The thermal performance and occupant's behavior of about 1000 detached houses in Tohoku city area and in Sapporo and Futyuu as references were investigated in winter of 1992 by means of questionnaire and liquidcrystal thermometers. Since the same investigation have been conducted in winter of 1982, the change during 10 years in such thermal performance and occupant's behavior of houses was analyzed. The results are shown as follows: 1. It was found that cities of Tohoku area could be divided into 4 groups from the viewpoint of thermal performance and occupant's behavior. Aomori was similar to Sapporo, and these of Tohoku city area become more and more like Sapporo during 10 years. 2. In 10 years ago there were a little difference in performance level of thermal insulation and air-tightness between Tohoku city areas. But the performance of thermal insulation and air-tightness in Aomori and Morioka was improved during 10 years, and it was similar to Sapporo. 3. Average air temperatures in living room and bed room of all houses during heating time after supper were 19.6℃ and 12.8℃. respectively. Average living room is 1.5〜3℃ higher than in 10 years ago.
Results of wind tunnel experiments on the concentration fields within urban street canyons are presented. The concentrations within such canyons are highly dependent on stability conditions. Even in a street, parallel to the wind direction, reverse flow seems to occur except under very stable stratified conditions. The mean concentration within the street canyon can be estimated from the pollutant exhaust flux, the flow rate of the cavity eddy and the recirculation ratio of pollutant. Concentrations estimated from the SRI street canyon model are roughly in agreement with wind tunnel results and the coefficients used in the model can be estimated from measurements of the flow field in the canyon.
Results of laboratory measurements on the thermal performance of the floor-supply displacement ventilation system in comparison with a displacement ventilation system with sidewall mounted diffuser and a ceiling based distribution system are described. The experiments were performed in a controlled chamber configured to resemble a modern office space with modular workstation furniture and partitions. In addition to detailed measurements of temperature, air velocity, and tracer gas concentration, a skin temperature controlled thermal manikin was used to evaluate the non-uniformity of thermal environments produced by these systems. Thermal stratification was observed in both of the displacement ventilation systems which produced greater air temperature differences than the ceiling based system. Under the conditions of the appropriate supply air volume against indoor heat load the displacement ventilation systems could be operated to maintain acceptable thermal comfort and high ventilation efficiency in the occupant zone of the space, at the same time taking advantage of the temperature stratification to achieve energy savings in air conditioning.
The purpose of this study is to understand quantitatively an optimal operation effect of a hybrid energy source system with thermal storage tank introduced into a middle scale office building. Method of Changing One Parameter at a Time is used for optimization in this paper, that is a method for calculating optimal manipulated values without curse of dimensionality. The object functions are primary energy consumption minimum, demand charge minimum and peak electrical demand minimum. The results are as follows : 1) hourly changes about the amount of heat, the electric power, the gas flow rate, the outlet water temparature and partial pump load ratio of energy source equipments differ according to the object function, 2) each optimization of energy source system enables to achieve energy conservation, running cost saving or electrical demand shifting effectively, 3) achievement degree of the optimal operation effect depends on the operating method of the energy souce equipments ( e.g. on-off or inverter operating).
This paper (part-1) discussed the changes of inhabitants' consciousness to their residential environment for 13 years, using two surveys at 3 areas in Tokyo (in 1979-80 and in 1992). Fifty items composing the residential environment were analyzed by the extended method of MSA, and the changes of the chain structures of inhabitants' dissatisfactions were clarified. Main results were summarized as follows; the inhabitants seemed to have considered private garden as part of the house in 1979-80, but this cognition was slightly faded for 13 years. Public garden and walking path became to own part of the role of private garden in common. The same change as private garden also occurred in the structure concerning on air pollution.
We proposed a "Breathing Wall," a climate-conscious architectural member with multi-airlayered body constructed of aluminum foil sheets having many fine circular perforating holes installed in the wood panel, in order to be used in a passive ventilation system designed for a temperate and humid climate region. One-dimensional numerical simulation model of the horizontally situated "Breathing Wall" was constructed considering simultaneous transfer of heat, air, and moisture, based on available/obtained data. The numerical simulation, obtaining the result fitting our experimental data, was found to reproduce characteristic phenomena in a steady state inside the "Breathing Wall."
