In this paper, we have dealt with the fire spread speed at the time of the earthquake. We analyzed the data from the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. It has been expressed with the factor such as the district of urban area to be burnt, the complete collapse rate, the wind velocity and also time. From the burn-out area and the fire front length, the mean value of fire spread speed have been obtained. Furthermore the Dredictions of fire spread speed that are the mean value, the maximum value, and so forth have been examined. And we showed that we are able to predict the fire spread speed at the time of earthquake by using our fire spread model.
We conducted seven subjective experiments in order to clarify the effects of the direction of arrival, spatial distribution, temporal distribution and listening level of reflections on listener envelopment (LEV). As a results, it became clear that the contribution of a reflection on LEV depends on the direction of arrival of other reflections and that it is not possible to make independent evaluations. LEV cannot be adequately evaluated with a physical index that weights and integrates individual reflection by the direction of arrival like the lateral energy ratio. It is necessary to consider the mutual effects of reflections by some means and to quantify the spatial distribution of reflections. Accordingly, we proposed SBTs quantifying the spatial distribution of reflections using point of gravity time Ts for each direction and demonstrated that it is possible to obtain a good correlation with the psychological scores of LEV.
Speech intelligibility tests were carried out in an anechoic room using 3 different speech rate with simulated reverberation or background noise. The following results were obtained. (1) The intelligibility under reverberant conditions is greatly affected by speech rate, though that under noisy conditions keeps constant regardless of speech rate. (2) The intelligibility degradation of the aged by reverberation is larger than that of the youth. (3) STI and U_<80>(A) after Bradley (1986) are adequate only in limited speech rate. (4) WU_<80>(A) containing a weighting factor for reverberation is presented as a measure which correspond to intelligibility in various speech rate.
A new method is presented for predicting the floor impact sound of heavy large-span slabs (70-100 m^2). Compared to the conventional Impedance Method, which results in values around 10 dB higher than the measured values, the new method produces values which agree fairly well with measured values. A modified version of the conventional Impedance Method, used to measure floor impact sound and vibration response, was applied at numerous sites where large-span slabs were used. The main revisions are: the inclusion of the frequency dependency of the impedance increment of fixing girders, the adjustment of impedance decrement values according to natural frequency; and the modification of the radiation model.
Air-conditioning systems with floor thermal storage can be used for cutting peak load and utilizing nighttime electric power. For the effective use of this system, however, thermal energy must be stored during the night in a way that does not waste energy. In this paper, an optimal heat input to such a system is investigated under prescribed external climatic conditions by making use of the optimal control theory. An optimal heat input to a plenum chamber and an air-conditioned room is determined by minimizing a criterion function which requires little deviation in room temperature from a set-point and low energy consumption.
The hysteresis effects of ad-, de-sorption isotherm of ALC in hygroscopic humidity are analyzed. The treatment of hysteresis by the independent domain theory is described and the divided width of the distribution diagram is examined to increase the accuracy of calculation. It is important to consider the width to the accurate analysis of temperature and humidity in the material. The nonlinear calculations considering hysteresis are compared with the nonlinear calculations using the only boundary curve in the 6 days periodic temperature and humidity conditions of the ambient air. The amplitude of relative humidity in hysteresis calculations is larger than in the nonlinear calculations using boundary curve.
Air flow characteristics of cross-ventilation in and around 5 types of building models were examined in this paper. The examination cases of cross-ventilation were changed by the conditions of the openings and the angles of the approaching wind. Both methods of wind tunnel experiment and numerical simulation were employed. The air flow characteristics were discussed from the following 5 viewpoints: ventilation rate, main air flow path, wind pressure coefficient distribution, air velocity distribution and coefficient of pressure loss. The following findings were obtained: 1) The difference of wind pressure coefficient among models is within 0.2, even though the conditions of the openings were different and overall flow exhibits no substantial change around the building when the angle of approaching wind was 0°. The air flow passing through the windward opening ran downward. The coefficients of pressure loss of windward and leeward openings were not different. 2) The ventilation rate in 0〜45° angles of approaching wind was decreased in small amount and pressure coefficient was decreased with the increase of the angle of approaching wind by every 22.5°. The air flow keeping approaching wind direction ran straight after entering the windward opening.
