This research explores how to plan resettlement after natural disasters through case study of Tamaura-West district, Iwanuma-city, Miyagi prefecture which is one of large-scale relocation sites most rapidly completed in restoration from the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. This paper clarified characters of behavior by the residents of Tamaura-West district through analyzing actual condition of the household separation and reorganization.
Characters of family structure in coastal area of Iwanuma-city before the disaster is 1) multi-generation family is major and mutual aid based on rural community remain, 2) nuclear family is increasing as aspect of suburbs of Sendai-city. It is clarified through interview research that the residents intend to keep their households and maintain their family relationship because they need to care their old parents or young children or they have to follow custom of the community. However, it is often difficult to realize the intention due to economic difficulties or disagreement of their family. In the case it is clarified that the residents try to maintain their family relationship with idea about the way of living (cf. living together again or living near etc.) even if their household is different from it before the disaster.
In addition, this paper examined location of characteristic behaviors of the residents described above in the trends of whole the district with questionnaire for all households of the district. As the result it is clarified that just over 30% of the residents experienced separation with their family in the process of evacuation and just over 60% of them (just over 80% in self-reconstruction households) maintain their family relationship with idea about the way of living. it is difficult and even undesirable in some cases in restoration and relocation from tsunami disaster to reconstruct the living environment which is physically same before the disaster. However, it is possible to alternate or recover previous functions with some social relationship even if living environment was changed. Based on the results, the behaviors of the residents are understood as efficient for mitigation of problems concern to drastic change of living environment caused by environment transition.
The behaviors to maintain family relationship described above are possible with some range of choice for dwelling and planning of Tamaura-West district contribute to expand the range of choice for the residents. Household separation is trend continued before the disaster. On the other hand, the residents alternate or recover previous functions of caring their family member with ideas of way of living, for example, living near with multiple generation or keeping relations with previous neighborhood in the district etc. It is confirmed with answer for reason of selecting the present house and settlement that the ideas of way of living are realized through characters in the planning of the districts, such as mixture of housing types (support of self-construction of own house, supply of disaster public rental house), succession of previous communities in relocation (keeping previous neighborhood in the district, adjustment of plot to move in) based on rapidity of project progress and convenience of location for their living.
On the other hand, there are various restrictions or struggle due to existing customs and restoration institutions about family and living. They sometimes have negative affect on the activeness in behaviors the residents.
In recent years, a phenomenon called 'Kinkyo' which is living near by is attracting attention, but it is not performed to grasp the actual situation in detail.
this study performed questionary survey to grasp the situation of 'Kinkyo' in the suburbs detached housing development.
At first, we performed that we confirmed the family type every household because a phenomenon called 'Kinkyo' was to occur in the relations with a household and the household. Therefore we performed the trial for a new family type to confirm the situation that we could not grasp with the existing family type. we ware able to thereby classify the families who were not able to finish grasping it in the existing national censuses.
Second, we confirmed it about the quantity, distance, the relations with the partner about a point whether was that how doing 'Kinkyo'. As a result, the household where a family was with the exchanges was able to confirm that 80% lived in the distance within 60 minutes more than once a month. In addition, there was more 'Kinkyo' of parent and child than other relations, and there were more relations between the women including the wife's parent and the daughter and was able to confirm that it was near. Furthermore, we was able to confirm that the ratio that 'Kinkyo' did near was high when we watched the situation of 'Kinkyo' in 10 higher types in a family type so as to be young in the second generation families so as to be old in families of one generation.
Finally, we confirmed it about a point whether was that how became the exchanges in the relations of parent and child with much 'Kinkyo' in particular. As a result, the contents such as a conversation and a meal there became many in total, but a characteristic was different when we watched it according to a family type, for example it increase taking care of the grandchild than others in a child care household and the generation of these parent, and the parenthood of the woman was able to confirm more things that we exchanged here. Furthermore, in the generation about 60 generations, we ware able to confirm the actual situation that a thing and the care of the parent that took care of the grandchild were piled up.
In recent years, a building-type facility has been planned to meet the installation standards of even harsh location conditions and realize an attractive childcare setting. Because of the need for a daycare center in an urban area with many childcare needs, approaches that are more diverse are being sought. We thought that organizing the planned trends of childcare facilities in recent years would be effective as data to fully understand childcare facilities and for future planning.
The purpose of this paper is to organize the history, academic articles, cases of journals and planning history about nursery schools, kindergartens, and "NINTEI KODOMO-EN" from the post-war period to today, as well as to organize them as materials for design.
The survey is outlined as follows:
1) The subjects of the analysis were 108 papers reviewed for kindergarten / childcare using J-STAGE during the survey period of November 2017, as well as 108 peer-reviewed papers on childcare and garden structures among papers published by the Children's Environmental Society.
2) Of the 546 cases of childcare facilities published in architectural magazines, drawings and basic information of the entire facility are published, and 373 cases are targeted, excluding duplicates.
For these cases, the concept of “playground” was classified into seven forms, and the relationship between the nursery room and playroom / terrace was classified into four forms. Based on these relationships, the space composition is categorized, and an analysis is performed from items such as childcare systems and papers, construction year, and area.
