The purpose of this study is to demonstrate whether using some instruments to transport vulnerable people for tsunami evacuation is practical in a living area or not. We set up a hypothesis that supporters could help vulnerable people escape from a tsunami by using some transportation tools faster than on their own. On January 17 in 2015 and 2016, we carried out an earthquake and tsunami drill in Shinyo community of Kobe city to see if our hypothesis worked using four instruments. Those instruments were as follows; a rollator, a transport chair, a wheelchair and a cart. We fitted assistant equipment to a rollator in order to prevent a boarding person's foot from being caught in the ground. Assuming that a tsunami had occurred, the evacuation supporters picked vulnerable people up at their homes and pushed a transportation tool with loading them to the evacuation site. They crossed the National Route 2 and headed north to higher elevation. Their destination was the Mizukasa Park which is located about 1,400m from coastline. As a result of measurement of time, every subject could escape from the possible tsunami warning zone quicker than the estimated tsunami hitting time for Hyogo prefecture. The estimated time is 90 minutes for Nagata ward, Kobe city. The fastest subject reached the Park in 11 minutes 46 seconds and the final one in 27 minutes 58 seconds. In this case, there were 62 minutes 2 seconds of spare time for the evacuation. The average transportation speeds of a rollator, a transport chair, a wheelchair and a cart were 1.03m/sec, 1.42m/sec, 1.50m/sec and 1.27m/sec, respectively not counting each stopping time. In this study, we calculated transportation efficiency as evacuation transportation ability and evacuation transportation quantity. The former means how many kilometers a supporter was able to transport a vulnerable person per hour namely it is multiplied boarding capacity by kilometers per hour and divided it by the number of supporter(s). The latter means how many kilometers a supporter transported a vulnerable person per hour in the drill. In other words, it is multiplied the number of vulnerable people by kilometers per hour and divided the number of supporter(s). The results of evacuation transportation ability were as follows. A rollator was 3.7person·km/h, a transport chair 5.1person·km/h, a wheelchair 5.4person·km/h and a cart 4.6person·km/h. In the same way, the results of evacuation transportation quantity were a rollator 3.7person·km/h, a transport chair 5.1person·km/h, a wheelchair 5.4person·km/h and a cart 2.3person·km/h. It turned out that a wheelchair was the most efficient to transport. A few days after the drill, an evaluation meeting was held by the participants. Most of the participants commented that they felt ill riding on each transport tool but they should be able to endure it in case of an emergency. They reached a consensus on reasonable number of supporter for a cart was 2 persons. It proved that the rescue order sheet worked effectively in the drill. In conclusion, our hypothesis proved that using transportation tools was an effective method to evacuate vulnerable people from a tsunami. So, we suggest that communities should incorporate using those instruments into their community evacuation plans and put them to practical use in case of tsunami.
1. Introduction In Tokyo, super high-rise housings have been rapidly increasing since 2000. Now there are 327 buildings of over 60m and 135 buildings exceed 100m height. Those housings show one of the aspects of high density dwellings. The planning of all super high-rise housings are different from that of mid-to-high-rise housings. Though numbers of super-high-rise housings are expected to increase in the future, we have few academic studies on planning of super-high-rise housings. Therefore we studied on 99 super-high-rise housings of 102 buildings exceed 100m height, in the center area pf Tokyo.
2. The purpose of this study is as follows; 1) To show building regulations revisions which influenced typical floor planning of super-high-rise housings. 2) To analyze relations with building regulations revisions and types of typical floor planning consisting of the layout of dwelling units and core plan. 3) To analyze relations with building regulations revisions and perimeter of exterior wall consisting of the structure frame, layout of balcony and shape of corner parts.
3. The conclusion of this study is as follows; 1) The building regulations revisions influenced planning of super-high-rise housings are as follows, the capacity limitation for tower parking system set in the building, the calculation rules for floor area ratio, and guidance for layout of balcony and core. 2) We classified typical floor planning from aspects of 3 factors as follows. Plan types consist of 3 types, square plan, square plan with void space, and rectangular plan. The dwelling unit layout types consist of 4 types , 1 side to 4 side layout. The core layout types consist of 2 types, central core and eccentric core. From the above-mentioned combinations, typical floor planning is classified into 9 types. Most of the buildings with over 1,000 m2 typical floor area are designed with void space. Rectangular plan tend to be built for site with limited spaces. 3) We classified the perimeter of exterior wall from aspects of 3 factors as follows. Structure frame types consist of 2 types, inner-frame and outer-frame. The inner frame structure type is favorable for the construction cost reduction. The balcony layout types consist of 3types, continuous, except corner part and dispersive type. Corner shape types consist of 6 types, square, curved, corner cut, etc. Almost all of the inner-frame structure types have continuous balcony, and most of the outer-frame structure types have except corner or dispersive balcony layout. The dispersive balcony layout type is favorable for high density dwellings. In early 1989-2000, many buildings have complex corner shape, but in recent 2000-2010 tend to be decreased. 4) The influence by building regulations revisions is as follows; increase case of tower parking system set in the building, enable typical floor planning to be larger and buildings to be higher than before, enable core to be 4 side surrounded by dwelling unit, enable balcony layout to be dispersive. Those revisions came into force in order to facilitate planning according to floor area ratio premium. 5) In inland urban area, residential buildings are often built under comprehensive design system, and applied favorable typical floor planning for high density dwellings. While in coastal area, residential buildings are often built under district planning system, and applied favorable typical floor planning for the construction cost reduction. 6) In recent years from 2004, large scale building with typical floor area over 1,500 m2, with void space, 4 side dwelling unit layout, and simple corner shape are tend to be increased. Therefor now we are facing the problems of the huge residential buildings which make people feel stressed and monotonous in immediate area.
In Japan, the number of condominiums constructed under the previous laws number approximately 1.5 million and they will exceed 50 years of age in approximately 2030. These aged condominiums have problems with their construction, such as inadequate seismic resistance and functional aging conditions. Moreover, the residents of these old condominiums have aged, which means a decrease in the labor force for the president of the Condominium Management Association. Therefore, the rebuilding of condominiums has become a social problem. This study specifically focuses on the experience of rehabilitation and the awareness of seismic resistance and aging conditions, and investigates their impact on the reconstruction intentions of residents of old condominiums through online questionnaires. The number of valid responses received was 1,697. The results demonstrate the following.
i) According to the questionnaire results, 32.1% of panels approve of and 18.9% of panels oppose the rebuilding of condominiums. Focusing on age, it is higher in younger the age groups, especially thirties recognize strongly. By region, the intention of panels from the central five wards of Tokyo metropolis is strong in comparison with Kansai region and suburban city. In addition, the earlier the completion of a building and the earlier the time of move-in, the stronger the intention to rebuild. ii) For older buildings, panels have experience of discussing the rebuilding of the condominium. Their intentions to rebuild are stronger than panels who have not had the opportunity to engage in such a discussion. Moreover, panels who lacked experience of discussing rebuilding were unable to clearly indicate their intention to rebuild. Thus, it is difficult to feel that a discussion concerning rebuilding will occur in the future. Meanwhile, focusing on the intentions of permanent residents who are in conflict with the intention to rebuild condominiums, panels who want to dwell in these condominiums for a long time were raised in opposition to their rebuilding. iii) The experience level of rehabilitation had an impact on awareness of seismic resistance and aging conditions; for example, experience of large-scale remodeling in residential units can ease awareness of facility degradation, while experience of major renovations can ease awareness of the aged building exterior. iv) Experiences of large-scale remodeling and seismic resistance have demonstrated main effects and positive intentions regarding rebuilding. It is understood that these experiences provide recognition of the age of condominiums. v) Awareness of aging condominiums is one of the factors that demonstrates an intention to rebuild. In particular, awareness of facility obsolescence and seismic reinforcements, which are impossible to support through major renovation, are one of the motivations for looking favorably on rebuilding intentions. vi) Compared with the experience level of seismic reinforcements, there is a statistically significant awareness of seismic resistance. However, compared with rebuilding intentions, panels with experience of seismic reinforcements who felt anxiety regarding seismic resistance demonstrated a positive intention to rebuild.