Volatile organic compound (VOC) is one of the most important factors to control the chemical contamination in a cleanroom. The cleanroom material is one of VOC sources. Several methods for measuring VOC emissions from cleanroom materials have been developed. The chamber test method has been frequently used to evaluate VOC emission rate of cleanroom materials, but the result of this method is different from actual conditions (surface, airflow, temperature, humidity etc.). Then the new method of chamber test to measure VOC emissions from surface of materials was developed. The new chamber is made of glass and has the feature that VOC emissions from material surface are measured correctly. This report describes the characteristics of the double-cylinder chamber and provides an example of its function.
In this paper the authors showed the estimation process of the optimum number of the fixtures in a lavatory in the multi-purpose stadium. The authors estimated the optimum number of the fixtures in a lavatory using the data based on the data of past surveys, and verified the propriety of the estimation by the investigation of the real fixture usage conditions at the dome-N in Nagoya. Then following results were obtained. 1) The estimation process of the optimum number of the fixtures was proper. 2) The arrival rate of the spectators could be presumed by the data of past surveys. 3) The occupancy period could be estimated with Erlang distribution. 4) On the planning of the lavatories, it is necessary to consider the arrangement of the fixtures in addition to the optimum number of the fixtures
The synthetic evaluation on surface temperature of vegetation, solar shading of tree and so forth is essential to discuss the alleviating effect of thermal environment problems in urban areas. In this paper, it has been clarified relationship between urban revegetation and Heat Island Potential (HIP) which had been proposed by authors, in a typical summer day. It has been investigated the relationships between urban vegetation and HIP in typical 24 urban blocks which was selected by 8 types of land use and building density and 3 types of revegetation. It has been found that not only vegetation cover but also vegetation volume is important when the vegetation is evaluated on the viewpoint of thermal environment.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between the characteristics of urban structure and the size of the seismic fires in the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake at Jan. 17, 1995. Satellite remote sensing data was used to estimate the urban green coverage ratio around all break out points of seismic fires. As a comparison, the characteristics of the urban structure which were estimated by using (a) aerial photograph which covers the disastrous area before the earthquake and (b) the summing data of town information for each street in Kobe city were used. The results of the investigation were mainly as follows. (1) Indices of flammability (wooden building ratio and old building ratio) showed a weak correlation with the size of fires. (2) Floor area ratio and population density, which were indices of urban density, had almost no correlation with the size of fires. (3) There was almost no correlation between the urban green coverage ratio and the size of fires. (4) 93.6% of the disastrous fires broke out in the few green covered urban area (green coverage ratio was under 13.7%). (5) 44.4% of the out break points of the seismic fires in the part of the urban area with few green coverage spreads to conflagrations.
Aiming to know characteristics of heat transfer coefficient from urban surface to upper atmosphere, experiments were carried out by using a building array model set in a boundary layer wind tunnel. The results show that both of forced and natural convections influence heat transfer coefficient. Effect of forced convention upon heat transfer coefficient is remarkable more than that of natural convection. Composite expressions of Reynolds number Re and Grashof number Gr for Nusselt number Nu have been obtained for each surface; building and ground. These results are applied for the range of Re 3.0×10^3 to 2.6×10^4 and Gr 1.4×10^4 to 4.7×10^5.
Environmental loads of air pollution (NOx, SOx, Dust), water pollution (BOD, COD, SS) and industrial wastes are derived from 1990 input-output table in Japan. Quantities of environmental loads of each industrial sector are collected with various materials, and the final domestic productions of each industrial sector are calculated with Lcontief inversion, so that it is possible to calculate the environmental loads due to construction of buildings. Correlations of intensities among Nox, Sox and dust emissions are high, and same as among BOD, COD and SS. But intensities or air pollutions, water pollutions and industrial wastes are independent.