The study results are summarized as follows:
1) Key findings from this article
Even after the establishment of the kindergarten education guidelines in 1956, which were active through 1967, there was a lack of published information, such as number of papers and cases, spatial composition types, and paper keywords. This directly correlates to a major trend related to the changing times. Eventually, childcare began attracting attention. One example of this is the creation of childcare guidelines in 1965 and, again, in 1984. From 1973 to 1987, the number of published cases increased and the spatial composition type diversified. The number of cases increased regarding research on buildings and management in papers, and the viewpoint of research expanded to activities of kindergarteners and childcare workers. In 2009, a rapid increase in waiting-time children was strongly recognized as a social problem, and as nursery school needs increased, new types of daycare facilities were introduced through the development of childcare philosophies and methods, as well as the revision and relaxation of laws. As a result, the spatial composition of the examples is diversifying.
Thus, it was determined that when organizing buildings taken up at each time, such as papers related to childcare and buildings and enforcing childcare-related laws, a series of paths was found:
・A new system is created as the situation changes and the childcare philosophy develops.
・The range of plans under the new system is expanded and recognized.
・Synergistic effects with new design and childcare philosophies.
・Shape as architecture.
・Research is performed based on the interests and concerns regarding these architectures and the need for verification.
・Childcare and its subsequent environments are developed in a ring structure from which new systems are born.
In 2012, the Japanese government revised the Child Welfare Act to improve support for children with severe disabilities. Previously, inpatient facilities were classified according to type of disability. However, after the law's revision, these facilities were merged into the category of 'medical-type facilities for children with disabilities'. Such facilities must adhere to standards for number of staff, room types, and room sizes, but not for floor plan or layout. Further, the facilities have not performed adequate verification of changes in facility usage and requirements. In a previous study 'Usefulness of the new layout at Center K', the results were as follows.
1) It is useful for bedroom configurations and each bedroom to include oxygen and suction equipment.
2) It is useful to have various bedroom configurations that can accommodate children with a high need for a single room. However, this previous study did not include an analysis on the actual use of each bedroom type (single room, twin room, and quad room) and the bedroom arrangement policy for children with various severities of disability.
This study aimed to verify the usefulness of the bedroom configuration (single room, twin room, and quad room) for children with various severities of disability at Center K. We investigated the following five aspects:
1) Children's severity of disability by bedroom type
2) Children's usage rate of locations by severity of disability, need for medical care, and bedroom type
3) Management policy and actual use of bedroom arrangement for children (number of placed children, change of bedroom, children who need medical care, children admitted for a short stay, and children with siblings)
4) Differences in nurses' nursing actions by bedroom type
We selected Center K as the site for this case study. The center is a new medical-type facility for children with disabilities built in 2016 near the older facility for children with motional disabilities. We performed field research at the center in 2016.
1) We recorded the size, position, and orientation of furniture and beds in each facility type.
2) We collected resident demographics including age, sex, and primary diagnosis and severity.
3) We observed and recorded locations, behaviors, and postures of nurses, doctors, nursery teachers, children, and families on a floor map using a tablet computer.
We evaluated the usefulness of our planning proposal by analyzing four items by bedroom type: children's severity of disability, children's usage rate of locations by severity of disability, need for medical care, management policy and actual use of bedroom arrangement for children (number of placed children, change of bedroom, children who need medical care, children admitted for a short stay, and children with siblings), and nurses' actions by bedroom type.
Children with higher severity of disability were placed in single or twin rooms closer to the nurse station than the quad rooms. The needs for single rooms have been confirmed, and the current number of single rooms is insufficient. In order to accommodate siblings entering together, twin rooms, quad rooms, and adjacent single rooms are useful.
In conclusion, considering the increase in children requiring medical care or isolation, more single rooms are required near nurse stations and staff stations.
One of the characteristics of Mashiki Earthquake, which occurred in April, 2016 is that many people evacuated their homes because countless aftershocks followed the main shock. The aim of this study is to indicate quantitatively the amount of outdoor evacuation, by comparing aerial pictures taken before and after the earthquake in the center of Mashiki, which was badly affected by the earthquake, and by analyzing the changes in outdoor parking distributions.
The analysis subjects are 130 open spaces where more than five vehicles were confirmed to be present after the earthquake. Four pictures were used for comparison: one taken before the earthquake in December, 2015; one on 15 April, 2016 after the foreshock; one on 16 April after the main earthquake; and lastly on 30 April, which was two weeks after the main earthquake. In addition, a field survey was conducted to investigate the attributes of open spaces and the number of vehicles parked there in February, 2018.
After examining the number of vehicles parked at publicly owned and privately owned open spaces after the disaster as an overall trend, it was found that the number of vehicles increased in the former, but only small changes were found at the latter. The increased number of vehicles in public spaces was confirmed not only in the evacuation areas, but also in parks, parking lots at public facilities, and unused land.
Furthermore, the correlation was analyzed between the open space attributes and the number of parked vehicles using quantification method I. As a result, it was found that some conditions, such as road connections or pavement conditions, affected people’s choice of evacuation parking spaces, and the number of parked vehicles increased in the publicly owned grounds which were easily seen and had easy motorway access.
As a result, three points were clarified:
1) When comparing the number of vehicles parked in publicly owned open spaces before the earthquake, after the foreshock, and after the main shock, the vehicle numbers increased consecutively. However, the degree of increase differed according to the usage of the open space.
2) When comparing the three above time points in the case of privately owned ground, the range of increase in the number of parked vehicles was small. Also, this site type showed the least increase in the number of parked vehicles after the main shock.
3) As for the relationship between the open space attributes and the number of parked vehicles, difference in the attributes was only seen in the open space in the publicly owned open sites, and the existence of easy motorway access from the open space was the main factor in the choice of evacuation parking location.