Accompanied by the increases of vacant houses all over Japan, some support facility for children or elderly have been opened by utilizing existing buildings. Childcare support facilities reusing vacant houses for infants and the parents are increased since started “TSUDOI NO HIROBA PROJECT” in 2002. However, there is no national grant for the renovation costs and no strict maintenance provisions, so renovation contents and maintenance standard are different between facilities. In particular, the facility converted the vacant house, it is necessary to consider the following three points. 1) Securing indoor area corresponding to the number of users, 2) Development of function as a childcare support facility in the renovation costs, 3) Safety measures for the step of the indoor. This paper aims to clarify the relationship of the spatial composition and usage and to evaluate the space function of childcare support facilities converted a traditional timber house in Yamaguchi City, Yamaguchi Prefecture. Investigation objects are four facilities, SHUPPOPPO, KIRA-KIRA, RA-RA-RA, and HIRA-HIRA, in Yamaguchi City. Observational research was conducted for four days in each facility's opening day, and the behaviors of staffs and users were recorded throughout the day. The findings obtained are as follows. The playroom where users stay in mainly is ensured one-room space by the removal of existing fixture and partition wall. Dynamic or static playroom can be secured according to the age of infants by setting the main use of each four tatami-mat space. When there are many users, stay space of indoor is insufficient. Therefore, it's possible to expand playroom area by arranging the outdoor playground and wood deck which available from indoor. At lunch time, playroom has been converted into the lunch space by clean up toys and placement table. It is important toy area, washroom and luggage area for the smooth preparation before lunch. It is valid to set a tea room or a staff room at a dining kitchen or a dining. By this, interchange is promoted with other mothers or staffs while watching their infant. This can be evaluated as a usage setting utilizing a traditional timber house with an existing kitchen. Snack and tea space is also the same as lunch. Meanwhile, it's possible to cafe without disturbing the play of infants in playroom in the case of using the tea room. For difference in level between playroom and entrance, safety measures have been taken by closing the existing fixture and installing the fence, and watching by staffs and parents. Since the hand wash basin uses existing sinks or kitchen sinks, it cannot cope with simultaneous use at lunch, snacks, tea time. Although it is desirable that the hand washing basin is prepared in priority, it is sometimes difficult to add facilities requiring space. In that case, it is conceivable that the staff guides users by voice communication or the preparation time for lunch and snacks can be extended according to the number of users.
The purpose of this research is to provide spatial characteristics which based on childcare and educational ideals of each child care facilities. In this study particularly focuses on "The Montessori education" and "The Hungarian childcare practice theory" which are highly adopted in Japan. To know the spatial characteristics of each educational thought, we analyzed by appearance languages from descriptions of which each method and "A national guideline for daycare center for children ("a national nursing guideline") ", questionnaires and field surveys. The results of these analyses are as follows. 1. There are many common appearance languages between an each educational thought and "a national nursing guideline". It is also found that there are several original languages of an each educational thought, such as "environment of nursing" and "education techniques". It means that the same concept is included in an each educational thought and "a national nursing guideline". 2. Referring to appearance languages from descriptions, a questionnaire survey is conducted. As a result, "baby nursery room", "equipment in the nursery room" and the "furniture" groups are mainly significant difference from the general child care facilities. This research figures out original spatial characteristic which required by these two educational thought. Also, among the spatial characteristics based on each educational thought, items that can be accepted in general child care facilities were also seen, so it was confirmed that there is commonality with the "childcare guidelines" among the spatial characteristics of each educational thought. 3. In the field surveys, it makes clearly that original spatial characteristic is reflected in a space by actual each educational thought facilities. In this research, several significant differences in the spatial characteristics of the Montessori education and the Hungarian childcare practice are indicated by questionnaires. And it can be said that the spatial characteristics based on each educational thought, items that are easy to accept even in general child care facilities. From the above, it can be said that space making intended along a concept of special educational thought could be also evaluated as one of the space which based on "a national nursing guideline". It should be important for the child care facilities with high quality of good nursing and educational environment to know the basic spatial characteristics of each educational thought by a number of case studies on the various scales and the degree of practice.
Japan is one of the countries with the lowest neonatal and infant mortality rate in the world. The main factors behind this are said to be the progress of medical science and the prevalence of advanced medical technology and treatments. However, some children need medical care in their daily life. In fact, the total number of children in kindergarten, primary, and secondary schools who need daily medical care has increased from 5,901 in 2006 to 8,143 in 2015. Despite the increase in educational needs for students receiving daily medical care in schools for special needs education, the facilities improvement guideline provided by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology notes quite a few issues about medical care. Architectural research studies on them in Japan are also lagging. This paper shows the subjects of school facilities development for students receiving medical care in schools for special needs education. In Part 1 of the research, we attempted to grasp the problems and teachers' requirements for improving school facilities from the perspective of medical care. We used a nationwide questionnaire, which was conducted in 2015, targeting all schools (281) for students with physical disabilities. We obtained responses from 160 schools (56.9%). In the questionnaire, we established the following sections for dividing the problems based on their features such as priority, facilities improvement, or teachers' creativity: 1) problems solved through repair or renovation, 2) problems remaining despite repair or renovation, 3) problems that teachers cannot solve by themselves, 4) considerable problems in school planning despite teachers' capacity to manage them, and 5) problems solved through teachers' creative use of space and human resources. The main targets of the analysis were answers regarding the problems, reasons for them, and ways to solve or adapt to them. The data was analyzed using KH coder developed by Higuchi (2001) as text mining software. A total of 688 problems were obtained from the questionnaires. We drew the co-occurrence network by using the software in each section; through this method, commonality could be cleared from the various problems. In Part 1, the analysis results of section 1)-4) were showed. One of the main problems solved through repair or renovation was the establishment of a medical care room. The problems that teachers could not solve by themselves were mainly four: a) the lack of lunch room space for students who need tube feeding, b) the difficulty of controlling the constant temperature and humidity in each room including corridors, c) the difficulty of emergency care because of the layout of the school facilities, and d) classrooms or medical care rooms without any hot water supply. The considerable problems were regarding e) the lack of outlets, f) inconvenient or uncomfortable restrooms, g) anxiety regarding dust on classroom floors and also hot water supply. These could be considered as the requirements for improving school facilities. We also obtained the characteristics of each kind of medical care. It was clear that the considerable issues in school planning were regarding the lunch space being adequate for tube feeding, an efficient restroom for catheterization, clean floors in classrooms so students with tracheotomy or weak respirators can avoid dust, and sufficient outlets for suctions or artificial respirators. In Part 2, we will attempt to analyze section 5) and perform a cross-sectional study of 1)-5). This analysis will show what to plan when adapting school facilities to provide medical care and how to allow teachers to make decisions regarding creative use of space.