This paper describes how exergy stored in reinforced concrete walls are consumed at the stages of production and use. In the production of iron bars reinforcing concrete, 83% of the supplied exergy which includes the exergy of fossil fuels, raw materials, and water is consumed; the rest, namely 17%, is fixed within the bars. In the course of the use of the iron bars, 2 out of 17 of the fixed exergy is consumed due to degradation. In the production of concrete, 80% of the supplied exergy which includes the exergy of fossil fuels, raw materials, and water is consumed; the rest, namely 20%, is fixed within the concrete. In the course of the use of concrete, 5 out of 20% of the fixed exergy is consumed. Wall finish affects the amount of exergy consumption in the course of the use of the reinforced concrete walls. The rate of exergy consumption becomes smaller in the following order : no-finish, painted, mortared, and tiled. To make a good use of fossil fuels and raw materials, it is important that the fixed exergy within the walls is consumed as slow as possible.
The objective of this study is to analyze how the traditional settlements on the coastal zone have adapted or coped with the severe conditions of the coastal natural environment like strong wind and high humidity and salinity. We have chosen three typical settlements, which are situated on the different coastal land conditions. We have found out that these settlements have different indigenous and traditional tactics to mitigate and harmonize with strong wind by according to their land conditions. These skillful tactics are environmental friendly methods and can be adapted and pervaded in the worldwide habitations on coastal zone.
This study investigates dwellings in terms of behavioral environment, focussing on recent trends of seating style and composition of "behavioral places", in recently supplied dwelling units. Part 2 is report on the deployment of sleeping and other personal activities in dwelling. 1. In a half of the core-family cases, parents and children are sleeping in a same room. 2. In the most of childrens rooms are required desk and bed, the most of parents rooms are tatami-rooms. 3. Along with the life stage development, places of personal activities shift from public to private areas. 4. It is needed in planning method, to support reformation of behavioral environment.
This paper aims for to get the principle of the dwelling space planning for the intellectual disabled persons, by analysis on the research data about daily living schedule and questionnaire about behavior in housing. The available style of dwelling life is classified 3 types as follows, l) the specializing type for public and private space, 2) the partial type in public or private space, and 3) the spreading to housing type. The specializing type have problems for adaptability to circumstances because of the tendency to holding to the norm on living activities. The partial type and the spreading type have to be free from the persisting in their own behavior by the way of differentiation or continuation on living space for the arrangement their available style to be stabilizing and suitable in dwelling life with family or roommates.
This paper aims to put consideration of the house environment preparation for the severely mentally and physically handicapped children in shape. For this objective, fourteen children chosen from three different environments were surveyed by means of collecting communication-samples, interviewing with guardians and observations. Findings are as follows. 1) They are very aggressive to realize their interest-wants, and their realization behavior can be grouped into five patterns. 2) In their acquisition process of communication skills, each skill was affected by human element or material element or survices. 3) In present environment, it is important to get rid of preventions on each realization behavior pattern.
The through investigation works to observe the actual conditions of pupils' learning and living activities were undertaken at 39 classes of 7 primary schools. The actual situation of public primary schools' operation were revealed as follows,: 1) The public primary school activities consist of leaning, living activities and freetime. 2) The learning activities account for around 50% of school day and among them the practical learning activities amount to half. 3) Pupils stay at their classroom or its' vicinities for around 60〜70 % time of a school day.
This paper is aimed for to get the principle of planning on the industrial training facilities of the intellectual disabled person, by research on the working activities and rest-hours behavior. The working activities is analyzed at the points of view from the characteristics of behavior and available style with the relationship between commuters and staffs. The subjects of commutes have to be grasped from 3 aspects as personal, working-group and the whole facility unit. On the rest-hours analysis, it's remarkable to clarify the potential needs and the restrict condition for behavior. As a result, the essential factors the view from commuter's aspect<1)> and staffs<2)> are as follows, 1) to make arrangement the base area for commuters is important to spend time comfortably at the facility, 2)-1 the differentiation of working-space is necessary to adaptation for activities, and 2)-2 the appropriation is also required for to secure the capability in future.