For the purpose of continuing living in the area where elderly people got used to the last, the construction of local comprehensive care system that utilizes the existing social resources and offers home, medical treatment, care, prevention and assisted living in one system is advanced around 2025 based on the actual condition and characteristics of the area. Although the point that the comprehensive support with which medical treatment and care cooperated was incorporated is the feature, there are some subjects such as clarification of work content sharing or assignment of responsibility of medical treatment and care, so the examination of the cooperation method is required. Therefore, it is expected that explaining the actual condition of cooperation of medical treatment and care, and regulating the effect and subject by taking notice of improvement process and management method of welfare facilities by medical corporation bring about the useful knowledges for examining the methodology of local comprehensive care systems configuration and the deployment of future welfare services for the elderly.
This paper aims at explaining the feature of improvement method and management form of elderly people’s welfare facilities by the analysis of utilization and management characteristics applying to the medical corporation that developed the enterprise of day care and preventive measures for health in Hagi city. The clinic provides the services specialized in functional training with the preventive measures for health and day care facility, so the professional nature of orthopedics is harnessed. Moreover, it is the feature to provide the service to not only elderly people but local residents, and to promote the interchanges of each other.
The following effects are expected in the welfare facility management depend on the cooperation of medical treatment and care by medical corporations.
（１）It becomes possible to cooperate with doctor or nurse and to hold the sharing medical information and daily care of nursing home users in addition to emergency correspondence by improving elderly people’s welfare facilities in the neighborhood of medical institution.
（２）It is possible that the nursing care services in facilities by nurse and occupational therapist of medical institution that harnessed the professional nature.
（３）In case that complex welfare facilities management is held by one corporation, the functional assignment among facilities is possible and the efficient management in which each facility cooperated with daily care or multilateral offer of preventive health care services is expected.
（４）In case of the business deployment utilized the existing architecture is possible, the initial and running costs of facilities are controlled, so this is an effective technique in advancing multiple facility improvement. Especially, the facility management using the traditional wooden houses of vacant that exists in the area where many elderly people reside can be corresponded to the demand to regional nursing care for the elderly, and is the useful practical use technique of wooden house that contributes to sustainment and city planning of the local community where the emasculation is proceeding.
“The SH series” designed by the late Prof. Kenji Hirose has established a building system in SH-30 in 1960, which was aimed to be a compilation of on-site-assembly prefab houses. After that, He designed a new series of “Space-Unit” modular houses (SH-65, 67, 70, and 72) to be prototypes of almost factory–made prefab houses. However, their existence are hardly known because they are not widely spread nor do not exist. Therefore, this study aims to analyze and evaluate SH-65, 67, 70 and 72 by identifying each building system by deciphering existing old documents (Photos, Drawings, and Articles) and visualizing them by BIM.
As a result of clarifying each building system of the four unit houses, the following three points were pointed out.
1) The steel structure of the “Space-Unit” has changed from a structure with braces to a structure without braces.
2) The structural joint of the “Space-Unit” has changed from welding joint to bolt joint.
3) Interior construction method has changed from a wooden frame-based to an integrated prefabricated panel (honeycomb core panel, FRP panel, etc.).
Initially, he emphasized the freedom of design. The “Space Units” are arranged using modular coordination, and the gaps between the “Space Units” are used as spaces, such as hall, corridor, storage, etc. In case of two-story house, a method of splitting upper and lower units by placing beams between them was tried so as to make planning of 2nd story free from one of 1st story. However, those methods were not used in SH-72 because improvement in factory production rate and transportation efficiency were preferred.
Development of “Space-Unit” building system was terminated with SH-72 that also meant the end of SH series. On the other hand, in 1970, the same year as completion of SH-70, “Sekisuiheim M1” using another type of modular prefab housing system developed by Sekisui Chemical Co. Ltd. and architect Katsuhiko Ohno was manufactured and released for sale with a full-scale factory production line, and has been widely spread.
However, the various prototypes of “Space-Unit” modular prefab houses developed by Kenji Hirose with his enthusiasm for industrialization are valuable experiences in the history of post-war housing in Japan. In this paper, we were able to clarify the process how the building systems of “Space-Unit” houses in the SH series have changed, that was hardly known until now.
This paper aims to clarify the formation and transformation of the existing villages and traditional houses of ethnic Cham Muslim in the Mekong Delta. The authors have conducted extensive fieldworks to investigate the current condition of 9 Cham villages, compiling the database of over 2, 500 houses and 151 floor plans. According to the survey’s result, the extant Cham Muslim villages and their traditional housing, the Sang house, have unique characteristics that relate to the waterways and is influenced by Islamic principles. To this day, the Sang house remains an autochthonous type imported by the ethnic Cham Muslim without many transformations.
This paper has clarified the following based on the questionnaire analysis from the specifications of voluntary community development activities that elderly people do not perform in turns in the primary school district where they live and those activities they participate in beyond that district boundaries.
1) 39% activities started before age 59, 67% before age 64, and 15% after age 70.According to time of retirement, shows that nearly half, started activities after retirement. By type of activity, about 40% are welfare-related activities, 10%, are related to making places for the elderly. The average number of activities in school districts is 0.3, while the average number outside districts is 1.8, and overall average is 2.1.