In a large body of reports on simulations of pedestrian movements, pedestrians are often assumed to walk along the shortest path. However, they are likely to choose different routes according to their own preferences. In this paper, we propose some models which describe pedestrians' route choice behavior, by considering the influence of walking distance, the number of turns, street width, and landmarks. Furthermore, we discuss regional and/or individual characteristics of the route choice behavior of pedestrians. First, we perform a survey of route choice by using the actual maps, which have different street shapes. This is because, we expect that pedestrians' route choice behavior will vary according to street shapes. We select three areas which have different street shapes. First region (Region 1) is composed of latticed road network, the second one (Region 2) is composed of complicated road network, the third one (Region 3) has some latticed road networks which are allocated in different direction. Next we grasp the basic characteristics of pedestrians' route choice by simple statistical analysis. As a result, in Region 1 it is shown that pedestrians' route choice is influenced by road width. In Region 2 they are influenced by road width and landmarks, and in Region 3 the influence of the number of turns and landmarks is significant. Second, we construct pedestrian route choice models by considering the influence of the above four factors. These models are based on the Dijkstra algorithm in which the distance function is composed of a liner function of the above four factors. The unknown parameter of each factor is called "influence coefficient". Then, to easily understand the relation between pedestrian route choice and influence coefficients, we produce a conceptual chart called “pattern cubes/ pattern charts”. Moreover, we analyze the relationships between the pedestrian route choice estimated by the models and the values of influence coefficients. Third, we define “coincidence ratio” as an index of descriptiveness of and consistency of the proposed model. In Region 1, the location of turning points can not be estimated precisely by the model. However, in Region 2, the value of coincidence ratio is higher compared with Region 1. This is because the model can estimate many and various pedestrian route choice according to the values of influence coefficients. In Region 3, the number of estimated routes and the coincidence ratio are in between the results of Regions 1 and 2. Finally, we classify responders of the survey into three types according to the values of the estimated influence coefficients; “pedestrians whose route choices are influenced by the number of turns and landmarks (Group A)”, “pedestrians who prefer the shorter route (Group C)”, and “pedestrians between Groups A and C (Group B)”. It is shown that pedestrians of Group A feel that they are likely to get lost, and feel difficulty in reading maps, and often drive cars. Especially, pedestrian who have difficulty in reading maps are most remarkable in Group A. Thus, we demonstrate that there is the strong relationships between the choice of simple route and the capability of reading maps.
The existing literature shows that sliding doors are easier to open and pass through for wheelchair users than hinged doors are. There are, however, no published studies that specifically examine the movement of the trunk and arms of wheelchair-bound individuals on opening and closing a sliding door. Hypothesizing that door handle accessibility and wheelchair counterforce would exert an impact on sliding door opening, we examined accessibility by wheelchair direction to the sliding door, and recorded ergonomic and physical phenomena during the use of sliding doors to obtain data for application to the development of easy-to-use sliding doors for wheelchair users. We examined five angles to the door; namely, 0, 45, 90, 135, and 180 degrees. Subjects in wheelchairs approached the sliding door, opened, passed through, and then closed it. We asked subjects to slide the door open 750 mm, which is the space required for a wheelchair used in this study to pass through a door. This study targeted wheelchair users who were able to move and open a sliding door independently. Depending on the degree of disability, some wheelchair users cannot move their trunk and arms may not be able to open and close a sliding door. In this experiment, we recruited healthy adults and examined the range which required turning of the upper limbs back or bending the upper body forward by recording the movement of subjects from above using a video camera. We then analyzed these recordings to calculate the distance between shoulder and door handle, and movement locus (distance and angle) of the wheelchair that received counterforce. Analysis revealed that a sideways approach to the door placed subjects within the range of positions reported as enabling easy reach to the door handle but required movement of the upper limbs backwards, while a frontal approach was outside of the range of easy accessibility and forced subjects to bend their trunk forward in order to grab the door handle. Because there are wheelchair users whose condition leaves them without freedom of upper body movement, this observation indicated that direction may prevent the door from being opened sufficiently wide to allow the wheelchair to pass through. Observations conducted prior to this study revealed that wheelchair users frequently hold the rim of the rear wheel to stop when using sliding doors, which can sometimes cause unintentional wheelchair movement. Speculating that the unintended movement may have been caused by counterforce, we recorded movements under a wide range of conditions. Results revealed that regardless of direction to the door, the hand used to open the door produced different wheelchair movements. It was also clarified that wheelchair movement could be stopped by hand pressure exerted on the rear wheel, which had greater movement, but not by pressure exerted on the wheel, which had lesser movement. Results also revealed that on facing forward to the sliding door, the wheelchair sometimes not only turned as was expected, but also moved forward, causing the user's foot to hit the door. Some wheelchair users have lower limb paralysis, which may lead to unnoticed injury. Such accidents should be avoided, and study results suggested that they may be caused not only by force applied to a door handle for opening and closing, but also by force applied in other directions. In other words, trying to reach the door handle from outside of the range of appropriate positions and bending the upper body may lead to force being applied in an inappropriate direction. It is necessary for us to further clarify the factors that impact wheelchair movement through measurements on the force exerted on door handles, and other elements.
As with the previous, co-occurrence probabilities between architectural signs on sketch map are evaluated using a simulator which maps
their geographical dispositions, considering its application into Human-Environment System design as follows: 1) Propose architectural
signs’ co-occurrence semiosis model based on C.S. Peirce’s semiotics focusing on its semantic polysemy, 2) Evaluate their co-occurrence
probabilities in GIS database created in Part 1 and Part 2 via logistic regression analysis, 3) Draw dispositions of the co-occurrence
probabilities on simulator created based on step 2, 4) Consider the application of the results into the Human-Environment System design.
This paper focuses on the concrete planning process involved in projects for promoting collective relocation after the Great East Japan Earthquake. In particular, we examine the relationships between the concerned stakeholders, which in a broad sense include the community, the administration, consultants, and outside supporters. We ascertain in detail how each of these stakeholders participated in the eventual planning process, clarify the mutual interrelationship structure, and examine the gradual changes in these interrelationships. In doing so, we aim to determine the distinctive characteristics of and issues involved in the approach toward consensus-building on projects for promoting collective relocation with regard to the Great East Japan Earthquake. The present research established that although projects for promoting collective relocation in Kesennuma City and Miyako City are managed in accordance with the same basic system, major differences are observed between them in terms of the administration-community relationships, the establishment process of a community group, and its subsequent activities. The projects for promoting collective relocation in Kesennuma City operate in two different ways: a meeting-based type and a city authority inducement to collectively relocate. The meeting-based type projects are organized at pre-existing city district units and examine the steps required for collective relocation. However, this model is based on city authorities inducing collective relocation and involves the city administration directly dealing with households in the affected areas on an individual basis and relocating them to the area of their choice. This approach of the Kesennuma City authorities is premised on the affected residents' voluntary relocation desire; therefore, initiatives are conducted depending on the pre-existing city district units' desire for the implementation of relocation projects. The affected area residents' desire to relocate is examined and projects are continually fine-tuned through constant communication with the residents wishing to move and support organizations in the residential land planning. This is followed even when consensus between the residents who wish to move and ministerial approval have been achieved. Miyako City's projects for promoting collective relocation are also conducted in two ways: forming examination committees for relocation proposals and general meetings. The former encompasses districts in which 100 households or more have been damaged. The city administration provides information regarding the projects for promoting collective relocation through community representatives and then they hold meetings to formulate revitalization plans. The latter type encompasses districts in which 40 households or less have been damaged. City officials directly survey the opinions of individual households in the affected areas, conduct community meetings to exchange opinions, and formulate revitalization plans regarding the projects for promoting collective relocation. Miyako City's stance and approach is distinctive because the projects for promoting collective relocation are perceived elements of the district revitalization plans. Furthermore, after community consensus about the revitalization plans has been achieved, the committee examining the relocation proposals is disbanded and only an explanatory committee providing information to disaster victims, after the ministerial approval, is retained. This distinctive aspect directly contrasts with Kesennuma City's approach.