In order to improve visibility of tactile indicators, sensory test was carried out using SD method for 15 vision-impaired people. The result shows that higher contrast between the indicators and adjacent flooring material is important even with yellow indicators are used. The result for visibility test was quite similar even if the color combination was inverse, however in the case of floor was constructed in checked pattern, higher contrast is required.
The purpose of this research is to elucidate the eye fixation behavior of the pedestrians. We analyzed the eye fixation object, the eye fixation distance and the eye fixation height. The result is as follows. (1) The pedestrians who are not familiar with the street-scape look at the building and the distant place. On the other hand, those who are familiar with it look the building, the passing people, the automobile and the road surface. (2) The angle of depression of the former is 4〜5°. And, the angle of elevation of the latter is 3〜4°. (3) The pedestrians can acquire information at a distance of 12m-14m, at a height of 3m.
This study considers the effect that form and size of a raised floor area have on spatial impressions and behavior. In two experiments, subjects were free to move about spaces in which the shape (3 variations) and size (25-75%) of a raised floor area were altered between experiences. In experiment 1, subjects were then asked their impressions on 6 topics (i.e. how many spaces were perceived, sense of confinement, concern for floor level differences, tendency to sit on edge of raised area, comfort level, which part is considered as the main space). In experiment 2, subject behavior (whether sitting or standing, and position) was recorded only by observation. The results show that for all three shapes, spatial impressions and behavior were different when the raised area was up to about 40-45% of total, than when it was larger.
Lifelong learning services by local municipalities have recently been considered not only in hard way such as facilities but also in soft way to support the affluent circumstances of rural inhabitants. In regards to the policy, means of networking in lifelong learning services have been called an attention in order to promote the activities effectively in the cooperation between facilities for activities and/or between municipalities. This paper dealt with networking and it's effects between local municipalities such as administrative offices of village, town and city. And the substances and areas of networking which work effectively were analyzed in the four service fields, namely, promoting organization, facilities for activities, learning program and providing information and the future direction of lifelong learning services by municipalities was also investigated.
In order to clarify the architects' consciousness of design for long-life buildings, a questionnaire survey was made for 640 persons belonging to design deparment of general cosntructors, large and small design offices, housing fabricators, public agencies. research institutes, educational insutitutions, and so on. The results show that about ninety percent of responders are interested in long-life building design. From the results of this survey, the barriers in design for long-life, estimated life span of existing buildings, estimated remaining years of buildings, consciousness of maintenance according to the building use, and consciousness of change of building use are presented.
The aim of this study is to clarify the paradigmatic characteristics of composition in Japanese contemporary urban buildings and their relationship to the main function of the buildings. The composition of public cultural institution, urban multistory buildings and atrium buildings, which are the materials in the former papers of the authers, are analysed by the framed volume and assorted in terms of the interior and exterior spatial relationship. Moreover types of composition whose relationship to their main function are clarified in the former papers are analysed in terms of the interior and exterior spatial relationship.
We explored the main zones accumulated stores by case study in Oguni-town, Niigata pref. The results are as follows: 1. Inhabitants often do their shopping in the zones where the stores are located on new arterial road. 2. The process of changes of the store location is various in the zones. The commercial center zone of the town in the past declines. 3. Composition of types of store changes in each zone. 4. Changes of arterial road intensely influence the store location. 5. Operation and relationship with community is different between the stores located on new arterial road and on old one.
In this paper, We considered about the border space of housing lot in rural settlement of paddy field on flatlands. We made field survey about elements of fence and gardenspace (hedge, garden plant, form of garden etc.), and carried out survey of questionnaire about evaluation of border space of housing lot. First we analyzed elements and composition of fence of housing lot. Next we classified front space of housing lot from 2 viewpoints. One is the condition of front space, the other is the position between fence and wall of the house. The main contents of this paper are as follows. 1) The view of front space of housing lot can be classified in 7 types. 2) These types are influenced by the location, the landuse, and types of road in front of the housing lot. 3) These results are useful for housing development and repair work of rural view.