2) Considering only activities outside the school district, based on cluster analysis, valid 220 activities are divided into four groups based on specifications of them. In every group, welfare-related activities are numerous, and are divided into groups with combining other specifications. In Group 1, activities done about once a month, in the afternoon or in the morning + afternoon, for “3≦ <5 hours”, are included in a total 68%, such that most are “11≦ ≦20 people” with participants only in their 70s and 80s. In contrast, group 2 are wide-area activities held about several times a year. In Group 3, the days of the week of participation are indefinite, regarding the participation time-zone in day, in many cases it is morning + afternoon, and more than 5 hours or “2≦ <3 hours”. Regarding participation frequency, it is often “2≦ <3 times”, or “3≦ <5 times per month”. Regarding number of helpers, it is “3≦ ≦5”, no central age, or only 50s and 60s. In Group 4, the days of the week of participation and time-zone are both indefinite, but regarding activity hours, the time is“3≦ <5 hours”. Regarding participation frequency, many are “1≦ <2 times per month”. Regarding number of helpers, it is often six to ten, and the average age of the helpers is often only 70s to 80s, or no central age.
3) According to discriminant analysis, from items of the first activity outside school districts, the specification of activity and attributes of the elderly closely related to two or more activities outside the school district is clarified. That closely related to two or more activities outside district is activity hours per 1 participation. Many people reported two or more activities are taking “2≦ <3 hours”, or indefinite hours. Next, regarding the types of activities, such as those related to making places for elderly people or wide-area activity, community-development activity (narrowly defined), there is a marked trend toward two or more activities.
4) As characteristics of the 13 elderly people who perform four or more activities in parallel now, males and officers in neighborhood association are more numerous than in the values under the averages number of overall survey respondents. 85% of their all activities are involved outside the school district. Regarding types of activities, the most numerous are making places for elderly people at 21%, followed by welfare-related activities at 18%.
As above, the results have clearly shown that activities that transcend the school district where the elderly live, include activities in which condition of participation is decided according to the schedule of themselves, by, for example, including those with low monthly participation frequency or those with indefinite day of the week of participation, and that the travel time is often short; in other words, the number of activities is increased by such convenient conditions for their own participation.
Alleyways are functional not only as passages but also as space for complementing inhabitants’ needs of their daily activities and for communication with neighbors. Plenty of alleyways are formulated inside the shophouse blocks in the central area of Phnom Penh. It is utilized as both private and public space by inhabitants whereas underlying principles of alleyway – correspondence relationship between space and activity – are still remaining as a key subject on the architectural and urban planning regardless of the difficulty of preserving such spatial functions due to rapid development pressure. Statistical approach utilizing spatial information of alleyways and inhabitants’ activities will lead appropriate understanding of such phenomenon and its outcomes are expected to support spatial planning of city blocks,
This study aims to grasp spatial characteristics of alleyways and its impact on inhabitants’ activity through statistical analyses utilizing spatial information developed from network analysis based on the field survey. The results of this study are summarized as follows:
1) Alleyways are utilized by 16% out of the total area of 12,636m2. Living activities dominates 80% of utilized area whereas commercial activities fulfill the remaining 20% of the utilized area. Among living activities, 37% of the area is used as parking of motorbikes, 15% as others/ storage and 10% as chatting and cleaning respectively. Commercial activities are dominated by retail selling and eatery by 9% and 8% respectively.
2) Activity density tends to increase in proportion to the width of alleyways. Eateries are mostly located at the alleyways with 2~4m width whereas retail selling and chatting/ relaxing activities are located at the ones with 5~7m width. Motorbikes are located evenly across the most of widths. Shortest path distance does not have significant impact on activity density. Alleyways with accumulative angle over 270 degrees and approach to alleyways from sidewalk around the block indicate higher activity density as well.
3) Alleyways are classified into 11 clusters by cluster analysis. Narrow dead-end alleyways are merely used as parking. Chatting/ relaxing tend to be generated at the location with high density of building entrances and wider width. Cooking and eating activities are mainly distributed at narrow and recessed places. Other/ storage are observed either at narrow and recessed alleyways or alleyways with wider width. Eateries are located at the approach to alleyways whereas retail selling tends to be located at large-opened area.
4) Multiple regression coefficient is not high for individual activity by cluster; however, entire living activities indicates relatively higher coefficient by 0.47 of R2 in which cluster 8 to 11, the alleyways with wider width, gives positive impact on generation of living activities.
These results infer several perceptions on block planning, that is, a) necessity of appropriate arrangement of parking, b) emplacing wide-width alleyways gradually dispersed into individual space by taking turns while keeping certain amount of width for coexistence of commercial and living activities inside shophouse blocks, and c) enlargement and improvement of accessibility to building entrances will enhance utilization of narrow and dead-end alleyways by converting current usage from storage to other living activities.
In provincial cities of Japan that have formed an urban structure dependent on automobile traffics, the difficulty in sustainable accessibility to urban functions is unavoidable with the declining population and aging society. As a solution to such a situation, there has been an effort to promote the change of an urban structure by combination of hubs and public transport's traffic axes though implementing a compact city policy. The operation of city/district hubs is units of several public services such as medical services, welfare services, shopping for daily necessities. However, it lacks the objective and quantitative basis of accessibility to a city/district hub in current location plans of numerous cities. Therefore, we focused on residents’ travel time to a hub. The purpose of this study is to reveal the optimum location of district hubs by minimizing the sum of resident's travel time with public transport usage in the study city.
