In the reconstruction from the Great East Japan Earthquake, some of the damaged areas were prohibited to live in due to large damage from tsunami. Therefore it was difficult for victims to decide the way of housing reconstruction as soon as disaster occured. Each local government decided to provide several direct supports for victims: prepare the sites for group relocation on high ground, and build the public housing. On this occasion, government had to know needs of victims so that they can determine number of public housing they build. The grasp of the housing demands of victims was important as a basic data source, however, the data can be flexible and difficult to settle while victims can't judge if they are able to reconstruct on their pre-disaster living sites or not, in this early stage of recovery. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to clarify the constitution of the housing demands of the victims, who finally selected to live in the public housing after the disaster, using statistical analysis of questionnaire for victims and their re-registration data for public housing.
As a result, in around two years between the needs assessment of household's housing reconstruction plan and re-registration for moving in public housing, about 40 % of applicants changed their selection from the public housing to other options. The shift is related to the life style before the disaster and the living place after the disaster. Some applicants changed their choice from the new central area near a large shopping center to the district they lived before the disaster. It was related to two factors: the condition of pre-disaster living sites, wheather they are outside of uninhabitable zone; and the place of temporary living, wheather they could continue living in the pre-disaster living area during temporary living. Many households who selected to live in the public housing in seaside area lived there before the disaster. And in seaside areas, there's relationship between housing type and household type: young households selected detached houses and terrace houses, various type of households selected medium-height housing, and eldery households selected low-rise housing. In the historical central area of the city, on the other hand, various type of households selected low-rise housing and single-eldery households selected high-rise housing.
In conclusion, first, to determine the number of houses for government to build in the planning phase, it is necessary to consider life-style and ability of self-reconstruction, not only simply referring the result of needs of the victims without details. Second, because some victims finally selected to resettle in their pre-disaster living area, it seems possible to strategically recreate the damaged area by deploying public housing considering the future land use. Third, various plans of housing, e.g., housing for elderly, housing for living with pets, were proposed, but it also caused aggregation of socially similar families in some cases. The method of planning for the social mix is necessary. Otherwise, self-government with only elderlies can be collapsed sooner or later.
This study focused on a lifestyle that values the space shared by the whole family, and defined the trend according to this change in the dwelling space as “sharing of the dwelling space”. We then analyzed cases of dwelling unit of condominium renovations, which have been increasing in recent years, and aimed to elucidate the changes in the dwelling space from perspective of the trend of sharing. Specific changes in floor plans that we found were as follows: 1) The area of shared space has increased significantly, and regardless of the total floor space, roughly 30 m2 tended to be secured for the shared use. 2) The total area and number of private rooms decreased significantly, and the area of each room showed a slight decrease. Nearly half of the cases reduced the number of private rooms to fit families of a few members, resulting in zero spare private roomnote1). On the other hand, especially among large families, about 20 percent of the cases had private rooms less than the number of family members. In these cases, it was observed that flexible floor plan were used to keep a large shared space until more private space is required in the future in two-generation household, and that a large shared space was separated into sections in households with single person or only a married couple. 3) There was a trend of intentionally keeping private rooms as connected roomsnote2). Especially children's rooms tend to be intentionally connected to living rooms for the following reasons: (1) the children's room is usually made open and used as part of the shared space, (2) as the traffic line passes through the shared space, parents can keep an eye on the children, and (3) parents can feel the presence of the children while the children are in their own room. 4) Sliding doors are often installed between connected rooms and shared space (39.5%). Furthermore, a trend is found in which connected rooms and share rooms are integrally used without fittings or with a panel curtain between them. In some cases, in order to connect children's room more strongly with the shared space, a window was created in an interior wall, or the wall height itself was lowered. 5) For storage, there was a strong trend to install a large storage space that is shared by the whole family located in the space other than individual private rooms. 6) There were many cases in which entrance spaces were expanded. Instead of using it as a simple entrance, depending on the situation, the entrance was used as storage space for hobby items or as a workspace with earthen floor. The entrance space is considered as a shared space for the family. Also, our home visits found that the family members spend most of their time in their shared spaces other than sleeping, which were a common finding among families at various life stages. This explains the housing needs background that leads to the shared floor plan. As such, through analysis of renovations in which residents' needs are actualized, we were able to understand the changes in modern Japanese residents, which began as an imitation of the western model, based on a trend of sharing of the dwelling space.
Note 1) A number obtained by subtracting the number of private rooms assumed to be required based on a family composition from the actual number of private rooms in a residence. Note 2) A private room that is directly accessed from a shared room without a passing through a hallway.