There are numbers of alleys in the central area of Kyoto City. Alleys in Kyoto are built in its long history of urbanization from medieval times. Along alleys there are a lot of Machiyas remaining, and we can see historic streetscapes at those alleys. The City of Kyoto recently announced a new alley policy, which added the conservation of historical streetscape along alleys as a new policy objective. This paper aims to figure out where the problems lie as a practical matter when we seek to conserve a historic streetscape along an alley, through the detailed examination of the community activities of a town, S-cho, which faces the historic alley Koyaku-no-zushi located in the central area of Kyoto City. Zushi is an address term for old historic alleys that are built during Japanese medieval times. Koyaku-no-zushi, which is said to be already existed in the late Heian era, is a short alley about 140 meters long passing through from one of the busiest arterial road Shijyo street to the southern next street. Almost all of the buildings along Koyaku-no-zushi are Machiyas with traditional design elements such as wooden gratings and earth walls, so that the streetscape of Koyaku-no-zushi is very historic one, which shows a sharp contrast to the townscapes of Shijyo street made of modern buildings. The 10 stories hotel construction project along Koyaku-no-zushi motivated the community to take some actions to conserve the historic streetscape along the Zushi. The community started to think about what they could do for the conservation of streetscape in 2007. The lighting-up event during Gion Festival period was the action they started in order to appeal the beauty of the streetscape to those who visited to the alley and also to protect the alley streetscape against defacing and trash strewing. They continued to hold meetings and asked for help toward Kyoto Center for Community Collaboration, hereinafter called Center. Support members including the author were sent from Center to help their activities. They made their own community rules through several times of discussions in 2010. The rule is a community agreement without legal binding force, which covers from general and daily points such as basic attitudes about relations with neighbors, awareness of fire prevention, maintenance of alley space, to attention to the conservation of the streetscape. After some interval from setting out this community rules, the community tried to make further rules about streetscape conservation and started study meetings with assistance provided by Kyoto city government in 2012. The leading members made up the draft as a basic concept for advanced building regulations and sought the community's judgment, but they couldn't get the accidence from the rest of the community. The contributing factors of the break of consensus formation are as follows; the rapid changes of the constituent members of the community, especially from residential use to commercial use, the shortage of leading members of community activities, the realization of the hotel in question, and the existence of people without interests toward this activities. The characteristics of the alley streetscape can be explained by following three aspects; less than three stories low buildings stand facing the narrow streets, the buildings are wooden buildings with traditional design elements, and the buildings are the old ones built basically before the building standard law was established in 1950. To inherit the streetscape means to keep the former two characteristics, and it requires further regulations and community consensus. The difficulties in consensus formation come largely from the situation of inner city alleys in common, such as small community scale and possibility of rapid changes.
Recently, in the Japanese suburban farmland, a number of civil activities are being developed for the improvement of rural environment. Although these activities are slightly different from managements by farmers, they are promoting the appropriate use and conservation of farmland for the sustainable management of common natural resources. In this study, the mechanism of the formation and the innate character of the social activities are analyzed by the comparison with a traditional theory of commons research focusing on farmlands of Minuma locating in Saitama Prefecture. Firstly, the nature of traditional commons was researched by literature reviews. Under the reign of traditional commons, there were local rules for the use of natural resources, and it contributed to the collaboration of local people and the sustainable management of the whole regional area. On the other hand, most of the current Japanese suburbs do not equip the traditional commons system, and cannot attain the sustainable use of local resources. Secondly, the characteristics of current civil activities are analyzed through hearing surveys and field works. The civil activities which developed around the farmlands have nearly the same efficiency with the market system and the management system of natural resources induced by the traditional commons. However, in terms of the sustainable use of local resources, they are completely different from that of traditional commons, and they are characterized as ‘open-access’, ‘intermittent management’, ‘rational cooperation’, ‘multiple organization’, and so on. Finally, the social meaning and future issues of the civil activities are discussed through the comparison with the mechanism of traditional commons and the hearing surveys to the local farmers. This study concludes that the formation of the nonmarket economy based on a free labor and land enables the civil activities to keep the ability for social services and management of natural resources. However, because of their purposes, they cannot resolve the farmers' problems such as stagnation of profitability of their business, and most of the farmers do not participate in the activities. For the development of the activities, it would be necessary to facilitate the partnerships between urban residents and farmers considering the importance of the farmers' current issue.
The first purpose of this research is to clarify the relation between the situation of fallow farmlands in the settlement and community people's interest to entrants into agriculture. The second purpose is to clarify what factors have affected the situation of fallow farmlands and interests to entrants. Finally the author considered the possibility of entering into the agriculture. The research methods and results are as below.
Hayashi's quantification theory type 2 was used for clarifying what has affected the individual farmland use and for quantifying the cultivating condition of the farmland. In that regard, 10 indicators of the cultivating condition were set as the explanatory variable and the farmland use was set as the explained variable. Among 10 indicators, the size of farmland, the slope of farmland and the contiguity with forests influence the result of the discrimination highly.
The situation of fallow farmlands in the settlement was evaluated by 2 indicators, namely, the cultivating condition of the fallow farmlands and the distribution of the fallow farmlands. The interests to entrants was defined by interviewing the representative of the settlement's agricultural group. Then the situation of fallow farmlands was compared to the interests to entrants. By this method, there is no relation between the two. It shows that the interests to entrants is affected by the social environment of the settlement.
The appearing process of the fallow farmlands had been revealed by interviewing the representative of settlement's agricultural group. Then KJ-method was used to analyze what factors has influenced the situation of fallow farmlands. The author extracted 4 factors, namely, the irrigation, the location of farmland, the land allocation and the governance capacity of settlement.
By analyzing the relation 4 factors and the interests to entrants, the following are shown: 1. The representative of settlements with water shortage tend to have negative interest to entrants. 2. The representative of settlements near to forests tend to have positive interest to entrants. 3. The representative of settlements with the strong governance capacity tend to have positive interest to entrants.
Considering the situation of fallow farmlands and the interest to entrants, the author suggests the following policies: propulsion by the local government, reducing the business risks, integrating some fallow and solidarity by some settlements. Except for settlements which need no entrants, settlements will be able to deal with entrants according as these policies. For increasing the opportunity of entering to agriculture, it will be needed that each settlement regards entrants as better partner than now. The author suggests that local governments should enhance “the governance capacity of settlements”.
In 1952, Tottori City experienced a great fire, said to have been the largest in the postwar period, which destroyed approximately 70% of the city area. In recovering from this fire, Tottori City aimed to become a “fireproof city” and implemented the “Tottori City Fire Revival Land Readjustment Project' over approximately 180ha (540, 000 tsubo) centered on the area that was razed. Under this project, parks and areas of land for public use were also created. The project was the first to be implemented following the enactment of the Fireproof Building Promotion Law and is positioned as an important case example in that it became the basis for subsequent policies. Because park creation and improvement were pursued during fire reconstruction—a period of emergency—Tottori City has distinctive park planning, with numerous irregularly shaped parks located throughout the city. This causes significant limitations to the installation and utilization of playground equipment. The aim of this study, therefore, is to clarify the history of park planning in Tottori City, begun with the implementation of the “Tottori City Fire Revival Land Readjustment Project” after the Tottori Great Fire in 1952, as well as the characteristics of park spaces in the city. Initially, “Tottori City Fire Revival Land Readjustment Project” planning policies were formulated using as a reference the relocation of cemeteries as part of war damage reconstruction and, in the early stages, planning techniques introduced in war damage reconstruction were positioned as case examples for urban planning for general regional cities in the event of an emergency, fire-reconstruction situation. Furthermore, although the Tottori City case is famous as the first example of the introduction of fireproof building zones, it is also positioned as an important case in the sense of enlarging upon the cemetery-relocation planning method. Under the circumstances taking place following the Great Tottori Fire, the parks created by effectively utilizing limited sites, such as through the relocation of cemeteries, varied tremendously in shape, size, and other site characteristics. In terms of space characteristics, too, park functions were deliberately separated into playground spaces and plaza spaces, etc., and it can be said that the irregularity of park sites was taken into consideration when planning the locations of playground equipment and facilities, and securing areas for plazas. A topic for the future is to verify the uniqueness of park planning methods of Tottori City, comparing to park planning of disaster reconstruction planning in regional cities.