The research target city designated one city hub and 16 district hubs, and the public transport between the hubs in March 2017. In addition, there has been the effort to promote the residential induction in the areas around them. In this paper, we defined traveling time to the nearest hub as travel cost. First of all, we analyzed the accessibility to a hub of the current plan. In this analysis, current hub’s effective areas were calculated based on minimize their travel time that combined walking time and boarding time of public transport usage. In order to clarify the effect of the residence-guided plan, the analysis was based on the population distribution of two settings such as current population, future population. As a result, the imbalance about the user populations of each hub in the current plan were grasped. The difference of the number of user populations between the most and the least population was more than 20 times. In addition, the large improvement of the accessibility to a hub by the residential move was not demonstrated.
Next, the optimum location of 16 district hubs was calculated by the p-median problem. The candidates of district hubs are 305 stops of the public transport. Then, the optimization was calculated by two patterns: Not fixing stations as a hub, fixing stations as a hub. In the case of not fixing stations as a hub, the average of resident’s travel time decreased by 7.4% the optimization compared with that of the current plan. On the other hand, the optimization of fixing stations as a hub was not effective on the accessibility to a hub.
Finally, the optimum location was compared with the current plan’s location. As a result, more than a third of the optimum location were overlapped with the hub area of the current plan were revealed that the validity as a district hub in the current plan. In addition, the optimum location distributed to all traffic axes.
The conclusions are as follows.
1) The imbalance about the user populations of each hub was revealed in the current plan. Therefore, the formation of uniform hubs by the current plan requires attention.
2) The large improvement of the accessibility to a hub by the residential move plan was not demonstrated.
3) The validity in location of 6 out of 16 district hubs in the current plan was demonstrated in a quantitative way.
The author has so far considered the spread of the Western nails in the Meiji era from the viewpoint of the price. As a result, it has already shown that it was the price of a 1.5 inch long nail is 1/21 in 1885, 1/50 at the end of the Meiji period, compared to the same length of the Japanese nails in 1875. By the way, the question remains as to how the nails spread before 1885. Although the authors have already reported that the Japanese nails -square nails- and the Western nails - round nails- were used together from the late Meiji 10s to the Meiji 20s, in spite of such a price difference, the reason why square nails and round nails are used together cannot be clearly shown. Therefore, this article aims to clarify the background of the combined use of square nails and round nails by examining the spread of the Western nails in the first half of the Meiji era according to the actual situation of imports.
Based on the description of the business situation in Yokohama published in “Chugai-bukka-shimpo” and “Chugai-syogyo-shimpo” (hereinafter referred to as “Chugai”), I considered the spread of the Western nails in the first half of the Meiji period. From the Meiji 10s to the mid-Meiji 20s, “kugi-tetu”: nail iron, “kugi-sao” and “tetu-kugi” : iron nail were confirmed as nails based on the descriptions of nails published in the Yokohama business situation of “Chugai” papers. Of these, it was confirmed that round nails were imported at least twice in Meiji 10 for "iron nails". It can be judged that “kugi-sao” were considered to be “nail-rod” in English paper of the same era, and it was considered that round nails, the round nail made of the nail-rod as the material, the Japanese-made round nail was manufactured by Western Iron. The number of “nail irons” has increased dramatically since 1879, and Japanese nail was produced in Japan using this as the raw material. The distribution of nails during this period can be considered as follows. In the first half of the Meiji 10s, there was a reduction in prices due to the expansion of the Japanese nail production using Western iron. In addition, since the import of the Western nails, or round nails, increased sharply in the late Meiji 10s, Japanese nails and the Western nails were used together.
This paper expounds on the historical transition of the cross-sectional form and design features of Noh theaters built from the Meiji era to the early Showa era. For this paper, analysis was conducted on the cross-sectional forms of modern Noh theater, and placed into five categories. As a result, the spatial characteristics of each type of theater appeared most prominently in the relation between the auditorium and the ceiling height of the auditorium.
Next, analysis was conducted on the trends of the cross-sectional shape of the target cases, the relationship between the ceiling height of the auditorium, the roof type and the roofing material, and the ceiling finish. First, although the cross-sectional shapes do not keep unified trends of any type, there is a phenomenon where the auditorium started enveloping the stage more and more after the start of the Taisho era. Along with this, it was pointed out that the ceiling height at the auditorium area continued to grow larger.
Next, looking at the design characteristics of the viewing area, it was determined that regardless of the type of cross-sectional shape, the roof type and roofing material are based on tiled roofs, and finished in a Japanese-style design such as coffered ceiling or board and batten ceiling. This trend also shows in the external appearance. The example cases from the Meiji era to the Taisho era were not considered Western designs at all, and the reinforced concrete structures in the Showa era also showed a design using a Japanese motif, pointing out to a trend of Japanese tastes.
The appearance of designs conforming to Japanese tastes were often requested for appearance in design competitions in the early Showa era. However, in the case of Noh theaters, the stage, which has not changed in form since pre-modern times, is installed in the interior space. It is thought that the trial and error development of its architectural style happened in the interior viewing space rather than the exterior. Finally, what kind of Japanese expression was attempted at Noh Theater using the description of design specifications by the designer was also analyzed. In the case of the Umewaka-nogakudoh, the auditorium was designed with a functional emphasis on ventilation without matching the traditional architectural style of the Noh stage and auditorium. On the other hand, in the case of Hosyokai-nohgakudoh, the Noh stage and the auditorium are in conflict with each other because the ceiling height has risen, and the Noh stage and the auditorium employ the architectural style of temples to create harmony between the auditorium and stage.