The purpose of this study is to make clear the characteristics of the relation-ships between utilization time and area of play-lot and between utilization time and condition of play-furniture, by investigating 18 play-lots. Investigation was made twice (two days) on one play-lot. The results of this study are as follows; 1. On the same play-lot, average utilization time of one day is similar to that of another day. 2. The average utilization time is different between play-lots of different areas, and between different conditions of play-furniture. 3. The longer average is about fifty minutes and the shorter average is about twenty-five minutes. The average utilization time of smaller play-lot is shorter.
The objective of this paper is to understand the interrelationship between the location of convenience stores and socioeconomic data in the vicinity, using the geographical information system(GIS). The discriminant analysis is applied to actual data collected in the City of Tsukuba to explain the existence of convenience stores in each of its 185 districts. We found that the number of households, the volume of traffic, and the number of large scale shopping facilities (such as supermarket or department store) in the district are positively related to the existence of convenience stores, while the number of persons per household is negatively related. This last variable is believed to show a rural characteristic of the neighborhood. The overall ratio of correct prediction by the model is 78 percent. The use of the GIS is effective in graphically displaying the result of analysis as well as in manipulating socioeconomic data as inputs into analysis.
The aim of this study is the first step to establish a way of planning to make the common space in nursing homes more active. From a series of the video scenes we took in the nursing homes, we picked up a lot of scenes where testees reacted. On the plan of the nursing homes, we wrote in the places and directions where they reacted, analyzed the relation between their cognitive reaction and space based on it, and clarified the factors of space that caused their cognitive reaction.
It promote a measure that purpose of community formation every local government. The main issue investigates and analyzes yokohama city that advanced instance of the measure as a case study. They built institution which names call the district center as foothold institution of community from 1973 in yokohama city. And an institution of 52 building exists at present in 1995. The object zone level and institution scale of district center show a change. Institution contents show change of use for room too. We sought the guide plan of community center from these consideration.
This paper is a typological analysis of the correlation between the framing system and the spatial composition in Japanese traditional timber houses. Focussing on the adjoining system between core and outer structure, the transfer routes of roof load are classified by criteria: inside or border of room, inside or border of main frame. Analyzing the arrangement of columns supporting the roof frame, three types of supporting system are characterized, such as column supporting, torii supporting, and girder supporting. Considering the tendency to omit columns inside rooms and coexistence of various types of transfer routes, a series of development stage of framing systems are clarified.
The purpose of this study is to compare perceived room dimensions - made from reclining versus standing postures - to actual room dimensions. The perceptions of subjects are reported for survey in a full-scale room with adjustable wall and ceiling-surfaces. The combinations of the three different ceiling heights and the three different (square) floor areas were presented randomly. The Method of Comparative Judgment was used; each subject was asked to estimate room dimensions using either the Method of Adjustment or Magnitude Estimation. It is concluded that: 1. From either posture, perceived ceiling height corresponds more closely to the actual as floor area increases; however, the more accurate judgments are made from reclining postures; 2. Room depth was perceived more accurately from standing postures; 3. From either posture, room volume was perceived to be larger when ceiling height was perceived to be higher or the room depth was perceived as smaller; 4. Room volume was perceived more accurately from reclining postures.
Moving walkways and escalators have become increasingly popular in department stores, supermarkets, railway stations, airports and other large buildings. However, in view of the tremendous increase in the number of elderly pedestrians, further improvement of the safety operation of moving walkways and escalators is now a major concern. Elderly pedestrians on moving walkways and escalators are most likely to be injured because most accidents involving the elderly result from loss of balance. Moving walkways and escalators must be designed to reduce the number of injuries incurred by the elderly as they contribute the largest percentage to total injuries. The approach was to examine the speed design of emergency stopping from the standpoint of its ability to mitigate falling hazards related to elderly people. In this study, differences in the brake function were experimentally investigated with an originally devised linear accelerator. Ten elderly and five younger people participated in a series of experiments. They were asked to stand upright on a movable cart of the linear accelerator. This was then operated at different decelerating modes. From the experimental results, we suggest a better decelerating mode and revision of JIS and CEN standards for emergency stopping of moving walkways and escalators.
