can also recognize the board drawing from the picture (historical material No. 84), and the existing building. 6) As the planning of main building approached to a final stage within 1 year, the planning of the annex started and the connection parts with the main building were alterd, the washing place and closet were ceased. 7) Historical material 45, 46, 48, 49, 53: About the planning of the annex, Historical material No. 45 shows the annex plan. Historical material No. 46 shows only the size of the annex. Historical material No. 49 and No. 53 shows the detailed plans of the annex. 8) Historical material No. 38 is almost the same as the existing arrangement of the Hayakawa residence.
Green tea became popular during the mid-Edo period through early Showa period, thus many tea ceremonies were held. Among the tea ceremony articles published in addition to the event, with 51 illustrated book of the green tea ceremony as records, this is the first of the study of clarifying the characteristics of the green tea ceremony room. The following were found, after bibliographic consideration of the targeted 51 records of the bibliography of illustrated book of the green tea ceremony. The authors of the bibliography were often hosts of the green tea ceremony, whom centered around literati in Edo period, antique dealers and politicians after the Meiji period in urban area, and local potentates in rural area. Composition and form of illustrated books are thought to have passed down and spread through literati and antique dealers who often attended the green tea ceremony. Most of the bibliography were published during the Meiji period, in cities in Osaka, Kyoto, Tokyo, and Aichi. Green tea were especially popular in these 4 areas, and from there the culture spread all over the nation.
This article reconsidered the Maiko bricks that J. Condor made to "AN ARCHITECT'S NOTES ON THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE OF OCTOBER, 1891." after the field investigation of the disaster area of the Nobi earthquake, and the Kansai Bricklay Co., which made the bricks. The following points became clarified. Initially, Kansai-renga-seisakuzyo was founded in 1886 at Ozone of Osaka by Simeirou, and Wada Hanbee participated in the capital in October 1887. The reason why the Kasai-renga-seisakuzyo moved to Maiko of Hyogo at early time was that Wada thought about the move of the factory. According to the document, the foundation of the Kansai-Renga-Kaisya was in January 1888, the company's authorization was June 16, 1888, but the completion of the factory was at the end of January 1889. According to the newspaper report, the company started manufacturing bricks in February 1889, the company produced 30,000 bricks every day. I thought that the company invited the engineer from British as for the Maiko brick having been slightly large with the front article, however, the reason was that the company manufactured the Maiko bricks with brick making machines imported from the UK via the Hunter & Co.. In addition, the Hunter & Co. participated in the management of the company. The company exported more than half of the bricks to Canada as the ballast of foreign ship. The Maiko bricks were rather large size, I thought in the previous manuscript because the company invited British engineers. However, the reason was that the company imported brick making instruments from the UK through the Hunter & Co. produced bricks. The company's mark of Kansai-Renga-Kabusikigaisya decides to combine three rectangles into a triangle by the company's advertisement. This stamp can also be confirmed on the brick used at the former the Hunter's mansion. And the Hunter & Co. was a stockholder of Kansai-Renga-Kabusikigaisya.
Gunsan is a port city on the west coast of Korea. The Foreign Settlement at Gunsan was formed in 1899, and Gunsan city government was founded in 1914. This paper aims to clarify the Gunsan urban planning in 1938, which was implemented under the Chosen urban planning ordinance. This study focuses on two points, one is consensus-building of Gunsan urban planning (1938) and the other is the analysis of its characteristics. Previous studies of Korean cities in the former Japanese colonial period were concentrated in large cities such as Seoul, Busan and Incheon. Therefore, significance of this study is that focused on the local city which has insufficient study. This study concludes followings; 1) The Gunsan urban planning (1938) was set as the urban planning area about six times the size of the administrative district at that time. In comparison with this, other cities were designated planning area that are about two to three times as large as administrative district. This characteristic was intended to secure a vast industrial area, not an urban plan due to the population growth rate of Gunsan. In addition, this was planned by the Gunsan City Government before the Chosen Government-general starting to make a planning of Gunsan. 2) The Gunsan urban planning (1938) was planned a street network in which a circular square was placed at the intersection of a wide street by the Chosen Government-general. This was influenced from a Baroque urban planning method that was applied to urban planning in various major cities of Europe in the late 19th century, and applied to urban planning in Daegu, Daejeon, and Pyongyang in Korea at that time. 3) In other words, Gunsan urban planning (1938) is one of the cases in which this urban planning method was applied by the Chosen Government-general. According to previous studies, it is widely believed that Chosen's urban planning during the Japanese colonial period were made by the Chosen Government-general. However, as a result, the Gunsan City Government created the Gunsan urban planning map before the Chosen Government-general doing, which was applied to the final draft. In addition, the Gunsan City Government and the Chosen Government-general exchanged detailed opinions to decide the final draft. In other words, the Gunsan urban planning (1938) was not a one-sided urban plan by the Chosen Government-general, and part of the Gunsan City Government's opinion was reflected in the final plan.