These techniques are similar to the Japanese tastes of the early Showa era. In the case of Noh theaters, the pursuit of an unique Japanese architectural style was triggered by the transformation of the structure of the building and the interdependence with elements of the Noh stage rather than the trend of Japanese tastes that demanded an eye for exterior design. Accordingly, there is a big aspect of design exploration of the internal space. The design decision process that extends not only to the exterior but also to the interior space can be seen as a Japanese expression unique to Noh theater.
In this paper, the following things were described regarding the former Kurayoshi City Meirin Elementary School as the first circular public school building which had been completed as the third one in Japan: (1) The detailed background and placement of this circular type school building were explained based on “Gakko enkakushi (History of Kurayoshi City Meirin Elementary School)” possessed by Meirin Elementary School and; (2) The advantages and disadvantages of a circular type school building understood by specialists including Kanao Sakamoto were organized from newspapers and magazines and then its advantages and disadvantages interpreted by teachers and students were revealed according to “Enkeikosya wo donoyouni ikasuka (How Circular Type School Buildings Should be Used)” (Published in “Gakko enkakushi”).
Kanao Sakamoto seized an opportunity to actually build the circular type school building of Kurayoshi City Meirin Elementary School, beginning construction in February 1955 and completing it in September, through his brotherin-law named Yoshimi Furui who was a Diet member from Tottori Prefecture. This building was constructed by removing an existing building and then placing it in front of the school gate, treated symbolically as the new face of Meirin Elementary School.
Both teachers and students pointed out the moving distance shortened thanks to the concentration of their traffic lines as one of the advantages of a circular type school building, proving that the traffic line plan based on a circular form effectively functioned as Sakamoto had assumed. In addition, it was found that there were many fan-shaped classrooms regarded as functional because of their advantage that their blackboard enjoyed good visibility with not reflecting light and accordingly they were suitable for a large class. Further, the advantages advocated by specialists (Kanao Sakamoto in particular) included the efficient use of the ground and building area on the ground of the geometric property of a circular form and the economical construction with reducing construction materials, many of such advantages being perceived as attractive by constructors. In this sense, Kanao Sakamoto’s approach to trumpeting the circular type school building early as a topic of conversation via mass media such as newspapers and magazines could be evaluated as excellent in terms of management sense also from the fact that a circular type school building was going to be widely accepted throughout Japan thereafter.
Meanwhile, the disadvantages of a circular type school building included what were caused through the adoption of a circular form such as the uniformity of sunshine and insolation by classroom, the teachers dazzled by daylighting from the back of a classroom, and the bustle of its central areas (spiral stairs and passages), clearly indicating that the fact that a circular type school building could be regarded as functionally imperfect was certainly associated with its crucial defects as a school building.
Thus, in this paper, the reality of the circular type school building that overemphasized economic efficiency and was functionally imperfect was successfully clarified. It can be concluded that this imbalanced character of a circular type school building was the very potential reason for its having become prevalent once but gone out of use suddenly.
In this study, we examined the career records of five teachers who were involved in architectural education during the early period of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). In previous research, we examined the DPRK’s architectural and urban history to elucidate the historical influence of Japanese colonial rule. In doing so, we acquired materials published on September 15, 1947 by the Education Department of the People’s Committee of North Korea. The materials related to the appointment of teachers to architecture classes at Kim Il-sung University, and they detail the career histories and autobiographies of five architecture teachers. In the present study, we analyzed the materials to elucidate the lives of those in charge of architecture education in the fledgling republic while comparing and relating their histories with the period’s social circumstances.
Our analysis revealed that the five teachers, who studied architecture before 1945, had some experience in research and practice and were around 30 years of age. Four teachers had studied in Japan, and one had studied in the Soviet Union. To university authorities of the time, a teacher who studied architecture in Japan would have represented a vestige of Japanese colonial rule lingering in North Korea after having attained independence. Accordingly, the four teachers believed that they should take great care to align their stances and ideological inclinations with those of the regime. The fifth teacher, after having studied in the Soviet Union, was dispatched by the Soviet authorities to North Korea as an architectural engineer. The teacher was involved in major projects as a designer in Pyongyang, the core city of the aspiring socialist state. He significantly influenced North Korean post-liberation urban architecture, both as an educator and as a practicing architect.
Our study demonstrated that early North Korean architectural education was led by architects who were trained in Japan or the Soviet Union before 1945. It also demonstrated that architecture teachers’ careers reflected the situation of North Korea, which was establishing itself as a nation with some degree of Soviet influence after achieving liberation from Japanese colonial rule.
In 1887, Karuizawa was developed by British and American missionaries who were working in Japan, as a place for forming friendships extending beyond Protestant beliefs. In the prewar period, around 1930, Karuizawa became the most popular summer resort in Japan thanks to its cool and pleasant climate. Around that time, many Japanese noblemen and celebrities also built holiday homes there; however, the most highly prized locations had already been bought by foreign missionaries. This made Karuizawa an exotic place that accommodated many foreign nationals during the summer. This study examines the foreign residents living in holiday homes during wartime in Karuizawa and reveals that, for a short period of time, the colony of foreign residents functioned as a meaningful community. The following are summaries of each section:
The first section includes the background and objectives of the study and a review of previous studies.
The second section compares the ownership of the holiday homes owned by foreign nationals before and after the war to help understand the changes that occurred and the holiday home area. Because of the war, the original owners were replaced with new ones. Most prewar holiday homes had a balcony on the first floor that made it easier to meet other residents. We consider that this open structure helped build a community.