Koreans who visited Tokyo in employment purposes before the war, the majority of which has been a poor and needy. Therefore, their residence slum of other, some were also present who live in homemade barracks in the land that was illegally occupied. This is, housing shortage, low economic strength, is due to discrimination by the Japanese. Koreans of the barracks, went continues to grow with the increase of the Korean population. In the lawn areas and Shenzhen-ku, it has been a Tour of land owners and fight the eviction. However, barracks were those that occurred in the unavoidable situation. Therefore eviction does not proceed, barracks and illegal occupation of the neighboring land also been successful in eviction was built again. Badness of these Koreans of the housing situation was a phenomenon that has been seen in Japan as well as Tokyo. Administration was judged to be an obstacle when advancing the assimilation policy this. Therefore be a challenge is improve the lives of the Koreans, the city of Tokyo was planning the supply of public housing intended for the Korean people in the 1930s. In 1939, for clearance of the barracks of the illegal occupation state in Shenzhen District and lawn area, to determine the supply of temporary housing. It was built first in Edagawa the town in Shenzhen District. Temporary housing named "Edagawa the town house, " began the move of Koreans in 1941. Thereafter, the expanded 2 times, was composed of 272 units. Others, such as the assembly hall and baths are provided. Tokyo City, but have supplied the public housing in addition to this, temporary housing was a completely new standard housing.
We examined two effects of the event for looking around of town by gamification. The effects are following; a. The effect of mobilization for residents and stakeholders b. The effect to lead to step-up of machi-dukuri This examination is based upon the results of questionnaire for participants and shopkeepers which we have got in the event “Suwamati-real-sugoroku“ held in Suwa-district, the central area of Toyokawa City once a year from 2013 through 2015. We have committed to plan and management the event. In the previous efforts of machi-dukuri and local revitalization, the method of “looking around of town” has become popular as the effective method that make residents and stakeholders recognize assets and agendas of community or local area of the city. In many of he previous cases of looking around of the town, the specialist or the resident who know target area very well show the way in the town as a guide, and the number of participants has been small. We have held the event that leads many residents to looking around of the town in the central area of Toyokawa city by the gamification. We gemificated the event by expressing this town as a Japanese traditional board game, “Sugoroku”. In this study, we have four reasons for using Sugoroku game. These reasons are following; a. We, Japanese, can understand the style of the Sugoroku game intuitively and have the driving force by playing dice and advance mass. Thus, it is easy for many residents to participate in the event. b. Because it is not necessary to have knowledge, technology and acquirement, and to spend money and time for developing applications, we can hold and manage the event and many shopkeepers and other stakeholders can participate in the event. c. Participants can actually feel the distribution situation of the resources and other spatial characteristics of the town through looking around of town. Thus, we can expect to make residents recognize the town more correctly. d. Shopkeepers and other stakeholders can plan the contents of directions and manage the small events in the store which are expressed on the mass of Sugoroku board game. Thus, we can expect to elevate the autonomy of stakeholders. Through the event, we performed the questionnaire survey to participants and stakeholders, and the follow-up questionnaire, and recorded the behavior of the participants. From analysis of these results, we can confirm several effects, which are following; a. many residents participated in the event of looking around of the town b. many shopkeepers and other stakeholders participated in the event as operators c. participants were able to recognize spatial characteristics of the town d. stakeholders were able to elevate the autonomy for mati-dukuri
This paper investigates so-called “Design Assistance (sekkei kyoryoku)” by Japanese subcontractors. The tasks and responsibilities of subcontractors in Design Assistance, the information generated through Design Assistance, and the difference between Design Assistance in Japan and Consultation in US are focused. Our previous paper pointed out that Japanese design organizations tend to utilize Design Assistance by the subcontractors, whereas US design organizations are more likely to distribute design tasks among specialized consultants. In this paper, the elevator industry is focused as the typical industry indicating the clear difference of the task distribution between Japanese Design Assistance and the US Consultation. In Japan, elevator companies are regarded as subcontractors as they provide design, manufacturing, installation, and maintenance services. They offer the product design information and analysis for free. It is called Design Assistance, as they hope to be specified and installed in future construction. In the US, by contrast, Vertical Transportation Consultants provide design service to the architects especially for customized elevators. In Japanese cases, five major elevator companies are selected. Thirteen people are interviewed. In the US cases, twenty-five Vertical Transportation Consultants were approached, and five of them responded to the inquiry (Table4). First, the tasks and responsibilities of subcontractors in Design Assistance are clarified. We confirmed the subcontractors provide the design information based on the Design Assistance free of charge. The subcontractors do not have a primal responsibility of their design information, especially to the owner of the project. It results in a confusion of responsibilities between the architect and the subcontractor. Second, two types of the information gathering process through the Design Assistance is confirmed. One is the information generated by the subcontractor and provided to the architect, such as drawings, specifications, analysis, cost estimation, and presentation images (Table1). The other is the information provided from the architect to the subcontractor. The Design Assistance is one of the best opportunities for subcontractors to acquire “needs” of the owners, which is typically not obtained by the sales department of subcontractors. It is utilized for the development of new products. Third, the difference between Design Assistance in Japan and Consultation in US are focused. In this paper, the basic services of the consultants were investigated, through the website of the consultants on the list of International Association of Elevator Consultants (IAEC). In US, an assessment and inspection oriented service, such as Maintenance Review, Assessment, Litigation and Inspection, and project management service for elevator installation are available (Table3). There are far more significant opportunities in modernization than new construction. The elevator manufacturers and the vertical transportation consultants are separate entities, which make smooth information exchange difficult compared to the Japanese environment (Fig. 4).
This article clarified the actual situation of the wood supply and the use of American timber in the building of the house at the central area of Hashimoto city, in the early period of the Showa era. The total level described to "Deiri-bo" that is the memo of money comings and goings made on the occasion of the construction of the Ueda's center house is 5418.44 yen, I calculated a total value with 5426.97 yen, and the error of 8.53 yen confirmed. The American timber delivered to the Ueda's house were floor beams of the second-floor, the long large object mainly on hut materials, the segai-zukuri of front, a board of the ceilings. The unit price of the American timber delivered to the Ueda's house was 1.5 yen / cube shaku, and the material volume was a 443.9 cube shaku. In the construction of Ueda's center house, there was supply of the wood from two places of local Hashimoto; in addition, they purchased the board which had difficulty in acquisition at Hashimoto from Sakai. The material volume of the American timber delivered to the Ueda's house was 46% of the whole, and the ratio for the wood purchase total sum was 44%. In this way, the use of the American timber advanced by the construction of the Ueda's center house at 1934 still more. The characteristic that big materials size was cheap, and it was got from, the American timber was used a lot for a beam in particular. In addition, I confirmed that the American timber were used in the highlight of the design including the building front of degeta and udegi.
