We conducted a survey on the living environment of elderly people living in collective housing in Shanghai, China. And we examined their specific living conditions according to living expenses and residential space. As a result, the elderly people who had enough living expenses can improve their interior that corresponds to old age. But it is difficult for the elderly people who had not enough living expenses to improve their interior by themselves. Those improvements should be supported by public subsidy. And it also seems that it is effective for them to watch their life by social organizations.
This paper clarifies urban formation and transformation of Shangxiahang area in the city of Fuzhou. Fuzhou, which is known as Rong chen (Banyan castle), had developed as a port city since the period of Ming Dynasty after the decline of Quanzhou. Authors selected the old district of the port area of Fuzhou. There still exist two types of traditional house typeswhich are da-cuo and chai lan cuo (shou-jin-liao inQuanzhou city). Da-cuo is the form of quadrangle, si-he-yuan, but here in Shangxiahang area, we have the 2nd floor type of Da-cuo, which are very rare in Fujian district. Discussing relationships between house types of Da cuo and chai lan cuo leads to understand the development and transformation process of house types. This paper clarifies the characteristics of house types and their transformation process of Shangxiahang area in the city of Fuzhou.
The features of back courtyards as a common space in courtyard style settlement of Patan City are clarified through the investigation of ownership, their uses and comparison with the uses of front courtyards. During the field survey of a block of three interconnected front courtyards and twenty eight back courtyards, several tasks such as collection of legal documents, interview with relevant officers, lawyer and residents and visual inspection were conducted to identify the owners and the uses of courtyards. From this study, following discoveries were made: 1) Back courtyards are either individually owned space which are categorized as Raikar land (private land) or jointly owned land which are being managed by the customary law without categorizing them as Raikar land. 2) Back courtyards mainly function as environment adjusting space for light and ventilation and plumbing space which are the typical functions of the back courtyard, however, a new type of space utilization such as storage space and living space (laundry) was also identified. 3) Back courtyards are used and managed by the owners whereas front courtyards are used for private to public purposes and managed by local residents.
This paper aims to grasp the structure of the teacher evaluation for the open plan classroom environment of the elementary school based on the questionnaire survey for the teachers in three public schools. 1) In Different three Schools where are in a classroom form, a sound becomes the big problem. 2) For an open plan classroom, a teacher of 60% does an affirmative evaluation in two schools. 3) In the expensive school of flexibility of the space is active, but the affirmative evaluation does not reach 20%. 4) The teachers of the teacher in charge of the class in particular do a severe evaluation. 5) Most teachers hope for classroom space with the movable partitioning that they can easily shut.
The purpose of this study is to obtain the principle of service area of small-scale multi-care facility for aged through investigation real utility area and critical consideration about the planning concept. The following facts have been clarified. The utility area of the most of facilities have extended beyond the planned service area and the concept of community based care service has been emasculated. The reasons for this phenomenon are few users, few facilities and excessive competition to get users. The most important causes are poor permeation to people concerned and ambiguity in the planning concept.
This study, we found the problem of the space from the area of children's activities. And, we clarified area required in private room. According to the research, it became obvious that insufficient area of both simultaneous activities and play. In private room, it is necessary to ensure the area at least simultaneous activities. (1.88 square meters per person) And, it is required add the area for play depending on such as by conditions for use of space. (1.51 square meters per person) It is important that select the area required consider the diversity of regionality and installation location and activities.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify changes within an area along Old Sanyo Street in Saijo, in terms of the usage of the closed shop-houses and the sites and buildings established for Japanese brewing companies. Literature documentation, a measuring survey, and interviews were conducted. The findings are as follows. The area flourished as a place for rest and relaxation in the Edo era. However, now it is inactive because the number of shops has decreased and some sites were converted into parking lots in the late 20th century. Activity along the street has fallen considerably, because the closed shop-houses have been used only for storage or have become vacant, while the living areas are located at the back. The Japanese brewing companies were established in the early 20th century, yet moved to enlarged sites nearby and out of the area. They converted surplus spaces along the street for public use. After that, a touring network of public spaces inside the companies'sites along the street was established. These changes shifted the active area of Old Sanyo Street from the street itself to the insides of the companies'sites.