In this study we made clear the spatial composition of a row shaped village in the Tonami Plain by a case study of "Higashi-kaihotsu" which has been classified into "a row shaped village" in our first report. We got to know that the arrangement of buildings in the premises was different from that of a dispersed village. We clarified the reason from the viewpoint of the relationship between the configuration of buildings and village composition. In addition, all the elements in the premises in a row shaped village were more strictly regulated by streets and watercourses than in a dispersed village. We considered it was caused by the location of a row shaped village which frequently suffered floods scince its establishment.
This paper discusses the changes of land ownership in the urban historical core of Ulsan City (Korea) in the period of Japanese occupancy (1910-45) based on the analysis of land register records. Ulsan city was not designated for the cities controlled by urban planning law which was set up in 1912 and 1934. The major purpose of this paper is to clarify the urbanization process of a Korean local city where the formal urban planning projects were not carried out. The focus of the study is the increase of the Japanese landowners and Japanization of the landscape. In the very beginning of occupation, Japanese already owned about 10% of the total land of the city centre where the old Ulsan castle had been located. The ratio of the land owned by Japanese went up to more or less 80% at the end of World war II . The process which the urban core had been replaced for the Japanese is very clearly traced from the analysis of a land register records.
The objective of this article is to develop a method to analyze characteristics of agglomeration of land use based on grid data. To this end, a method which uses the average ratios of edges of each end with the same and different kinds of land use (called as Edge Ratios : ERs) is formulated based on JOIN-COUNT statistics and Same Edge Ratio (SER). Among ERs, the average ratios of edges with the different kinds of land use are especially called as Different Edge Ratios : DERs. The expected value and the variance of DER are calculated and a statistieal test is formulated.
In this paper we tried to place all of design elements except buildings in urban design by classifying them. So we considered a change of function that urban spaces have been needed by design elements since MEIJI period till now. It was found that a change of function falls roughly into three categories. And respective forms of elements have been changed with a change of function. Accordingly we defined the term "Street Furniture" as all of design elements except buildings that are related to human out door life in urban spaces.
After Hyogo-ken nambu earthquake, many municipalities in Japan are remaking their earthquake disaster prevention plans. In those process, reliability of disaster estimation methods is important. Some municipalities have adopted an earthquake fire estimation method by Tokyo Fire Department. It basically is not an empirical method based on past earthquakes, but a logical method based on analyses of fire occurrence mechanism. This paper tests the method with the data of the fires in Hyogo-ken nambu earthquake. It proves that the estimation result of the method is reasonable and that the method is enough useful for making earthquake disaster prevention plans.
This paper refers to a few observations on development of historic preservation in the Medina of Fes, Morocco. The historic preservation originated with the cultural property preservation law promulgated by Lyautey under the French protectorate. Since the independence of Morocco, the Ministry of Culture has been in charge of the administration of the cultural properties protection. But with a view to be designated as World Heritage, practical management in the Medina of Fes shifted to the Ministry of Interior in 1970's. The Ministry of Interior established ADER for density decreasing and rehabilitation of Fes-Medina in 1989. Today ADER performs an important role in the historic preservation of Fes.
Workshop by a participation has been in a city planning and design in recent years. This workshop is effective method that bring forth an excellent plan and design. By the way I think that workshop is opportunity as community making learnning for the people who are related there. The parpose of this paper is to evaluate the process of the serial workshop for Teine Station renewal project. Through this serial workshop participant's affection and sensitivity toward their living environment was raised, and trust relation between residents and administration raised mutually, and so on.
The purpose of this study is to consider the characteristics of urban space in Kyoto based on the analysis of the distribution of small ritual facilities on the streets which called zizou. Zizou was not paid enough attention as a core of urban space because of its small size and complicated origins. But from the viewpoint of urban community organization, zizou can be the important element of urban community for it is worshiped by inhabitants everyday. Locations of zizou reflect the common consciousness of community because they are distributed on the streets where they consider it suitable to pray up to the present. And now we can find out several types of locations of zizou. This paper clarifies what zizou means in the urban space and how these types of locations took part in the organizing urban space in kyoto.