This paper considers the design process of the Memorial Hall for Great Kanto Earthquake, which constructed in 1930. Tokyo Metropolitan Government planned a park and the Memorial Hall to commemorate the earthquake and the victim at the old army clothing depot (Honjo Ward), the most severely damaged area by fire whirlwinds. The Memorial Hall is well known for Chuta Ito's design based on the traditional Japanese style, entirely different from the design of the Prizewinners in the Competition. In prewar period, it was common that the design of the Prizewinners in the Competitions changed willfully by the host organization. However, it was unclear how many times the Memorial Hall's design changed to Ito's, which have evaluated as ‘Nihon-Shumi(Japan-Taste)’ style. Therefore, for this study, the main purpose is to clarify the process of the Memorial Hall's design changes through its design process. In this study, the news articles are used as the main requirements to analyze the general's opinion about the construction of the Memorial Hall, and 198 pieces of articles were collected by the newspaper; Asahi, Yomiuri, Tokyo Nichinichi, Miyako which published in Tokyo and throughout Japan, from 1923 to 1930. As a result, it clarifies that the Memorial Hall's design changed 8 times, and Toshikata Sano and Chuta Ito led the design change. First, Toshikata Sano who was a director, Bureau of Transportation Tokyo Metropolitan Government, wanted to get the idea about the Memorial Hall's design and the way of pray for victims of earthquake through the Competition. Sano wanted modern design to the Memorial Hall, so he recommended the modern design that won the first prize in the competition. However, the Buddhist Association, patron on the construction plan of the Memorial Hall, wanted Japanese Buddhist temple style to the Memorial Hall. In addition, many inhabitants in Honjo Ward wanted the Memorial Hall's design as the Japanese ossuary. Therefore, The Great Kanto Earthquake Association decided to change the Memorial Hall's design based on the traditional Japanese style by making several consultations. Finally, Ito designed the Memorial Hall. The design mixed various design style; Japanese Buddhist temple, Chinese Buddhist temple, Indian Buddhist temple, and Classicism. From these design process, it makes clear that the public wanted the new religious architecture based on traditional Japanese style to Memorial Hall for Great Kanto Earthquake, and the Memorial Hall constructed to reflect the public opinions and Ito's design concept; eclecticism, also ‘Nihon-Shumi(Japan-Taste)’ style.
This study is a report on the design and construction process of “Fukushima Prefectural Government Office Building (1954)”. This building was designed by Koichi Sato (1878-1941). It began to construct from 1938 before WWII but completion was in 1954 after WWII and designed by Takekuni Ikeda (1924- ) who belonged to Toshiro Yamashita Architects Firm. Namely, on this building, two architects, who were famous for Japanese modern architectural history, were involved until completion. But information more than that, for example, the details of design before WWII and competition after WWII is not clear. In this study, author tried to find it by the newspaper articles and the document which remains in government office. The results are as follows: 1. This building project was begun earlier than “Shiga Prefectural Government Office Building” project which was the final completion before WWII. Nevertheless, it was not completed by delay of preparation of the construction materials. Author clarified the development process of the design of this building. Koichi Satoh designed five prefectural government office buildings. From the view of Satoh's careers of architectural work, this is the largest scale, the design which reflected all of his method of prefectural government buildings. And in case of “Shiga Prefectural Government Office Building”, he collaborated with Hiroshi Kunieda on the detail design phase. But in case of this, he designed alone. From these points, author showed that this building should be thought the grand sum for him in his prefectural government office building designs. 2. At first this building was designed in Reinforced Concrete Structure. But the construction of this building was cancelled after finishing first floor in 1939. After that, in 1940, this building extended second floor designed by Koichi Satoh by wooden frame structure. This extension is “Fukushima Prefectural Government Office Temporary Building” which no one knows in his architectural works. Author found its' outside appearance. 3. Author clarified, to some extent, the detail of the nomination design competition held in 1952. About this competition, only Takekuni Ikeda, who joined this as a chief designer of Toshiro Yamashita's Architect Firm wrote, but no one knows more than that. Four architects, who were Toshiro Yamashita, Yoshitoki Nishimura, Gumpei Matsuda, and Takeo Satoh, submitted their design for this competition. And Design Committee consisted of three referees, who were Hideto Kishida, Denji Nakamura, and Seiichi Kobayashi, chose Yamashita's design. Author found three designs to four submissions. As a result of comparison, instead of the design like a symbol of the authoritarianism before WWII, referees seek the design like a symbol of the democracy, and they finally chose Yamashita's design.
When put straight a brick structured building, is a general term of building with brick masonry walls. But the interiors like roof truss, flooring and fittings are all structured of either wood or steel. From Meiji-era on, brick masonry has developed uniquely within Japan, as a new technical system. Plus, the wooden framing has seen an expansion by importing techniques form the West. However, how these independent technical systems were integrated, has not been mentioned hitherto. This paper studies in what relations the brick masonry and the wooden framing were used in construction of a single building by inspecting the Old Brick Warehouse of the Commercial Bank of Honjo, completed in 1896, as a case example.
Firstly, I have analyzed the the planning of the brick masonry and wooden framing separately. As a result, overall plan of the brick masonry was possibly organized based on the Shakkan system. On the other hand, planning methods of the wooden frame is not affirmed. So, I focused on the joints of wooden frame and brick masonry. By this, I have pointed out that in wooden framing plans, there existed planning methods which adjusts to brick masonry patterns. In brick masonry on the other hand, ways of making design and structure compatible by modifying masonry patterns, as seen in the solution in difficulty around the opening of ventilation, could be pointed out. Though brick masonry and wooden framing each seems like an autonomic technical system, points where they must be correspondent to each other exists certainly.
Japanese brick masonry systems, introduced by westernizing policies of the Meiji government have developed original skills by experiencing earthquakes. At the same time, it is known that they were mounted into the high standard of construction technology passed on from the early modern period of Edo. The significant point which I wish to point out in this paper, is that at times of these introductory period of techniques, existing technical systems does not fix its traditional forms but purposed flexibly to combine with the newly introduced system. by analyzing wooden framing within brick buildings, one could understand how Japan has introduced itself brick building techniques and how it has achieved its development further out.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the metrological structure and the proportion of the elevations of the arcades consisting the cloister of the Cistercian abbey of Sénanque through the analysis of measures of this cloister built between 1185-1220, whose design is largely different from that of Le Thoronet or of Silvacane belonging to the same school of architecture. The previous literatures insist that the cloister of Sénanque is modelled rather on that of the Vaison-la-Romaine Cathedral belonging to the Romanesque architecture in Provence. The plan of the cloister of Sénanque is not exact square, but a rectangle whose northern and southern galleries are relatively longer than west and east galleries. The elevations of arcades on the garth side of cloister are also different from those on the side of the galleries. The garth side elevations contain four arcades in each gallery and rectangular pillars on both sides of each arcade. While the shape of the arches of the arcades in the eastern and western galleries is semi-circular, that in the southern and northern galleries is slightly flattened. Because the arcade width of the northern and southern galleries is about 346mm longer than that of the eastern and western galleries. Therefore, the total length of the arcade of the northern or southern gallery is about 1,262mm longer than that of the eastern or western gallery. When we apply the foot whose unit of measurement is 230-249mm derived from the foot A which we have already attested in our previous paper on the chapter house of the same abbey, the measures of the principal elements of the arcade elevation in the galleries show the round numbers as their measures. This foot can be considered as a “pes manualis” attested in the divers historical medieval texts. Concerning the proportion of the arcades, that in the eastern and western galleries can be interpreted as a composition based on a square (1:1). But that in southern and northern galleries is based on an equilateral triangle (12:14=6:7). This proportional relationship (6:7) is used as an approximate ratio of an equilateral triangle in the medieval time as the historical documents. These proportions could be verified through above mentioned “pes manualis” derived from the foot used for the principal constructive parts which we call the foot A in our previous paper. In conclusion, we insist that the architectural parts, of the abbey of Sénanque, whose metrological compositions are understood with this “pes manualis” derived from the foot used for the principal building element of this abbey can be interpreted as the parts built in the second phase of the total construction process.