The third section describes changes as regards the residents. We evaluated the approximate number of foreign residents and revealed that prewar residents were mostly British or American missionaries; in contrast, postwar residents were generally evacuees from neutral countries. Differences between the living styles of Westerners and Japanese meant that the new residents tended again to be Westerners. The number of foreign nationals living in Karuizawa peaked in the summer. Their oral histories suggest that a community was established that helped them to survive.
The fourth section describes diplomatic cables with the message “Immunité (do not bomb) Karuizawa,” sent from the Swiss Legation in Japan by the Swiss Minister, Camille Gorgé. Although he described the community as being a colony of Swiss in cables to the United States asking Karuizawa to be spared, he highly valued the community, which comprised many nationalities including Germans. This means that although he did not know Karuizawa well, he thought that its status should be maintained.
The fifth section summarizes the results of the first to fourth sections.
In addition, the final years of the war saw various events in Karuizawa, including the preparation of the Imperial Villa (Omiya Palace) as a place of evacuation for the Empress Dowager Teimei, and a visit by Foreign Minister Togo to former Prime Minister Konoe. The above reveal Karuizawa to be a very fascinating place.
In 1869, Niigata city, a port town was opened by Japan-US commercial treaty (Nichibei-tûshou-jouyaku). On and after 1872, Kusumoto Masataka (Niigata prefectural governor) maintained Niigata city, a port town to make it suitable streets as an open port.
This study is on the maintenance policy of the streets in Niigata city, a port town in the Meiji era. The maintenance policy of the streets in Niigata city, a port town in the Meiji era was following 2 aspects.
1) In 1872, The streets in Niigata city were cleaned by street cleaners. Street cleaners collected litter and trash on the streets. Litter and trash were put in baskets and carried to countryside. They were used there as fertilizer. Building materials, firewood, kitchen gardens and clotheshorses on the streets were removed for traffic security.
2) In 1880, Business on the streets were permitted conditionally. Streetlights, signs, public restrooms and building materials on the streets were permitted by notifying.
This study considered the relationship between archival techniques and finding aids for architectural records in the United States. Clarifying this relationship can also contribute to the establishment of archival practices in Japan. For this purpose, we first provided an overview of the project plan, which was prepared by archivist Nancy Loe as a grant proposal (Chap. 2). We then organized the component elements of finding aids, which were created according to the project outcomes (Chap. 3). Finally, we compared the outcomes with the proposal (Chap. 4).
2. Outline of Loe’s grant proposal
We reviewed a project plan for the archival processing of architect Julia Morgan’s papers and records. Nancy Loe, an archivist at California Polytechnic State University, prepared the plan as a grant proposal with five chapters for a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH). Loe wrote about archival techniques and finding aids in Chapter 2, Methodology and Standards. Section 2, Arrangement and Description summarized the archival techniques: Arrangement with Shepherd and Waverly Lowell’s Standard Series, Description at the folder level, and Addition of Project Index. Section 4, Finding Aids, EAD Web Sites, and MARC Records provided ways to create finding aids: EAD (Encoded Archival Description) and MARC (MAchine-Readable Cataloging).
3. Organization the component elements of finding aids
Subsequently, we organized the component elements of the finding aids for the Julia Morgan Papers, which were created according to the project outcomes for a 2005–2007 grant, in terms of arrangement and description. Focusing on the arrangement at the series level (EAD only) and the description at the collection and item level, the targets were four online repositories: the EAD web site in OAC (Online Archive of California), MARC records from WorldCat, KLOA (Kennedy Library Online Archive, California Polytechnic State University), and Calisphere.
4. Comparison and Discussion
Finally, we discussed the archival techniques and online finding aids by comparing the project outcomes with the proposal. First, OAC was compared to the Standard Series at the series level arrangement (4.1). Second, OAC was compared to the archival description standard DACS (Describing Archives: A Content Standard) in terms of description at the collection and the series levels and of the container list (4.2). Third, we compared OAC and WorldCat in the collection-level description, and KLOA and Calisphere in the item-level description (4.3). Finally, the characteristics of archival techniques and the interrelationship between all finding aids were discussed (4.4).
In this study, we examined the relationship between archival techniques and finding aids for architectural records referring to Loe’s grant proposal and the project outcomes. The results clarified the following points regarding finding aids: (1) a finding aid is composed of modules such as a container list, an index, and an inventory; and (2) a finding aid could be prepared in multiple ways. Furthermore, this study indicated the following characteristics of archival techniques as procedures for composing finding aids: (i) an inventory is made by an arrangement at the series level of multilevel finding aids with the Standard Series representing the creator’s functions and activities; (ii) a container list and a project index are made by descriptions of multilevel finding aids mainly at the folder level and partly at the item level; and (iii) Not only multi-level finding aids by EAD but also single-level finding aids by MARC are made to enhance access. This study was limited to case studies; in the future, I would like to adapt archival techniques utilized in the United States to the practice of archival processing in Japan.
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the application of Deep Learning to architecture and urbanism. This research is focused on content generation AI using Deep Learning. Despite claims that replacing creativity-related work with machines is difficult, the use of generative adversarial networks (GANs) is becoming more popular in various fields. The objective of this research is to develop an AI-supported design or a co-creation between humans and AI through the application of GANs. The primary goal of this work could be interpreted as repurposing existing concepts to create new designs through the combination of multiple design sources. Therefore, the purpose of this research is the creation of AI that emulate and support the design process.