By the barrier free buildings, even people with disabilities, free to go out and enjoy the daily life. Municipalities are responsible to promote barrier free, including public buildings. Municipalities, for barrier-free required to buildings and living environment, establish voluntary ordinances by Local Government Act, which also defines delegatory ordinances based on Barrier free Act. This study is intended to verify whether voluntary ordinances and delegatory ordinances by municipalities to achieve barrier free buildings. Voluntary ordinances of many local governments are applied to buildings including small-scale. The target facilities are required to basic criteria for increasing user's convenience. However, the administrative guidance of many local governments to enforce the voluntary ordinances is not so effective to promote barrier-free buildings. I supposed that the cause is due to the prerequisite of owner's consent to barrier-free. Voluntary ordinances as welfare measures are suitable to take owner's consent on a case-by-case basis. It is necessary for public buildings to be barrier-free. It is difficult to take owners' consent to barrier-free for all of the highly public buildings. The advantage of delegatory ordinances is to have a legally binding. Therefore, delegatory ordinances are suitable for the administrative guidance to highly public buildings. However, many local governments are reluctant to make the most of delegatory ordinances. Voluntary ordinances are insufficient to realize the ideal welfare in city planning. 1. Guidance to the highly public buildings by delegatory ordinances. 2. Guidance to the barrier-free desired buildings by voluntary ordinances. 3. To promote barrier-free, it is necessary to set up a specialized department in municipalities.
In university campuses, there exists buildings with the common space to the public such as museum and library, which we call the open buildings to the public. There are a wide variety of open buildings to the public from those proactively disclosed to those used mainly by internal users but also by the public, and they are located at various areas in university campus. Disclosure of each open building to the public may be contributing to the formation of openness in the university campus. Since universities are required to contribute to their societies in recent years, the openness of campus is necessary to promote campus opening to their communities. Accordingly, the aim of this paper is to clarify the openness of national university campus in Japan in relationship to layout of open buildings to the public. Firstly, the characteristics of open buildings to the public are analyzed based on openness by the use of buildings and their layout in university campus. It was found that open buildings to the public were classified into three types of openness by the use of buildings : active use by the public (Rank A), possible use by specific external users (Rank B), and use mainly internal users but also by the public (Rank C). It was additionally discovered that most of those buildings belong to Rank C. It was also found that open buildings to the public tended to form the open unit by assembling each other or locating next to a square. In addition, it was clarified that open buildings to the public were placed on the campus in accordance with their openness such that buildings and open units actively used by the public (Rank A) were located near the main gate and open units mainly used by internal users (Rank C) were placed at the center of the campus site. Secondly, openness of university campus are clarified through characteristic of open buildings to the public and campus environs. As a result, we found characteristics of openness of university campus from the viewpoint of the layout of open buildings to the public. In a campus that has buildings with relatively high openness (Rank A or B), area near the gate is used by external users. In a campus that has buildings with lower openness (Rank C), the central area of the campus is disclosed mainly to internal users. In a campus with both of their types, openness is gradually higher from gates to the center of the campus. It is found that the relationship between openness of university campus and campus environs. In campus near the gates were used by external users is nearby the station. In campus the central area of the campus is disclosed mainly to internal users is provided with a square and green spaces on the site boundary so as to connect with campus environs. Moreover we found that there were 2 type of formation processes in university campus with gradual openness from its main gate to its center: in one campus, its main gate was firstly disclosed and the open part was gradually extended to the center of the campus, and in another campus, its center is disclosed before the open part was expanded to its main gate. Based on the above results, this provides a viewpoint to understand the openness in a university campus based on its buildings and significant as a basis of recognition to design campus openness in future campus maintenance based on its current openness through the construction of new open buildings to the public and utilization of existing buildings for public use.
This study examines the relationship between activities of users in cafes and spatial factors of the cafes from the viewpoint of user's seat occupation. ’The Third Place’ originally proposed by Ray Oldenburg means the social surroundings apart from two usual social environments, home and workplace. The some of cafes in Japan, however, promotes the use of the cafe for private working spots as the third place. Observational investigation was conducted in cafes of a same group company, six shops and ten floors. Seat occupation and activities of each cafe user were recorded once per hour from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. on August 2011. A Total of 5401 (person-hour) data was collected in ten days on weekdays.
This study reveals activities of cafe users from the aspects of the shop location in Part 1 and from the aspect of the spatial factors in Part 2. Therefore, it is possible to provide the space to fit the user's needs by considering the location aspects and the spatial aspects. In this paper (part. 2), activities in the cafe were classified into three types: A) Output-based working, B) Input-based working, and C) Rest/Conversation. Observation reveals that seat occupation of each type users depends on spatial factors. The relationship between the activity in the cafe and the spatial factor were quantitatively clarified by a multiple logistic regression analysis.
As a result of the analysis, it was found that spatial factors such as “Distance from entrance/stairway to the seat”, ”Seat against a wall or not” and ”Types of Tables” are related to the activities in the cafe. While Output-based working type prefers to select multiple floor without the cash register, Rest/communication type prefers to select multiple Floor with the cash register. While Input-based working users prefer to select seats against a wall, Rest/ communication users tend to avoid the seat against a wall. Output-based and Input-based working users tend to select shared tables rather than the large table. The low tables were selected more by Input-based working users than by Output-based working users. Rest/ communication users tend to select large tables, not counters and shared tables.