The purpose of studies is the index of relationship with architecture and street-space in the act that create the architecture for plan of street-landscape. At first, recognize the architecture called individual as street-space, this tried to showing the relationship by psychological influence and the visual information as Gestalt-psychology. However, it's difficult to clear of them immediately, because street-space is composed with various elements. Therefore this uses plane composition of streets and makes various model diagrams of plane-streets. As a result, this had a definite index as a relationship with architecture and street-space. Thus this skimmed through the relationship.
The aim of the study is to consider the providing front line disaster medical service bases according to the estimation of the number of non-residential casualties around Shinjuku station in the case of earthquake disaster which is supposed be happened in Tokyo Metropolitan areas. It is estimated that total number of non-residential population in the area are 300,000 in daytime of week days. Surveys were carried out on the number of pedestrians walking in the areas of west and east gates of the station and found out that 4-6,000 in the west and 2-10,000 in the east. According to the format of estimating injured, number of casualties in the west is estimated 80 stable in different time frames of the day, but in the east 35 in the morning, 85 in the afternoon and 100 in the evening. The similar estimation was carried out inside of buildings. The questionnaire surveys were also carried out to pedestrians in the west about the behavior on the day of March 11th 2011 East Japan earthquake. In conclusion, 67 injured in each 13 possible front line disaster medical service bases are estimated. Based on the distribution of Injured, 8 in the west and 5 in the east are needed. Several other facts and figures are presented in the study. The earthquake disaster of Tokyo metropolitan area have been worried. In order to prepare for the earthquake, a variety of organizations and companies, should consider a plan for it. However, the area around Shinjuku Station, because there are many people who do not have a good understanding of geography, needs the program to provide medical care is insufficient. In this study, we have to plan for disaster medical care at the time of the earthquake, understand the distribution of the population of the victim of Shinjuku Station. Based on the results, we examined the scale and layout of medical offices in the event of a disaster.
We conducted an inquiry survey of residents in wooden houses. Analyzing the relationship of the change of family structure, the seismic performance and the home renovation, we found the followings: (1) there are many demands for renovation due to a variety of residents'lifestyles; (2) there are no fixed patterns of renovation in designs and cycles. Professionals were seldom involved in the renovation to support residents'judgment. Residents have kept few books related home renovation; and (3) when residents gave priority to the plan of their houses, they easily removed important pillars or walls, which weakened the seismic performance.
This study aims to clarify the changes of relationship between Kujuku-shima islands, archipelago and inland in Sasebo City. Though a Kujuku-shima island was designated as national park due to its archipelago landscape from the view points, administration established the facilities not focusing on the landscape from view points and residents don't enjoy the landscape from view points. So, visitors don't see the archipelago landscape from view points but archipelago image. It can be said that national park administration should be put in operation with the regional culture.
This paper discusses the process of construction of Rokko Mountain in 1930s and the movement of scenic preservation against the development. Kobe Municipal Assembly and Kobe city led roads construction on the mountain with intention of tourism and residential area development, with provided property ward forests and a national subsidy. On the other hand, Hyogo Prefecture planned to designate Rokko Mountain as Scenic Areas under the City Planning Act with the viewpoint of scenic preservation and flood-control. These two actors were at loggerheads over designation of Scenic Areas. Kobe city gained acceptance their plan and drafted the individual development plan with the help of scholar's authority.
Authors have been conducting the field research under the title ‘Origin, Transformation, Alteration and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial cities’ since 1999. Focusing on the Spanish Colonial urban process and formation in Cuba，authors wrote several papers through the analysis of the colonial maps AGI(The Archive of the Indies in Seville- Archivo de Indias de Sevilla) collected. We pick up Habana, which was the capital of Cuba and one of the 14 walled Spanish colonial cities, as a target city here. Habana is thought as a prototype of early Spanish colonial cities. This paper discusses the formation of Habana Vieja (Intramuros) based on the analysis of the relationships between street blocks and house types. The average size of street blocks is 80vara×80vara and that of lots is 12vara×26vara. The houses are divided into three major types, sizes which are 20vara×40vara, 25vara×30vara, and 40vara×40vara. These numbers shows some basic method of planning existed, thought the whole street system does not follow strict gridiron pattern.