This research examines two types of AI through a two-stage process; the first is an AI that reproduces design, and the second is an AI that generates design. The first type of AI reproduces designs from different sources and includes an analysis of whether the design can be expressed mathematically. This analysis is a prerequisite for the creation of the second type of AI that generates new designs by combining information from multiple sources. In other words, the second type of AI views designs mathematically, and the possibility of expressing designs mathematically (using the first type of AI) is examined to ensure that such a function is feasible and in line with user intention. Here, a mathematical expression refers to a 100-dimensional vector and an already-learned deep neural network.
The AI that reproduces design was applied to famous cityscapes (Kyoto and Edinburgh) and the façades of famous buildings (three works by Le Corbusier). The designs were reproduced as images and used for subject experiments to confirm that the intended impressions (oriental and occidental) and the designs of each type were successfully reproduced.
For the AI that generates design, a new design was generated from calculations of different combinations (three pairs and one trio) of the façades of three works by Le Corbusier (church of Saint-Pierre, Notre Dame du Haut, and Villa Savoye). This design was subsequently used for text mining Bayesian-estimation-based subject experiments to confirm that the characteristics of the design sources were successfully inherited.
To the best of our knowledge, these are new types of AI. Further, we believe that these achievements may facilitate better dissemination of design through fast generation of a large number of images (design patterns) that constitute new types of designs. This achievement may also help expand the concept of human design thinking by suggesting designs that can be permuted using AI but otherwise inconceivable for human designers. Ultimately, this can help in the creation of a new design environment, namely “co-creation between humans and AI,” wherein the designers choose the sources and the AI generates a number of design choices for the final design.
To grasp the actual situations of urban shrinkage dispassionately is considered important for the urban planning in an era of shrinking population in Japan. For analyzing method of the urban shrinkage and urban structure changing in an era of shrinking population, Densely Inhabited District (DID) has been applied in some past studies as an index of urban area. As an issue of this method, shrinkage or urban structure change in the cities where no DID exist or the whole area is DID can’t be analyzed.
In the previous paper, we identified Relative Densely Inhabited District (RDID) in whole Japanese cities as the relative population centers which are detected by an urban form analyzing method “Polycentricity” proposed in Amindarbari et al. (2013). the RDID identified in the previous paper is detected by relative density level and population level of each cities, therefore It can be detected in the cities where no DID exist and analyzing the city shrinkage with RDID shrinking as an index. However, the method of setting a density level for RDID in the previous paper tends to overestimate the density level at a large city. Although this setting method can be adjusted by decreasing a parameter to avoid overestimating, the density level with a decreased parameter tends to be underestimated at small cities.
In this paper, we improved the detecting method of RDID applying “Information Loss Minimization” proposed by Osaragi (2003). Applying this method of “Information Loss Minimization” to the setting of density threshold, It is expected that more appropriately RDID criterion can be decided in the sense that the information loss which occurs in classification of density data of the target city becomes the minimum. Furthermore, we identified the urban shrinkage or structure changes in Japanese cities and analyzed the changing those trends from 1995 to 2015 with the RDID applied “Information Loss Minimization” in this paper. The main findings are summarized as follows:
1. With regard to the urban structure, the trends of centralization became stronger. On the other hand, cities where density decreasing in whole area and population weight increasing in center area occurred at the same time tend to have a large proportion in each population size group.
2. The number of cities where the RDID area shrank under population decline is increasing in each population size group in each period from 1995 to 2015. Those cities accounted for about 72% of all Japanese cities in the period of 2010 to 2015. This trend can be confirmed in the group of larger cities which the number of cities where the RDID area expanded under population growth was occupied the majority among larger cities in the period of 1995 to 2000.
3. It was suggested that the number of cities where the RDID shrinkage occur at the central location was increased after the period of 2000 to 2005.
This study is aimed to examine ways in which technical staff in architecture department of technical colleges can provide better support in the future. In order to reveal the current condition and issues of technical support provided by technical staff in architecture department, a survey was conduct among 12 staff in architecture department and 12 technical staff in civil engineering department of technical college. Interviews were also conducted for 12 staff in architecture department and 5 technical staff in civil engineering department to obtain further details.
The findings obtained are as follows:
1. About half of the technical staff in architecture department are aged between 40s to 60s, or nearing age for retirement. Further, as staff members work in fields throughout the country, there is normally only one person assigned to provide support within the department so that any continued exchange between staff members have proved to be difficult. Hence, an information sharing system should be built to enable better communication between technical staff.
2. Technical staff in architecture department must provide support for various areas of architectural study besides experiments/training in engineering. Compared to engineering experiments and training where machinery used, procedures, and solutions are all clearly defined, architectural design is less specified, making the technical side harder to comprehend. Hence, the staff members reported experiencing difficulty when having to provide technical support to architectural designing projects. This was reflected in the higher number of negative response when these staff members were asked if they felt their "skills were fully utilized" or "self-worth fulfilled".
3. It was found that many of the technical staff in architecture department who had to provide support in lessons of architectural design are certified second class architects. However, more than half of them were unable to utilize knowledge and skills of such qualification when providing technical support. It is important to allow them to apply knowledge and skills gained in the course of qualifying as an architect when providing technical support so that they may sustain such ability. Future discussion is needed to find a more appropriate method of providing technical support to architectural design.