Introduction In the previous study, the latent selective factor of Finnish design professionals and laymen when choosing wood for living space was revealed through the analysis on the cognitive structure of wood for interior. Following the study, this paper aims to clarify the latent selective factor of Japanese design professionals and laymen. Material & Method As in the previous study, this study also included 12 different wood samples (4 different species: Finnish spruce: Picea abies, Finnish pine: Pinus sylvestris, and heartwood and sapwood of Japanese cedar: Cryptomeria japonica and 3 different finishing: plain surface, wax coating and oil finishing). 40 participants (10 people each from architect, interior designer, normal worker and student) were interviewed. The data was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis to grasp the relationship between the cognitive elements and the preference. Result & Discussion From the result of the interview, 6 core categories and 26 detailed categories were extracted as the cognitive elements. These elements were analyzed by PCA. According to the results from PCA, both professionals and laymen basically recognized wood from the physical features such as tone, light and shade of color, shape and interval of grain, surface condition and weight. As for the preference of wood for living space, the preference between professionals and laymen except normal workers was not necessarily dependent on the origin of wood unlike Finnish professionals and laymen (familiarity to wood). The result of correlation analysis explained that the preference was generally based on the visual impression, the degree of processing as well as atmosphere of wood. For instance, students and normal workers preferred wood with oil finishing even though normal workers clearly avoided heartwood of Japanese cedar. On the other hand, architects preferred heartwood of Japanese cedar and interior designer preferred white wood with natural surface though both clearly avoided wood with oil finishing. In the preference of both professionals and laymen, the different factors were observed. The latent selective factors were investigated based on the result from PCA, the preference and the correlation analysis. The elements related to physical properties of wood could be commonly seen as the cognitive elements. The difference in the factors was that students also recognized wood from the point of “secular change” and normal workers chose wood in terms of “ligneous”. Each selective factor of professionals and laymen was as follows. Student: tone of color, heaviness, shape of grain, secular change, yellowishness, surface condition. Normal worker: tone of color, light and shade of color, interval of grain, ligneous. Architect: light and shade of color, heaviness, familiarity, surface condition, degree of processing. Interior designer: tone of color, light and shade of color, heaviness, stiffness, interval of grain, whiteness, yellowishness. Conclusion In this paper, at least 10 latent selective factors when Japanese design professional and laymen choosing wood for living space were revealed. These latent selective factors were related to color tone, light and shade of color, whiteness, yellowishness, heaviness, stiffness, shape and interval of grain, surface condition, degree of processing secular change, ligneous, and familiarity. In a future study, the effective measures for the utilization of domestic wood and the guideline to design wooden architecture will be investigated based on both studies from Japanese and Finnish professionals and laymen.
To approach reliable, objective and applicable assessment of transformability of apartment buildings, the Authors proposed Degree of Freedom of Transformation (DFT) Index and Transformability Profile (TP) evaluation method which combines building parts and its easiness of transformation for users. Using this method, three examples of existing SI apartment buildings were analyzed for their Intended TPs (upon data from designers) and Experienced TPs (upon actual transformation records), as well as the matching of the TPs. The Authors concluded that approx. 100 unit-years seems to be acceptable duration to assess the matching of the intended and experienced transformability, and pointed to directions of development of substantial transformability assessment.
This study is to illustrate thought on regionality from the point of view of space composition in design theories on Public Hall by contemporary Japanese architects, Through the investigation of their published articles after the Second World War. Public Hall is important to local communities as "open regionalism facilities". After the Great East Japan Earthquake, The designers of public architecture need to think for the local community. Recently, Public architecture was developed every major application (Building types). So, The thinking about the relationship between architecture and regions is the most important for the contemporary Japanese architects. Therefore, this report were described about the thinking of relationship between architecture and regions on design theories on Public Hall. Further after this paper, the some design theories of several building types (Public Museum, Public Theater, Public Hall, Public Library, etc.) are going to be compared. Firstly, the contents each design theory on Public Hall were analyzed, and several descriptions of “The subject” were extracted (Fig. 1). Next, the meaning of these comments was analyzed by applying the method created by Jiro Kawakita. Then, there were drawn a relationship diagram and 5 groups of meaning were found (Fig. 2). Next, those meanings were divided into two different groups (Fig. 2) ; “Phenomenon value” and “Physical value”. Then, the change of that relationship in terms of time was analyzed (Table 1). Secondly, the contents each design theory were analyzed again, and several descriptions of “The Realization by space composition” were extracted. And the space compositions were analyzed. So, these were classified into 2 space compositions (Table 2); “Singular area” and “Plural areas”. Then Singular area was classified into 3 areas; “Inside”, “Exterior” and “Outside”. So Plural areas were classified into 2 areas; “In site” and “Out site”. “In site” is things that have no relationship with “Out site”. “Out site” is things that have relationship with “Out site”. Furthermore each Plural areas were classified into 2 areas more ; “Adjacency” and “Non-adjacency”. As a result, “Plural areas” is the most large (Table 2). Then, the change of that relationship in terms of time was considered (Table 3). Finally, Between “The subject” and “The Realization by space composition” were analyzed (Table 4). Then, Relationships of “Phenomenon value and Plural areas” are large. Next, from the detailed analysis, 3 Patterns were found (Table 5). (1) The subjects with Phenomenon value, “Base of a group activity - Creation of much activity” and “Free space - Opening to a citizen”, are represented by “In site-Adjacency”. (2) The subjects with Phenomenon value, “Construction of the community - Solution to social problem”, are represented by “Exterior”. (3) The subjects with Physical value, “Continuation with the natural scenery”, are represented by relationship by “Out site-Non-adjacency”. Further, the change of that relationship in terms of time was considered (Table 6). So, The thought on regionality of the designers of Public Hall has changed from around 2000. Consequently, a definite meaning about thought on regionality in design theories on Public Hall was found. In this particular study, we have pointed out the design ideas of contemporary Japanese architects about public architecture after Second World War.