This paper reports on the analysis of the original form of the Hellenistic scene building of the Messene Theatre, which is believed to have consisted of two parts: a proskenion consisting of a 26.5-m-long Ionic colonnade with wooden pinakes, and a skene with three thyromata to provide costume-changing space for actors. Through the analysis, it was also determined that the Roman scene building was constructed by systematically reusing the architectural blocks of the Hellenistic scene building. The normal Ionic column drums of the pulpitum appear to have been transported from another building, most certainly the Arsinoe Fountain.
In this paper, by examining the works of politician and architect Josep Puig i Cadafalch, this paper provides new findings on the partial effects that the relationship between architecture and politics has had on the modern Catalonian architectural framework. This study is part of a larger body of research on architectural trends in Catalonia, during the 19th and early 20th centuries. This study inquires a part of the trend of thought in architecture influenced by ruling thought based on historical, cultural, and political background seen in the Catalonia society at that time from an architect's point of view based on his central idea. Josep Puig i Cadafalch was an architect, politician and historian. As a politician, he became a councilor in the Town Hall of Barcelona, and he was elected as a Member of Parliament in Madrid, and became provincial representative at the Country Council of Barcelona. He was to reach the high point of his political career; he was appointed President of the Commonwealth of Catalonia. By looking at four of architect and politician Josep Puig i Cadafalch's articles, this paper examines the role of politics on architectural trends in Catalonia, during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Under the following points, we would like to summarize the most important parts of our findings. 1) Already at the early stage of when he acquired his qualification as an architect did he realize that he would be able to reshape cities through the combination of his performance as an architect and politician in a local administration district. 2) As an architect, his works included the intentional display of political messages. For a successful embodiment of such messages, it was indispensable that he also engaged in political activities within the administration to understand its views and the intentions of its leadership. By successfully executing both architectural and political activities as well as challenging existing construction regulations, he managed to advance the views of Catalonia's political, cultural and artistic sides. 3) As a politician, priority policies included the development of industrial infrastructures, such as railroads, roads, aviation and telecommunication networks as well as the establishment of medical and social welfare institutions to promote the modernization of Catalonia through the increase of social capital. 4) As an architect and politician and based on his attachment to Catalonia, he took on political roles on a regional level to further Catalonia's quest for more autonomy. In conclusion, we find that the architectural works of Josep Puig i Cadafalch were clearly influenced by his political activities. We believe that we could present some new findings on the framework of architectural trends in Catalonia, during the 19th and early 20th centuries. In our next research paper, we would like to show the age-related characteristics and evolution of his architectural work.
This study aims to clarify the influence of Le Corbusier's thought on José Villagrán's academic program for the National School of Architecture. Based on a comparative method, the authors analyze the characteristics of José Villagrán's academic program and the book Vers une architecture by Le Corbusier. We find that, Villagrán paid attention on three Le Corbusier's notions in his proposal of the academic program: “geometrical harmony”, to verify the composition through a mathematical analysis, the rejection of “the style” understanding its no applicability in the architectural design, and “the rational logic” introducing the rational thinking at National School of Architecture.