In the middle of 1930s, the architect Le Corbusier (1887-1965) began to study the “synthèse des arts” and developed the theory of it in his texts, e.g., “Sainte alliance des arts majeurs ou Le grand art en gésine” (1935), “Les Tendances de l'architecture rationaliste en rapport avec la collaboration de la peinture et de la sculpture” (1937), “L'Espace indicible” (1946), “Unité” (1948), etc. In order to accomplish the “synthèse des arts”, he introduced the acoustic metaphor into his discourses. The properties of sound, which Gustave Lyon (1857-1936) taught him, served as an opportunity for conceiving an idea for the synthesis. The acoustic metaphor played two opposite roles. On the one hand, this metaphor performed the function of separating sculpture and architecture. This function enabled him to clarify the difference between these two arts. In his discourses, the sculpture and architecture functioned as speaker (emitter) and listener (receiver) respectively. On the other hand, this metaphor performed the function of connecting these arts. For example, though a mouth and an ear belong to different systems, the voice is conveyed from one organ to another and connects these two organs. Le Corbusier focused on the properties of voice and utilized them metaphorically in his theory of the synthesis. Le Corbusier's way of thinking—derived from the acoustic—simultaneously separates and connects two things. This way of thinking formed the basis for the acoustic synthesis of sculpture and architecture. In the late 1940s, he reedited the plan for Algiers (Plan-Obus) (1932) in his article “Unité”, the title of which was originally “synthèse des arts”. His task was to accomplish the synthesis of two different arts in his architectural project. For that purpose, he limited the scope of application of each art. That is to say, he regarded a building's outside as sculpture and contrastively, its inside as architecture. At that time, his way of thinking played an important role in the reinterpretation the Project A. Separate from his theoretical work, Le Corbusier had begun to study the properties of each art practically. On the one hand, he designed the Monument in Memory of Vaillant-Couturier as speaking object. This monument is almost massive sculpture without an internal space. He attempted to exploit the only ability of sculpture in this project. On the other hand, he began to study the properties of architecture and designed the project of La Sainte-Baume (the “Trouinade”). There was no external appearance in this architectural project. In other words, its figure was invisible from the outside. This project contrasted with the Monument in Memory of Vaillant-Couturier. Eventually, except for the Project A which was rediscovered and reinterpreted in the 1940s, Le Corbusier was not able to connect sculpture as “mouth” with architecture as “ear” in architectural practice from the late 1930s to the end of the 1940s. However, he began to make a series of sculptures, which were called the “plastique acoustique”. These monstrous sculptures with strange “mouth” and “ear” were the very compilation of his study in the 1930s and the 1940s.
This paper investigates the roof design in the projects by Vann Molyvann, a representative Cambodian modern architect in the
Sangkum Reastr Niyum era of 1950s and 1960s. The research consists in following 4 parts: Chapter 2 explicates his thought on
Tradition and Modern and Chapter 3 describes his educational background behind the thought. From chapter 4 to 6, the roof designs
in his works are analyzed chronologically. Its transition are explained as the result of the conflict and integration of three archetypes;
'steeple', 'gable', and 'flat roof', which originate from Angkor temples, Stupas, Khmer timber houses, and Modern Movement.
The present study aims to analyze the development of territorial structure on the Venetian Lido preceding the middle of the 19th century, a date in which the public beach was inaugurated. In the first place, historical documents are used to position the island within its context. Nevertheless, there is no mention of the Lido to be found in such documents, thus it was attempted to use a 1559 dated map to clarify the structure of the island at that time. There are highly symbolic functions to inherit during the Venetian Republic, such as a display of fortifications guarding the port, a Jewish cemetery, a several religious spaces and the island had already developed a historical settlement (Malamocco). On the vacant spaces between these structures and spreading beyond, a vast network of orchards and agricultural fields covered a great part of the area. All this is a clear sign of the supporting role that the Lido played, as a suburb, to the city of Venice. Furthermore, the fact that ownership of the aforementioned terrains fell into the hands of Venetian nobility or clergymen reinforces the idea that ties between the two areas were strong. In more recent documents (Napoleonic cadastre, 1808) the use of land as well as the structure of the Lido can be more easily understood. A clear difference stands between the area facing the Venetian Laguna, concentrating vineyards and orchards, and the sandy terrain closer to the Adriatic Sea, where the administrative institutions for lagoon (Magistrato d'Acqua) and infrastructure (drinking water supplying system for city of Venice) appeared. This reveals, once again, how dependent both areas had grown during the course of the years. It was by this time too that recreational activities (much associated with nowadays Lido) started to fill part of the island. Rich families began to build retreat villas and with their arrival, cultural and artistic activities became commonplace. Within this historical context, it was then just natural that the Lido further developed as a leisure space for the inhabitants of Venice, especially through the opening of the sea baths in the middle of the 19th century.
In the Siga prefecture, the boundaries of land lots were considered to be based on the Jo-ri grid pattern until disordered by the land consolidation after the World War 2. In previous studies, while many scholars analyzed about the Jo-ri grid pattern, Kenichi Tanaka pointed out that north-south distance of the each grid section was 110.48m and east-west distance was 109.59m in the south area of the Lake Biwa. According to research reports of excavations, Jo-ri grid patterns were rotated 33 degrees to the east from the north in Tokiwa area in Kusatsu city.
In the Tokiwa area, there are historical documents such as Land Resister written in the Edo era and Topographic Maps produced in the early Meiji era. Mainly due to the measuring inaccuracies, those topographic maps have distortions, which therefore corrected in this paper by using old maps and aerial photos, creating reconstruction map of the boundaries of land lots in the early Meiji era. In the results, a large part of boundaries of land allotments formed square patterns in the outer field of 11 villages in this district but were disordered inner settlement area, riverside, and lakeside. Particularly, the roads were bent, the shapes of land were irregular inside settlements of villages.
The transformation of land boundaries of the land units, Koaza, was analyzed in this paper by comparing the Tensho Land Resister written in 1591 and the Topographic Maps produced in 1873. Both of those documents contain information concerned with land ownership, names of the sections, sizes of lots, names of the landowners. However, the scale is different; 1 "ken" is converted into 6 "shaku" 3 "sun" ( 1 "tan" = 1090.9 square meters ) in the Tensho Land Resister, and 1 "ken" into 6 "shaku" in the Topographic Maps.
In the Oroshimo village, it was in the settlement area of villages and its surroundings, namely farm, riverside, and lakeside, that boundaries of sections do not form in the square pattern. In the lakeside, it is said that development of new rice fields were conducted in the Edo era and village area has expanded 50,137 square meters. Also the area of settlement became approximately 4.7 times according to the comparison of two documents mentioned above. Boundaries of land sections seems not based on Jo-ri grid when new field and site were developed.
In the Ashiura village, the boundaries of units were matched to the ancient Jo-ri grid when the Tensho Land Resister was written more than when the topographic map was produced in the Meiji era, especially inner part of settlement area. The size of settlement was approximately 17,560 square maters in the Tensho Land Resister, whereas 65,852 square meters in the topographic map. It is assumed that the transformations and distortions of the former grid boundaries inner villages and the surroundings were caused by enlargement of the settlement area. Historical documents indicates that area reductions or unifications of land section occurred according to the expansion of settlements.
The Arch of Titus, restored in the first half of nineteenth century, is a restoration model in terms of certain distinctions between old and new architectural materials. To comprehend the intervention method, this study examined sources on the restoration and compared with a case study, the restoration of the eastern outer wall of the Colosseum. As a result, this study pointed that the Roman architect Giuseppe Valadier sought architectural unity that denoted for the harmony of the two different types of materials.