Since unified definitions and methods applicable to architectural programming does not yet exist in Japan, often the contents of the architectural programs and design requirements have submitted before being well clarified. Then designers and their clients have to spend their times before they can finally define the prerequisites and design requirements through repetitious studies relying on preliminarily submitted drawings in the design process. One of the reasons for programming implementation remains in the part may be that its effectiveness of programming works not yet be clarified.
This Study examined the effectiveness and its mechanism of “Problem Seeking Method” by researching and analyzing disturbing factors of process issues in project examples that applied this Method.
At the research and analysis in this Study based on 56 programming case analysis of the project to which the “Problem Seeking Method” was applied, it identified the process issues and disturbing factors that occurred from the stage of programming proposal to the stage of program hand-off, then it was discussed about the effectiveness of “Problem Seeking Method” by revealing the mechanism to solve occurred issues.
In the analysis, eliminating processes of disturbing factors and effective functions of the “Problem Seeking Method” at each programming phases were extracted, then there were clarified relations between disturbing factors and effective functions of “Problem Seeking Method” by organizing relation information at the chart.
As a result, the Study concluded, as the followings,
(1) In order to establish such architectural programs as to reflect owner's requirements precisely in the projects such as workplace projects which are drawing social attentions today, the “Problem Seeking Method” may function well, as a tool to or as a body of knowledge to support the best planning and implementation by improving insufficient knowledge and poor experiences of project team staffs.
(2) The “Problem Seeking Method” has necessary and sufficient structure, mechanism and tools, consisting of 1) principle of separation between programming and design, 2) framework of programming, 3) method and tools to promote decision making and consensus building, including their combined functions, which may enable ones to treat effectively and flexibly and solve any challenging issue occurred during the programming process from the stage of proposal to program hand-off.
(3) The structure and system of the Method, especially, “3) method and tools to promote decision making and consensus building” above can be said that these are the results of continuous up-dating though accumulation and reviews of experienced many cases in the past, and therefore, the Method can function efficiently even in the environment of current architectural projects. It can also be said that the Method can provide practical approach based on the accumulation of actual implementations and related experiences.
This paper aims to discuss the areal extent and spatial structure of neighborhood, called tol, which possibly demarcate urban fabric with respect to worship and funeral procedure. Bhaktapur is known as one of the historic cities of the World Heritage Site in Kathmandu Valley. The analysis focuses on the house distributions that have the common votary area of the guardian deities' shrine and the use of the same crossing for funeral procedure. A tol is one of the traditional neighborhood units. But it is not clear how tols are structured and what tols have in common. First, we take a look into the existing studies on origin and outline of a tol, and pay special attention to the following two studies. A research done by Pant (2001) has taken the approach that the key to consider a tol is the areal extent of worship to the guardian deities, ganesh. Another research done by Gutschow (1975) has claimed that the clue to determine tol boundaries is the ways of the Dead to crematories. It consider a tol as equivalent to the areal extent of use of the same chwasa which is a stone found often at the crossings on the way to crematories from the diseased houses. Ganesh is often considered as a guardian deity at various neighborhood levels. That of a tol is called Tol Ganesh. A Tol Ganesh is normally placed on the main square in a tol, except when there is a presence of a more prominent deity of wider importance in the main square. People in the same tol usually worship the same Tol Ganesh. We find out that those living urban dwellings in located on both sides of a street worship to the same Tol Ganesh, but the depth of its areal extent on one side of a street seems shallow than the other side. Chwasa is an aniconic ritual artifact made of a single stone placed on the crossing. Various articles left by the diseased are disposed on the stone as a part of the funeral procedures, for example clothes, umbilical cord or inauspicious belongings of the dead. We found 7 chwasas in the case-study area to the east of Dattatraya square. However the inhabitants in the peripheral part of the old city do not use these chwasas but use the temples or the crematories outside the city area. People living in the midst of the city area after disposing articles of the dead on chvasa also use the temples afterwards. Next we compare the areal extent of worship to Tol Ganesh with that of use of chwasa. Whether or not a ganesh shrine and chwasa are closely placed will determines overlapping extent of both votary areas. However it became clear that the areal extent of use of chwasa have the same character with that of worship to Tol Ganesh in terms of Ryogawa-cho structure explained below and the difference in horizontal depth perpendicular to the street. Finally, our suevey located tol boundaries in the eastern part of Bhaktapur. It turned out that there were 2 types of tol boundaries. i.e. the more common type whose boundaries lying on the backside of houses (Ryogawa-cho type), and the other one with boundaries lying on the street (Katagawa-cho type). Compering these three boundaries, (Tol Ganesh, chwasa and tol), Katagawa-cho type tol boundaries seem to be an exception. But we will try to find particular meaning in them in the next paper on historic urban formation.