In the heavy snowy and cold cities, huge energy and cost have been spent for cleaning snow in urban area, especially in public area roads and pedestrian ways. It causes to the global warming, therefore cutting back on the emission of gases is required to the urban design in the snowy cities. Authors developed the block designs that reduce the snow accumulation on the public roads and pedestrian ways in downtown area Sapporo City, Hokkaido Japan. Four types of the block designs, individual developing type, unified height type, mountain shape type and close rounding type were compared how much accumulate snow in the public area with snow simulations using the wind tunnel. At the result, the block design with close rounding type should be most desirable design for reducing snow cleaning energy and emission CO2 gases in downtown area.
This paper aims to analyze that the half-opening social and spatial units in the city with expanding economy, Shanghai, China, in terms of living environment. The units used to be well-ordered system of the city, but the city order has half-opened because of the reform of housing policy. To capture the actual condition, I researched (1) How the target area has been changed, (2) How residents behave in the unit's common space, and (3) How they live in there (Interview about their lifestyle). I found that different kinds are coexisting within the half-opening units. These kinds are: public behavior and privatization, continuous community and influx, and lack of motivation and highmotivation for improving living environment.
It is well known, that in German Cities integrated planning of green open spaces and buildings is developed by the collaboration of Flächennutzungsplan and Bebauungsplan based on Baugeseztbuch and Landschaftsplan and Grünordnungsplan. But concrete information and consideration about it is few in Japan. And recently distributed rain water infiltration management concept is actively introduced in urban areas, and integrated rain water management with green open spaces becomes common base of urban planning. In this paper the trend and concept of integrated management of green space and rain water management is considered though four concrete examples of redevelopment in Munich.
This research manages to investigate the effects of kinds of urban regeneration methods by conducting questionnaire survey with the residents and tenants in "villages inside city" in China. Based on the surveys, the "rebuilding type" is good for thoroughly improving living environments and solving the problems of residents' livelihood, while it causes unaffordable rents to those previous tenants and usually excludes them from the rebuilt area. The Shenzhen's case, however, shows that the "gradually improvement type" can not only improve the living environments of "villages inside city" to an acceptable extent, but also keep the low-income tenants staying there. The Shenzhen's case reaches a good balance among all the participants, while it seems difficult to apply it to the "villages inside city" in inland cities. In future, the mechanism of urban regeneration which can both keep balances among all interests and match all regions even all "villages inside cities" need to be taken further consideration.
This study intends to consider the use of public housing policies in this era of aging and depopulation, focusing on utilization of public housing beyond the original purposes based on regional regeneration. Unintended use was researched through those who are in charge of its policy in Meimai-Housing-Complex, Uku-town, Abira-town, Nishinoshima-town and Ibigawa-town. It was confirmed it was used for the promotion of settlement and as places of local activities for building community. There is a movement to revise the Public Housing Law for entrusting local governments with income standards for residence. It is required to use it linked with local government policy to solve local problems in this era.
Open-Air Stages in Iida-Shimoina area had been built since late 18th century to the Showa 30s, especially 69 stages still exist. There are 11 rotation-stages, 1 stage for only puppet play, and the oldest existing rotation-stage is built in 1793. They have architectural features about a rotation-stage (Mawari-butai), a scenery window (Tomi), a instrument space (Dayuza), and so on. These stages had been used by kabuki, puppet, and local play till the Showa 30s. Some stages had been used for school buildings after Meiji era. After that, almost these have been repaired for local meeting spaces.
This paper aims to clarify the characteristics of Remained-architecture with Munamochi-bashira in "The investigation report collections of early modern shrines-and-temples architecture". As a result of this study, it became obvious that there were two characteristics of Remained-architecture with Munamochi-bashira in shrines-and-temples architecture. For one thing, there were Remained-architecture in stylized buildings like Shinmei-style shrines, Taisha-style shrines, Zen-style Sikyakumon or Obaku-style Kirizuma-danchigai. For another thing, there were Remained-architecture in no stylized buildings like Hakkyakumon with Gable roof, Oratory of shrines, or Buildings peculiar to Okinawa. Above all, compared with the former, the latter proved to be a minority group.