This study aims to consider the value and possibility of a design method that integrates regional design and environmental design, through the five proposals in the competition for the new House of Parliament. The major argument was how to integrate the modernism style and Thai regional design and, at the same time, the architectural ideology for responding to environmental and economic issues pervaded in Thailand. The 5 proposals that made the final judgment stage of the design competition for the new House of Parliament suggest an aspect of a Thai architectural image that responds to demands from a society and an age. All 5 of the final proposals decide their form originating from regional design, but the judgment uses a system that also evaluates their environmental efficiencies. Thus, ways of suggesting national identity as well as improving environmental performance were expected, namely the way of integrating regional design and environmental design. The environmental designs affecting the forms of the 5 proposals respond to the rating credits of LEED2009, which are related to heat island effects and energy efficiency. Especially, reducing heat load is an essential factor among the 5 proposals, not only to be recognized by LEED but also to clear the OTTV·RTTV rating system that has operated in Thailand for many years. And it is clarified that integrating methods are classified into two types according with types of environmental design, the “Supplemental environmental design: incorporate supplementary environmental design into form based on regional design,” and the “Interactive environmental design: both regional design and environmental design affect deeply for the process of deciding the form.” Furthermore, these integrating methods are classified into two types of expression, the “Similized regional design” and the “Metaphorical regional design”. Through this design competition, it is suggested that architectural compositions that integrate regional design and environmental design are formulated in this age, in which both factors are demanded. These methods are also adaptable for other building types as possibilities for contemporary architecture observing through the tendency of architects in the age placing a high priority on environmental performance considering the effects of the environmental rating system on architectural compositions.
The aim of this paper is to investigate the similarities in spatial features of Chapelle de Ronchamp (Chapelle Notre-Dame du Haut), which is one of Charles-Edouard "Le Corbusier" Jeanneret's (1887-1965) later works, with the explorations in his early Purism paintings.
Young Jeanneret wanted to become a painter in Switzerland, and even after coming to prominence as an architect, he continued to paint throughout his life. He stated that his "patient research" conducted while painting, influenced his architecture. Not long before assuming the name "Le Corbusier", Jeanneret met the painter Amédée Ozenfant (1886-1966) in Paris in 1917. Together, they advocated for a form of painting called "Purism", and published a magazine entitled "L'Esprit Nouveau" from 1920 to 1925. Additionally, they coauthored an article entitled "Le Purisme" which was included in the 4th issues of said magazine. In this article, they insisted on the necessity of art, including Purism paintings, to activate the audience's senses in order to evoke certain subjective sensations in them.
Through the analysis of the visual methods used to evoke those sensations in Jeanneret's Purism paintings, it was found that he experimented with multiple techniques. Those include: rejecting perspective in pursue of a more egalitarian representation, concurrently using multiple projections, using a multi-viewpoint projection different from that in Cubism, spreading of objects to diffuse focus, emphasizing both volume and thinness at the same time, using the interpenetration of space in the depth direction, aligning objects to share contours, blurring the distinction between the part and the whole, as well as creating multi-centered layouts. What those methods all have in common is that they put the audience in the state of perpetual ambiguity, which prevents them from reaching one definite understanding of the elements of the piece. Instead, viewers' understanding of the piece is suspended, as it is permanently being sent back and forth between two opposite interpretations or between several alternatives.
Those methods can also be seen in the spatial characteristic of Chapelle de Ronchamp. Its curved walls, tilted roof and floor all seem to reject perspective. It compels the audience to continuously readjust their point of reference. The chapel has no definite facade. Moreover, its curved walls shape the interior while unfolding to the outside and it is difficult to tell where the "inside" ends and the "outside" begins. The wall on the east side of the chapel establishes the duality of both space and function, while simultaneously separating and connecting the inside from the outside. Multi-axial plan diffuses focus from any particular point in the chapel. These spatial characteristics are to prevent the audience from reaching one definite interpretation of the physical space and to make them continuously switch between several alternatives. It was a common method in his Purism paintings.
In conclusion, this paper reveals the existence of multiple similarities between early explorations of Le Corbusier as a Purism painter, and the way he organized the space in Chapelle de Ronchamp as an accomplished architect.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the spatial composition rule of boundary space in the classical gardens of Suzhou, China. By analyzing the component (boundary wall, affiliated elements, landscape elements) and the split 137 abstract diagrams, the following three points are revealed: a) The most commonly used affiliated elements is the linear element, the most commonly used space type is paste (p). b) There are large amount of miniature courtyards(xs) and side courtyard(s) included in the boundary space where the scale are S type and M type. c) Most boundary spaces have tree and stone as landscape elements.