The world population is continually increasing. On the other hand, Japanese population is decreasing. The Japanese population in 2050 was less than 100 million people. Also, 40% of the people were over the age of 65 for the year 2060. The data shows that declining birth rate and population aging rate is progressing. Formations of urban structures are needed to solve such problems. The local government is considering a compact city project, which can recover the vitality of the central district and life base for residents. However, the urban structure has been sprawl, with unplanned developments in the suburbs and a decline of the central district. Due to this, a planning method is needed for the formation of a concentration urban structure. This will begin to address the issues of a declining population, birth rate and central district by local government. In this study, we develop the “Population Migration Tool” based on plural master plan of the local government, and we form concentration urban structure model. And, we aim to consider about urban structure that local city should target in the future. In this study, the target area is the Yamaguchi which is the capital of the Yamaguchi prefectural and the city of Hofu which has over 100,000 people. At first, we analyze urban structure by land use and population distribution using 100 meter mesh data. Next, we form a future population distribution of 100 meter mesh after we estimate of future population using a primary factors cohort. Also, we develop “Population Migration Tool” based on plural master plan. Moreover, we form the concentration urban structure model based on the tool. And we simulate the future urban structure by the model. Lastly, we evaluate the model. The results are as follows. (1) The future population decrease, also, the future urban structure is predicted to become low density. (2) As a result of the formation population structure, the future population decrease, also, the future urban structure is predicted to become low density. (3) We form the concentration urban structure model with the population migration tool. The rules of the tool can change arbitrarily. We can form variety the concentration urban structure models. (4) As a result of the formation of concentration urban structure model, the model becomes high density population and traffic convenience increases.
Generally knows, Okinawa was extensively damaged from WW2. The air raid on Naha City 10th Oct. 1944 and ground battles destroyed Naha central area witheringly. After the war, there was few building to live. Okinawan people who came back from rural area and military draft needed to build their house. But at that time, GHQ and Ryukyu government had governed Okinawa until 1972. Okinawan local government could not use many of reconstruction projects and systems of Japan Central government. And worse more, not a small land of Okinawa including central area was grabbed up by USA military. So, some of people who could not return to their own residential lots had to move and rebuild their house another area, in most cases, next area or close area. The high densely Mawashi district has built-up in above way. Mawashi district located the next area of the traditional central area where had not returned until 1952 (ref., Fig. 2), and so, there was rapidly crowded by returning people. But before the war Mawashi district was just a farming village where were not enough social infrastructures with narrow roads and poor road structure. It should be improved or developed before urbanized, but at that time Okinawa belonged to USA, there were not some appropriate development systems and projects. This study aimed to identify the period of each districts build-up, and then analyze the relationship between each districts character with road patterns and each districts period. In view of the change of the Okinawan political system after WW II and built-up background, there are 4 aspects, as like 1)prewar traditional settlement, 2) forced settlement, 3)sprawl district without planning guideline, and 4) development permission district(ref., Fig. 7). The research methods are 4, research the historical document to identify the pre-war settlement district, tracing the road position specification of Naha city to distinguish roads and areaways, listed up the development dates from official development permission ledger after 1974 to define planning districts and sprawl area and field survey of each district to find the typical problems of the district. The problematic road networks are found 5 patterns in this area by the field survey. These are a) small crowded building district without jointing roads, b) small crowded building district jointing dead-end road of article 42 -2, Japan Building Act, c) small crowded building district jointing not well network roads of article 42 -2, Japan Building Act, d) small crowded building district jointing well-formed roads of article 42 -2, Japan Building Act, and e) development permission accepting district with not well network road to main roads(ref., Table 2). As results, these a)-e) patterns are mixed in each 1)-4) periods also, but 3) is the most serious condition in problematic road networks, decrepit buildings, and prevention of disaster. Considering the physical condition data of districts, 2) is assumed to have a singular aspect.