Sarue-Uramachi housing estate is one of the eariest slum clearance project, through building modern midium-rise apartments in Japan. This paper examines the practice of Dojunkai-Foundation for reconstruction planning of the Great Kanto Earthquake in terms of the relationship between the process of planning the apartments and the land readjustment project. The findings are: l)The plan of this housing estate had been carried out gradually affected by the progress of land readjustment project. 2)In the plan, proper purposes in the various phases were accomplished, such as mixed community. 3)As a result, the housing complex consisted of public housing and a variety of community facilities was completed.
The Purpose of this study is to consider the principles of space formation of Jaipur City which is known as so called a grid (chess board) city. Jaipur City designed by Jai Singh II(1688-1743) is thought to had been constructed based on the Hindu cosmology, about which many scholars are still discussing. This paper discusses the planning theory in terms of measurement systems of streets' width and length, systems of deviding the block(Chowkri) and the distribution of the religeous facilities through the analysis of 43 sheets of City Map(l925-28). The reason why we pick up Jaipur is to compare Cakranegara(Lombok, Indonesia) which was found as a colonial city of Balinese Hindu kingdom in the same period of early 18th century. This paper clarifies the sizes of the block are different in reality place by place but simple measurement system were introduced in the beginning. We show the process of city development according to streets' system and the disordered periphery was occupied by muslims.
This paper deals with the application in Dijon of a safegarded sector created by the enactment by the Malraux Law. Under this system the Safegard and Development Plan(PSMV) which is the only city planning document pertaining to the safegarded sector should be established by the architect designated by the mayor in cooperation with the Local Safegarded Sector Commission. In reality the PSMV is established by the authority responsible for city planning in Dijon. In the graphic document, buildings to be demolished are indicated in yellow and grounds to be constructed in red in order to restore traditionl landscape.
In this paper, we discuss a new decision support method, by which a construction manager can get effective informations to solve following problems. Should the work be continued by the present organization of labor teams? If not, should it be reorganized now or when should it be? Simulation and optimization tools are developed to give the informations effective to solve the problems. Applying the method to some examples, the method is confirmed to be effective.
This paper is the second report on design system of vernacular timber houses by Japanese master-builders. Japanese master-builders "DAIKU" usually construct timber houses by their own design without design by architects. The design drawings consist of "ITAZU", 'HASIRAZUE", 'TUKAJYOUGI", 'KITYOUMEN", 'KOYADANMENZU" and the main drawing is "ITAZU" which illustrates the basic timber structure planning. In this report, we clarified the method and process of design of vertical members by "HASIRAZUE", "TUKAJYOUGI", "KITYOUMEN", 'KOYADANMENZU" which are not only measuring tools but also very simple full size drawings, and pointed out that "BANTUKE" which worked for XY-horizontal coordinates could decide the position and direction of each member and "HASIRAZUE" which worked for Y-vertical coordinates could decide vertical position of the connections of column members and horizontal members.
The following are the results of two investigations in 1981, 1994 about residential mobility in Nagoya. (1)The residential mobility of families with elderly persons(especially, those comprising only elderly members 65 years old and over) has increased. The ratio of housing demand by residential mobility is about 47%, and has also increased recently. (2)Their residential mobility are classified into ten types. One of them, the small families (one-person households, husband-and-wife households) with elderly people may be defined as unstable in terms of residential life after moving. (3)The main reasons of their residential mobility are the dilapidation of their residences and the desire to live near their separated families. (4)The degree of living conditions has deteriorated by residential mobility. (5)The reasons of residential mobility or the living conditions after moving are varied for ten types.