This study describes some lessons learned from the various surveys with the citizen groups concerning transportation and environmental issues in Germany. First, the citizen groups were born in the late 1960s and developed afterward to be the officially registered associations. They have accomplished the significant results in revising and implementing the transportation policies. Second, there are some community projects accomplished by the partnership between the local governments and the registered civic associations. Third, the officially registered civic associations in Germany have played the significant roles in putting forward the urban planning and policies through citizen participation process.
One of the problems in the field of Japanese historic preservation is the lack of economic point of view. On the contrary, the National Trust for Historic Preservation takes into account economic points in the Main Street Program. The Program is to develop a comprehensive revitalization strategy that would stimulate economic development within the context of historic preservation. The historical significance of the Main Street Program is that it reflects a growing concern among grassroots groups to preserve their own historic heritage. This paper, as an introduction to the Program, makes clear what is the Main Street Program and the transformation of the relationship between public and private looking through the history at the inception.
The noticeable point of The Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake is enormous damages in inner city, especially in wooden clustered houses area. In order to generalize the damages of clustered houses, we have made comprehensive surveys in 4 areas where had different kind of earthquake shock. (3 areas had a shock with seismic intensity of 7, the other had with 6) The purpose of this study is making following points clear. 1. The factor of damages in the wooden clustered houses areas. (The relationship of structure, arrangement, construction time to the degree of damages) 2. What the wooden clustered houses areas used to be before the earthquake.
The establishment of Gamagori Hotel in 1934 was supported by the Government to attain foreign currency. Hotels by the Government were 14 in Japan, and called "Kokusai Kanko Hotel". The aim of this paper is to make clear states of Gamagori Hotel and its development of tourist resort for foreign tourist. Gamagori Hotel and its surroundings constructed by Gamagori-cho and Nobushiro Taki during 1930s had been developed under a plan of development of tourist resort. Gamagori Hotel designed by Takashi Kuno, who was a former architect of Japanese Government Railways at that time, was recognized to be an architecture of Railways. Its design was referred to Nara Hotel and Momoyama-Style to reflect interests of foreign tourists.
It was during Taisho and early Showa period when hotels, the accommodation facilities which have their origins in Europe, established themselves in Japanese cities as urban facilities. The aim of this study is to define the concept of the hotels of this period through examining how authorities, hotel planners, and the general public perceived the hotels. This examination leads to the conclusion that Japanese hotels of this period were the accommodations that were characterized by the combination of private guest rooms and variety of rooms with specific functions that had been made possible by improvement and expansion of equipment.
In this paper, we analysed the compiled background and bibliography of the "GONG CHENG ZUO FA ZE LIE", and made clear the characteristic of composition of this book, through comparison with the "YING ZAO FA SHI". This book is composed of "Zuofa" (design technique) and estimations. In the "Zuofa-Damu" 27 kinds of buildings were selected, and not only the "kiwari" but also the calculated actual dimensions were written about in detail. This is the big difference between these two books. The estimation standard of every item of trade is presented in detail. The "GONG CHENG ZUO FA ZE LIE" regards the practical use as important, and it is composed comprehensively and systematically for the architectural design standard.
The purpose of this study is to make clear the topological structure in Kamigamo-area through the analysis of the relation between 'Kamo' shinto ritual and myth. The first, we show the specialty of the north boundary of Kamowakeikazuchi-jinja's fief (§2). The next, we point out that the progress of 'Kamo' shinto ritual bears a striking resemblance to the unfoldment of 'Kamo' myth (§3〜§5.2). In conclusion, it is suggested that 'Kamo' shinto ritual reproduces the myth world, and the spacial structure of the holy places which opens to Kitayama (north mountain range in Kyoto) is one of the primary factor of the myth world's emargence (§6).