Local city is in a situation of population decline and shrinking financial resources. To formulate good place for civic activities and boisterous ambience is needed by accumulation of public service to city center for regeneration of sustainable central district. Therefore, many local governments undertake a reconstruction and relocation of it in view of the circumstances in themselves for efficient city management. From these background, in this paper, we aimed to clarify a relationship between the urban core formation by public facilities and municipal strategy for future urban structure based on City Center Devitalization Basic Plan. In this paper, at first, we investigated about an improvement situation of public facilities listed in City Center Devitalization Basic Plan of 63 cities and 65 district by our questionnaire survey. Next, we clarified the location and function of 116 public facilities with completed construction. Then, we investigated facility location of case study before make a plan, and classified accumulation structure of public facility in 7 types. Moreover, we considered about relationship between the accumulation type and location of new facility listed in City Center Devitalization Basic Plan. Finally, we framed several conclusions about function and characterization of public facility as the breakthrough for urban regeneration through case analysis of 7 cities which changed their type of accumulation structure by new location facilities listed in the plan. Conclusions we obtained are as follows. 1. From the results of questionnaire survey to a person in charge of city planning division in each municipality, 63 cities promoted to construction of 116 new public facilities based on City Center Devitalization Basic Plan. 2. Urban core which formed by accumulation of public facility can be classified to 7 types from the viewpoint of a facility at center of a core. 3. After construction of new public facility, 7 cities changed their accumulation type of public facility in a strategic way according to individual goal of City Center Devitalization Basic Plan.
This study aims to clarify the feature of German Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) methods and applicability of BIDs to local shopping streets in Japan by researching German BIDs especially in Hamburg. German researchers and politicians have discussed many issues related to BIDs, for example, shifting of government responsibilities of public space, the difficulties of degeneration of poorly resourced commercial areas, capability of response to different needs of different commercial areas, inequality between land owners and tenants, and invasion of individual freedom of people who opposed the application of BIDs. Therefore it took long terms to adopt BIDs in Germany, and some state governments still continue debate about BIDs. Hamburg is the most positive attitude to introduction of BIDs in Germany. Hamburg government made a law related to BIDs in 2004, and each designated district must have the ordinance which defines the programs, budgets, prosecutors, time periods, and targeted real estate owners before it starts BIDs programs. The government also decided one term of BIDs is maximum five years, but BIDs can be designated repeatedly. There are two types of BIDs in Hamburg, i.e., the type of commercial and business districts of center of a city and the types of commercial districts of suburban areas. Most districts conduct various programs including reconstructing and improving public spaces, marketing, publications, events, establishment of management organizations. Most suburban BIDs are located near large shopping malls, and they aim at enhancement of competitive power and improvement of their qualities against the large shopping malls through their programs. The comprehensive and concentrative programs have effects on upgrade of the commercial areas. The limited duration is also an important point, because the effects of concentrative programs of BIDs are visible and more real estate owners become regard the BIDs as important method. In addition, the abilities of prosecutors and the cohesion of local owners are important. Two construction companies intensively undertake most districts of center of a city, meanwhile consultancy companies or local management organizations undertake district of suburban areas individually. Through the case study of Lueneburger strasse, we found the programs are conducted flexibly depending on the demand. They established local organization to promote BIDs programs and make a special effort to hold various events for publication at first periods, and then, they shifted emphasis to promote marketing, image enhancement, and build play spaces and improve pedestrian spaces. In this way, they try to raise the competitive power against the adjacent large shopping mall. In conclusion, shopping streets should develop their capability of making management strategy and tenant management, creating comfortable and safe environment, image enhancement and publication to create competitive power against large shopping malls. The local shopping streets in Japan could utilize BIDs, and especially the shopping streets which share senses of crisis against neighboring large malls will be able to utilize BIDs. However, before governments designate shopping streets as BIDs, we need to study the risks of real estate owners which are brought by BIDs, for example, lengthening of vacant store periods caused by tenant management, the conflicts of owner's interests, development of human resources and enhancement of management organization.