This paper deals with the role of housing development by estate campanies, through the case of Kansai Tochi Co. Ltd., which were founded in the middle of Taisho era. Tomosaburo TAKEHARA, the President of Kansai Tochi Co. Ltd., former a stock broker, was actively engaged in the housing enterprises by merging many estate companies, and the way of his housing management was to speculate in the housing estates as if they had been the stocks. He not only took over the business of merged estate companies but employed excellent managers and architects. Especially, Ohmino Den-en Toshi which had been developed by Kansai Tochi Co. Ltd. and MORISHOUJI District in Osaka City which was the project of a land readjustment system, were developed into the residential areas with excellent quality. But the company was in financial difficulties because it owned too many housing estates and a balance between supply and demand couldn't be kept during the war. It disappeared unexpectedly after the war in spite of developing land remarkably.
This paper is a discussion on the Chinese settlement of Nagasaki depending its composition from Tenmei to Bunka, in the late Edo period.Conclusion as follows: 1. "Tojin-beya" have a different composition from each other, and "road" have a concrete form which run through in the area devided to pieces. "Shiten" and "Jibun-hushin" were built in various place, with various style. 2. "Byo" buildings and "road" correspond to a direction, and it have a meaning like a base. 3. As a result, the composition of the settlement from Tenmei to Bunka period, is a complicated one, and a scene which consists of different buildings and roads is making a characteristic, city-like space.
Temples and shrines constructed by Hideyori are important architecture in Momoyama era. Upon Investigation, 90 temples and shrines proved to be constructed by Hideyori. The situations of the construction are divided into 4 different periods by the political conditions of Hideyori and different situations are found clearly in each areas divided into Yamasiro, Sekkasen, Yamato, and out of Kinki. These difference among periods and areas suggests rule of fiefs is one of the main reason for Hideyori to make such large construction.,
This study discusses the architecture of the "Syoushi"(a small shrine). That following become clear through the examination of shrines and temples in Inagi-city, Tokyo. ・Some of the "Syoushi" were built or repaired when famines and disasters struck in the Edo period. The circumstance of the time affected architectural quality of the "Syoushi", and the simple style was agreed with economic demand and restrictions of time. ・Local carpenters built the "Syoushi" based on consensus of a community. From above,we can say it's the nameless "Syoushi" which indicates the sign of urgent helps utterd by people in the Edo period.
Originally defined as "things to equip one's way", the term dogu involves the concept of courtesy. This paper deals with Dogu-Hinagata (Japanese Traditional furniture Reference Book) on the ways to design, select and set dogu. Our study aims at making historical and cultural evaluations of Dogu-Hinagata through the analysis of the changes to the books and their architectural repercussions. To be more specific, Dogu-Hinagata can be categorized into two types. One emphasizes the concept of courtesy, and the other elucidates the design aspect. In this paper, we have concentrated on the former type and organized 53 works into 11 groups based on their bibliographical backgrounds. The 11 groups consists of 4 types from the 15 works of Kuge origin, and 7 types from the 38 Buke works .
The buildings of the Ministry of Justice (1888-1895, restored in 1995) and the Supreme Court (1889-1896), in which a hoop-iron construction was adopted, were designed by the German architectural firm Ende & Bockmann. The French engineer J. Lescasse had used this method in Japan in the 1870s and it was introduced in Germany in the 1880s through professional publications. Ende & Bockmann regarded it as the best earthquake-proof construction in combination with cement-mortar for a brick building. The construction derived from Lescasse was reintroduced through the buildings designed by Ende & Bockmann.
Prior paper pointed out that the theory of world-style in architecture stated by Uheiji Nagano and the others at the end of Meiji era had been stimulated by the article of "The Builder" in 1907. Present paper demonstrates that the theory of world-style was much related to the trend of thought and thinking pattern of that time in Japan by pointing out the similarity between the theory in architecture and ism and assertion in the world of speech and writing in the Meiji era.
The purpose of this paper is to show the early activities of the Swedish architect E.G.Asplund and to consider the background of his training days. It may offer an important key in understanding the starting place of his architectural conception. The question is the thought of his teachers at Royal Institute of Technology and "Klara School". It was observed that most of his teachers were the leading figure of National Romanticism. The point to be examined is the character of Asplund's works and it could be concluded that the character of National Romanticism was considerably reflected in his early works.