Kinhira-kouki tells us on an opening of business ritual at the house of the chief officer of kebiisi (in Kebiisichou-hajimeki, written by Saionji Kinhira in 1287) and a record of Shokunmon-In on the giving birth (Shoukunmon-In Osanguki, in 1303). The Buddhist rituals called Godanho is the ritual of the delivery, and it was taken place at the Samurai-rou corridor in Imadegawadono. The opening business ritual of the police Kebiishi was also held at the same location. In 1303, when the place for Godanho was prepared at the corridor, a wall dividing the north and the south had been constructed there and it made it difficult to extend the ritual space sufficiently as before. This wall was not depicted in the Godanho Sashizu drawn in 1265, therefore it tells us that the dividing wall in the Samurai-rou corridor of Imadegawadono was built between 1265 and 1303. This paper considers the reason for the establishment of the dividing wall, as well as linking it to an analysis on the examples of aristocrats Shinden-zukuri residences utilized as the office of police, Kebiishi.
This paper is based on the result of a measurement survey, and chronological order and restoration work. The basic format of the town house construction in Kobo and Enokidu is typified. This paper considers the meaning of some of those types. The basic type, front matter type, and posterior matter type of plan are considered to be the type produced to Kobo and Enokidu with short depth corresponding to the frontage scale. The closed type and the open type are considered to be the types resulting from the difference between a merchant and a craftsman.
This study classifies Okura-syo owned by Kaga domain located in Noto Province by analyzing the location of gates, gardens, and Okura and uncovers how each Okura-syo was established. Then, the difference in types is shown in comparison to the Okura-syo of Kaga domain located in Ettyû Province. Finally, it lists up several standpoints necessary to discuss the factors.
Ota-ya and Oyado were lodgings used by feudal lord for stay and rest in Kanazawa-Han during Edo-Era. Through the examination of several historical materials on such lodgings especialy in 1710's or 1720's, following results were ascertained; 1)Most of Ota-yas were built before 1670's and abolished before 1730's. 2)Ota-ya was built at the public expense but Oyado was built at owner's expense. 3)In some cases the site and building of Ota-ya were succeeded to Oyado and in some cases vice versa.
The present paper aims to clarify the characteristics of Chengilli Kilisesi, through comparative analysis on internal frame composition among its adjacent architectural culture in the same period. As a result, it is recognized that the unique composition of its drum with eight exedrae is similar to centralized domed Armenian churches, especially to the main body of the octafoil church at Varzahan, while conspicuous similarity is found between Chengilli Kilisesi and the churches in Tao-Klarjeti, in regard to usage of squinch-installed pendentives. This phenomenon implies that the characteristics of the plural architectural culture might be involved in this monument.
The aim of this study is to clarify the compositional characteristics of ‘waterway alley’ in Yashio, Saitama Prefecture. Waterway alley is defined as space composed of waterway and small backstreet nearby. Initially, personal properties set by the residents around the waterway alley are investigated. Secondly, direction of the main room and that of main approach of the buildings facing the waterway alley, are investigated. Finally, clarified are five compositional types of waterway alley in Yashio, which are based on the mechanism in mixture of building and urban environmental elements.
The focus of this paper is the Japanese modern architect, Yoshiro TANIGUCHI, who has left many writings about the term of “material”. I studied the meanings of the term, “material” in his writings and clarified how he interpreted the term of “material”. The meanings of the term, “material” which TANIGUCHI intend, includes the concepts of both the matter and the mind. Both of these concepts are concerned with the problem in the beauty of climate, function, structure, economic efficiency, and workability. Moreover, the concept of the mind is regarded as “a mind of research” and “a mind of design”.
Recently a number of buildings of important cultural property have been preserved while being publicly occupied. It has been apprehended through research that maintenance management of these buildings is necessary for judging the value of preservation. The questionnaire survey was conducted for modern important cultural property buildings being used and they are classified into four groups. Furthermore, interview surveys of Myounichikan, Shinohara's House and Tamozawa Imperial Villa are conducted and the actual condition of their maintenance management was clarified.
This study aims to obtain information of the potential supply of natural forest resources of Japanese cypress required to maintain the wooden heritage buildings. Prescribed conditions to maintain important cultural buildings are strict and require using the same building technique as well as using the same tree species of the same quality. To investigate the potential to ensure sustainable materials, it is necessary to estimate the forest resources that reflect the information on demand-side. A case study of Donjon of Ozu castle in Ehime prefecture, we calculated the necessary forest resources to build a Donjon based on height-diameter curve equation and taper curve equation of methodology technique of forest measurement. As a result, it is estimated that the construction of Donjon requires about 53.6ha forest resources. In addition, the required area could be 5 times larger than the estimation if we took account of the cutting ratio in forestry management.