It is observed that the urban compositions of pre-modern Japanese Castle Towns were built in harmony with rich diversities in Nature. This research is done by analysing the urban planning of the middle age cities built by Nanbu Clan. These Nanbu cities appeared with unobstructed views of the sacred mountains; the town installations were placed on the concentric circle line in which the Iwakura Rock appeared as the concentric centre. These castle towns in Nanbu Region in Tohoku are believed to be planned in symbiosis with Nature; yet, the exact motivation behind such planning phenomenon is not scientifically evident and justifiable. In order to, thus, discover their planning intensions, these worshipping objects in the Region shall be listed, and their relations with the urban compositions may be objectively tackled and grasped. This research is based on the hypothesis that the town distributions were planned to correspond with the sacred mountains and Iwakura Rocks in the region; it concerns itself with how the urban planning of Morioka and Hachinohe, both pre-modern castle towns built by Sannohe-Nanbu the head house, were affected by the following three aspects: 1) the street composition as the urban framework, 2) the deployment of major facilities, and 3) the locations of Nanbu Clan temples. This investigation is verified by means of GIS. First, the city main streets that set up the urban framework may be classified into two types: the axis and the fluctuation with the vista to the mountains. From the axis type of main street and the main portion of the fluctuation type of main street as well, the object mountain appears with unobstructed view of sacred mountain top. All the side streets are either parallel or perpendicular to either type of main street. In Morioka Castle Town, the Eboshiiwa Iwakura the worshipping object is located on the intersection point where the extension line of the Ohte Street, the highway that links the castle gate, meets the extension line of the Ohshu main street. Both Ohte and Ohshu intersect each other in 60° of angle. Second, this paper tackles the special phenomenon of Morioka castle town, treating the sacred Iwakura Rock as the centre of the concentric circle on which the major installations were placed on the circumference; further, from the northeast angle of the Iwakura, the temples that guards the northeast Demon's gate was built; moreover, a castle gate was built near the Iwakura and the moat was constructed with the bended portion to be adjacent to the Iwakura. All these are verified. Third, these areas that were built with the high-ranked temples which were related with Nanbu Clan are studied; this research tries to verify the vista from the town streets and the entrance paths of the temples that were related to Nanbu-daimyō to the sacred object mountains like Mount Nansho and Mount Hayachine. Basing on the above, the specific interrelation between the urban compositions of pre-modern castle towns and the religious objects in the regions of Nanbu Sovereign could be manifested. Since the Middle Age, the Nanbu Clan has ruled the Nanbu Region and bonded to the aboriginal culture in the Tohoku of Japan; their urban planning of town distribution were processed with respect to their religious objects － Sacred Mountains and Iwakura Rocks － can be reasonably verified.
This research aims to prove that the measures of project management lead the enhancement of resilience of organizations for the success of plant construction projects that entail a lot of risks due to their huge size and complicated formation of organizations. This research covers the project management organizations that are relevant to the contract made between the owner and the main contractor, which may form a joint venture by some companies, and discuss the correlation between the measures of project management and the resilience of organizations on the main contractor's point of view. For this aim, we made the hypothesis that some measures of project management make the people and organizations that are involved in a project attentive, and the attentiveness affects the resilience against unexpected events, and the resilience leads projects to success. We sent the questionnaire to the people who have the experience of project management of plant construction projects and analyzed the result of the questionnaire statistically. The questionnaire consists of the questions that ask the result of project, the resilience of organizations, the attentiveness of organizations and the measures of project management in addition to the questions that ask the profiles of respondents and projects the respondents worked for. The result of multivariate analysis proved our hypothesis and showed five measures of project management that affect the success of plant construction projects. Those measures are (1) showing the leadership of project management team, (2) detecting potential risks as early as possible, (3) enhancing cooperation between organizations, (4) top-down decision making, and (5) utilizing diversity. Further, structural equation modeling (SEM) visualized the mutual relations between the success of projects, the resilience of organizations, the attentiveness of organizations and people, and five measures of project management. Especially, (1), (2) and (3) above followed the same path as our hypothesis. Open questions of Internet questionnaire and interviews with the people who are in charge of project management drew a lot of practical cases that support the result of this analysis. The result of the statistical analysis and interviews shows the importance of the leadership of project management team, and the analysis conducted by the difference of experience of project management also shows the decision made by the team may be different depending on the experience of members who belong to the team. SEM revealed that enhancing cooperation between organizations can directly affect the success of projects. For this measure, it's important to know each company's respective goal and the diversity of culture. The use of documents is one of the effective ways to overcome diversity. Our statistical analysis also showed that detecting potential risks in an early stage has a big impact on the attentiveness of organizations. To develop a system to extract voices of the project members may assist to detecting potential risks effectively. Some responses to a free description question pointed out the effectiveness of usual training. Trainings with the knowledge that each company obtained from its past projects may make project members more attentive and may enhance the resilience of organizations. There is a need for further research on early detection of risks and effective communication, because the ability to manage uncertainties which may arise during project has to be strengthened because of the increase of mega project, which usually brings more complexity and difficulties to project management organizations.
Purpose The purpose of this study is to assume out-migrant behavior types based on properties, resident area and place where the elderly people moved out to (e.g. relations with place where they moved to and where their children do) and discuss on the possibility of continuation of the habitation according to the types.
Method One of the depopulated areas in Shizuoka prefecture, Town A, was selected as a subject area. The subjects of this investigation were the elderly people who moved out of the town within 5 years from April 2008 to March 2013. The author acquired the information on their attributes and circumstance of the household from resident cards. In the case that the recipients of long-term care insurance dwell in a facility outside the town, the author confirmed their address by means of resident cards and documents of high-cost medical care.