The present paper investigates how J.J.P. Oud interpreted normalisatie and what significance he attached to it in the field of architecture in the late 1910's, when he won worldwide fame as a modern architect. The attempt was made through: (a) reflecting upon how Oud viewed machines, on which his consideration of normalisatie was based, in the article "Kunst en machine"; (b) examining his references to normalisatie mainly in the article "Bouwkunst en normalisatie bij den massabouw; and (c) studying how he embodied normalisatie in the project "Straatcompositie (normalisatie)," in which his intention of introducing it into the architecture is confirmed.
In Australia, verandaed houses were gradually developed to gain their originality. This research examines the classification, function and area of veranda. It based on 40 samples of verandaed houses in New South Wales which were built from 1788 to 1850. Plan of veranda were classified into 5 types ; Straight, L-shape, Triple-side, Combination, Enclosed. Further, comparative analysis were done on the ratio of the verandaed area and it became clear that verandaed area has two kinds of function such as service circulation and enlarged living space and average of verandaed area is 28% of total area of house.
Hobert in Tasmania is an English penal settlement from 1804. This research analyzes the design process of Hobert Government House by James Blackburn, who was sent to Hobert in 1833 as a convict and played a vital role in Tasmania as an architect after self-education. It became clear that the order of his four proposed design should be rearranged. In design process, composition of plans and elevations of his studies were refined from symmetry to asymmetry and styles were begun with Classicism, changed to Gothic and Italianate, returned to Classicism again, and finally ended with Gothic.
The aim of this paper is to propose a description model for 3-D CAD system and some of utilities required to make the system an attractive tool of schematic design studies. This paper analyzes relationship of design thinkings and the way of visual representations as well as the trend of their transition, reviewing 845 visual representations of sketches and model photos produced in different stages of 20 projects by 15 designers. Showing that it is a common procedure for designers to use visualizing elements of three major types and that seven subtypes, as their design advances from a vague and abstract design stage to a concrete design stage, the authors proposed a description model for 3-D CAD system : A) Reference Element (A-1 Reference Line, A-2 Reference Sign) B) Space Element (B-1 Space Node, B-2 Space Slime, B-3 Space Block) C) Building Element (C-1 Fundamental Object, C-2 Custom Object) They also pointed out that a description models of the STEP or the IFC, that have been developed to describe designed building (product model,) should introduce several sub-types the authors have proposed to support schematic design development process, and that a CAD system should allow designers to develop their designs manipulating both Space Elements and Building Elements reciprocally.
The purpose of this study to propose a method of analysis on spatial evaluation considering constitution of sections members' attributes. The authors taking a branch office of a large company as the case, examined relationships of worker's evaluation on their office spaces and their physical conditions. As the method to fined out the physical conditions causing the dissatisfaction of workers, the authors proposed an indicator that estimates evaluation points of each section according to the constitution of sections members' attributes. The efficiency of this method was proved by the fact that the 2 parts of 3 problems' causes were explained.
A natural language processing technique and reasoning techniques are united to create a computational model representing the process of updating and maintaining knowledge about spatial relations. Assumptions and a method of incremental knowledge acquisition from a natural language discourse are proposed An interactive system that understands sentences describing spatial relations is implemented. The system determines the reference of anaphoric expression from the literal meaning of the input and the implicit meaning derived from the context. The topological representations of the spatial relations that satisfies every sentence in a discourse are generated from well-formed descriptions composing the discourse.
I would like to discuss on the three points as mentioned below as your paper. 1. The name of roof (floor) materials should be "arka" instead of "agatu".2. The method of scale cited is not necessarily commonly used in Tibet. Moreover, what is mentioned in Chinese notation tend to differ considerably from the original Tibet, thus it should not be taken as it is.3. As against an act meaning 'to sit' in Tibet, "gdan" should be used as the most characteristic things.
The authors are grateful to Mr. Teruyuki Oiwa for his discussion. The lack of description of the notation used in our paper might have led to his questions. The answers are as follows ; 1) In this study, we selected the pinyin method that combines sounds into syllables. The name of "agatu" in Chinese is "ar ka" in Tibetan. 2)The notation should be selected according to the purpose and method of the paper.