This paper is to describe the development process of architectural sheet metal technology and to clarify how to use sheet metal in modern detached houses designed by architects in Hokkaido. In Hokkaido, architects should pay special attention to the details of exterior because frost damage and deterioration due to the large temperature difference between inside and outside of the building are very serious. Consequently, houses in Hokkaido have developed in harsh climatic conditions, differentiated from traditional japanese houses in other regions over the years. For instance roof tile is not applicable to avoid the snow slide from the roof and it is indispensable to take air tightness, weatherability and insulation under cold climate into account. While there are various materials nowadays, sheet metal is the most relevant material in Hokkaido by such reasons, as well as the advantage in low cost and lightweight. This paper assumes that sheet metal technology has made its own development inevitably in Hokkaido responding to the specific climate conditions ahead of other regions in the modern period after World War II. The authors know that early works by Akihisa Endo, Fujio Adachi and Naoaki Ogaki reported about houses in Hokkaido before 1970's focusing on remarkable plan types, space configurations, roof shape and so on. On the other hand this paper examines charasteristics of the exterior since 1980's, the period that the progress was made in the insulation technology. Sanko Metal Industrial Co., Ltd., a major steel manufacturer in Japan, appeared in 1949. Sanko lead sheet metal industry then advanced to Hokkaido in 1950. It promoted mechanization of sheet metal production by "taking full responsibility for construction process". As a result, some sheet metal companies including Sanko associated voluntary organizations and created a total production and construction system and made contribution to the modernization of sheet metal technology corresponding to the social situation. In this paper, the authors report three major notable issues as follows: (1) While there were some independent craftsman unions in major cities, for instance, Sapporo, Otaru, Muroran and so on, they need to organize an integrated system which dominates such local unions to cooperate with each other. Two features were required, such as a hierarchical and cooperation system among several companies of production, construction and sale. Kitasanyukai established in 1960 is the most characteristic union. It contributed to achieve stable supply of sheet metal in Hokkaido. (2) To prevent rain leaking due to the heavy snow, it is inevitable that sheet metal technology was well-developed in Hokkaido. Densification of the city is another cause for the spread of sheet metal technology since the snow slide from the roof cause troubles with neighbors and damage the windows, walls and so on. Corresponding to such circumstance, Sanko invented molding machine for long metal plate roof. Since then, various sheet metal methods, which make possible to design pitched roofs even in densely populated area, was made, such as Snow Stopper Roof produced by Makita Co., Ltd.. (3) Houses with pitched roof, one of the main feature of the original landscape in Hokkaido, increased since the range of choices of roof shape and roofing method extended. Moreover, architects managed and improved to use sheet metal in each parts of exterior and started taking advantage of various light reflection and so on. Finally the authors concluded that sheet metal technology and craftmanship as well as craftmans unions in Hokkaido took a leading role after World War II.
This study aims at considering efficient facilities management using existing design documents converted to building information models. Numerous buildings were constructed during Japan's period of high economic growth and the conservation of those buildings is now a social issue. The deficiency of not only a periodic inspection but also the management of the construction information causes those circumstances. Because the use of the design documents is important for the maintenance of existing buildings, the use of building information models made from these documents is examined in this study. In these buildings, apart from the design documents, from routine work of facilities management, repair records printed in paper are generated in large quantities and accumulate every year, but are left uncared for. These data has a utility value for improving future facilities management. In the maintenance of facilities, whenever malfunctions and troubles happen, treatments are ex post facto conducted. It is useful for constructing an effective maintenance cycle to predict these troubles beforehand. To achieve the above-mentioned goal, by linking repair records to building information models, the system for predicting the renewal date of the components of building, which used the spatial or network relationship among the components of building information models, was constructed. Tsukuba University's repair records for buildings were collected for the analyses. After the items and each entry content were confirmed, the information written in the repair records was input into a spreadsheet. About inputted data, simple totaling was carried out based on reported consultations and the building name in order to gain an understanding of the characteristics of the collected documents. Based on the result of the totaling, consultation contents and buildings for the analyses were determined. Next, attempts were made to calculate the time between problems of the building components via multiple regression analyses. A Door and an air conditioner and lamp bulb, fluorescent lamp were treated as a case study. The time between problems of the target class was selected as an objective variable. These values were acquired by confirming the dates written in the entry columns for a building or a room. Explanatory variables were acquired from BIM data along with other materials. Whenever possible, original paper documents will be used to create the BIM data used in our method. Three methods of data acquisition from building information models were conducted in this study. The first method used the attribute information of the object, which was determined when it was located. The second method used the attribute information of the object, which was determined when some objects including it were located. The third method used the inclusion relations between a room and other classes. The forced entry method was adopted for the analyses. Because the calculations were conducted in phases, we classified the cases based on the kind of objective variables or sample group or whether room-based explanatory variables were added. As for two cases (door, lamp bulb and fluorescent lamp) which used a room-based objective variable and data group B, the adjusted R-squared value got higher by adding the explanatory variables acquired from BIM data. However, because the R-squared value itself is low in these cases, improving the regression model is necessary in order to use it for the prediction. About the explanatory variables acquired from BIM data, the floor at which the door is located (Door) and the number of lighting fixtures (Lamp bulb, Fluorescent lamp) were statistically significant in data group B. And from the interview to engineers, the utility value for considering the extension of the time between troubles was pointed out in these variables.
The objective of this study is to extract a schema of a person who experience a space and to represent it graphically systematically by operating sentences which represent experience of space. When we experience a building and a garden, the schema directs us to perceive things and position ourselves in the space. In the field of architectural planning, it is important to focus on a person's behaviors in a space. Expressing behaviors and space by physical schemata would make us understand the space and experience more. In this study, we use a concept called the kinethetic-image-schema suggested by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, the field of the cognitive linguistics, because we try the extraction of a physical schema. We represent the schema of experience of space by combining the kinethetic-image-schemata. In addition, in this study, we divide experience of space into the plural scenes because we treat experience of space with movements of the subject. We translate sentences into the conceptual dependency theory built by Schank, the field of the artificial intelligence, and divide a sentences into the plural scenes. In this paragraph we show a method to extract and illustrate physical schema from experience of space. We record experience of space in sentences and translate sentences into conceptual dependency theory and divide sentences into the plural scenes and connect words to the kinethetic-image-schema and express the schema of experience in each scene. We experienced 22 spaces, gained 113 experience of space and represented every experience schema. We confirmed that the schema (illustrated by us) represent the experient's own experience checked by himself. In conclusion, as a result of building a method to schematize experience of space using a CD theory and image schema, and experiencing 22 space with 113 experiences, and extracting the schemata, we represented the schema diagram which explained an experience by this method.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the current trend of job selection among graduates of universities majoring in architecture focusing on diversified category of business and profession, and to extract issues of architectural education in relation to the occupation of graduates of universities majoring in architecture. A questionnaire survey of job selection among prospective graduates of all universities majoring in architecture in Japan is to be carried out. While a continual survey on job selection among graduates of universities has been carried out by the research committee in Architectural Institute of Japan (AIJ). Data of these surveys on category of business and profession are related each other and analyzed, and are considered in relation to architectural education to find out examination subjects on it. This paper consists of five chapters. Chapter 1: Introduction This chapter describes the background of this study, such as the transition of number of universities and graduate schools majoring in architecture, the transition of number of graduates and graduate students of these universities, the trend of construction industry and the trend of architectural practice. And the purpose of the study and the positioning of the study is described.. Chapter 2: Method of study This chapter describes the method of study including the outline of the questionnaire survey such as surveying method, period, survey item on job selection among prospective graduates of universities majoring in architecture all over Japan, and analysis method of survey results in association with the one carried out by the research committee in AIJ.. Chapter 3: Questionnaire survey results This chapter describes the results of questionnaire survey, such as the attribute of respondents, the number of respondents, response rate, the classification of respondents as a whole, categorized by sex, architectural education characteristics and specialized fields, the situation of job selection among prospective graduates of universities majoring in architecture. And the data on the category of business and profession classified by those who choose to obtain jobs and those who advance to graduate schools as a whole, categorized by the attribute of respondents are shown by cross tabulation table and explained. In addition the outline of the demands on the architectural education of respondents by free description is described. Chapter 4: Analysis and discussion of survey results This chapter describes the analysis of the annual data on the category of business and profession of both graduates and graduates of graduate school in comparison with the annual data of survey carried out by the research committee in AIJ. And those data on the category of business and profession are measured the similarity by the Quantification theory type IV. Chapter 5: Conclusion This chapter describes the conclusion of the analysis about the category of business, profession and the demands of the students on the architectural education. In addition, three issues of architectural education are proposed by consideration of the results of the analysis. Chapter 6: At the end This chapter shows the expectation to continue the survey on Job selection including profession, among graduates of universities majoring in architecture by the research committee in AIJ.