Conclusion The number of the elderly people who had moved out was 128 for 5 years. 58.6% of them needed support and nursing care, and people over the age of 75 accounted for 65.3%. 84.9% of the out-migrants lived with less than 2 family members. It has been found that there is no correlation between the population scale of inhabitable area (village) and the number of the elderly people who had moved out. The number of the elderly people who had moved out had increased from 20 to 32 for 5 years, especially people who were not recognized the necessity of nursing care and who need supports were remarkable. 80.6% of the subjects moved to surrounding local towns. The rate of people who needed supports and nursing care in City B (small city) where the largest number of people moved out among three areas accounted for 79.2%. Recently, the number of people who move to City C (large city) tends to increase. The out-migrants to City C have a feature that the rate of people who were not qualified to receive nursing cares shares a half.
Discussion One-person households of the elderly people in Town A are increasing year by year. Hence, the elderly people's emigration will increase more and more in prospect. Some of the reasons why the large part of the people moving to Town B needs supports and nursing care are that City B is in a second medical area as well as Town A, and that Town A is inside the medical treatment zone of public hospitals of Town B. It has been suggested that decision to move to care facilities is influenced by medical workers. In addition, inflow and outflow population are concerned with the fact that inhabitants' movement between Town A and City B are active and that the relationship between these areas are highly closed. The reason why the elderly people who do not need nursing care move to City C is that there are housing facilities for them in City C such as nursing homes. This study has revealed that the elderly people of small households moved out of the towns for the use of a health center for the elderly people and the group home. While it is pointed out that the number of people requiring nursing cares severely increases with aging, it is needed to secure care service available in their area (facilities and home helping) human resources to support it so that the elderly people can continue their life.
In our country, a condominium is supplied, and approximately 50 years pass, and the condominiums where the number of years old passed increase year by year. The deterioration of the condominium may become a problem including the malfunction of the maintenance of the building and the environmental aggravation. Therefore, as well as the appropriate maintenance of the building, it is necessary to think about large-scale repair or rebuilding. However, the condominium rebuilt in our country has few ratios for the total number of houses of the condominium. On the other hand, as for the legal system for rebuilding, "Act on Building Unit Ownership, etc." did not have a rule of the rebuilding at first, and unanimousness was necessary. By the "Act on Building Unit Ownership, etc." revision of 2002, unit ownership became able to decide the rebuilding by special decision by majority afterwards. In addition, "Act on Facilitation of Reconstruction of Condominiums" was established in the same year because there was not the rule of the procedure to push forward business. The problem of this study paid attention to the maintenance of this law. "Act on Building Unit Ownership, etc." was the revision able to contribute to rebuilding? Did "Act on Facilitation of Reconstruction of Condominiums" become able to perform rebuilding smoothly? Therefore we clarify the influence that legislation gave for rebuilding. As a result, about the influence that legislation gave for rebuilding, the next point became clear. (1) "Act on Building Unit Ownership, etc." was revision and the method diversification contributes in the rebuilding. (2) By the rebuilding of the buildings located in a housing complex, we rebuild all of the building in the housing complex in a lump. However, the review of the management agreement is important to the rebuilding of the condominium. (3) What the voluntary rebuilding became relatively easily has a big influence that we gave rebuilding. (4) A lot of business technique by "Act on Facilitation of Reconstruction of Condominiums" is used for the rebuilding business method. We made clear that maintenance of the law contributed to rebuilding through these results.
We are in a point in history where many Japanese architects work with designs outside the country. Many domestic projects are inviting architects from outside Japan as well. It is believed that these practices will become even more common as time progresses. There are regional differences in the development of designing, and there are relevant regulations and customs as well. Such differences are seen in task divisions and drawings. Taking these into account, this research focused on design architects (DA), which is increasingly taken part in domestic projects as design supervisors in recent years. By examining the case where Nakanoshima Mitsui Building hired a U.S. architect company as DA, we clarified its role and how they conduct their tasks. Also, by studying and analyzing the Design Development (DD) drawing used in architectural projects, which is an U.S. style blueprint, characteristics of the DD drawings has been identified.
The results of this study are as followings. ·It was found that the term DA has become common as the name for the position that supervises designs along with the practice of task division in advanced and complex large scale projects after the year 2000.
·Since DA are not involved with costs of buildings, scheduling and applications, it can be said that it is “a position that is not subject to administrative punishment and can concentrate on designing.”
·It was found that while DD drawing is part of the schematic design phase in the first half of the design process, it is also relevant to the design development phase in the latter half of the design process, and that it is a unique design process that adopted and applied the US style DD to Japan's design process.
The following characteristics were observed in the techniques used in DD drawings. ·Partial drawing - By using many plans with floor plan, elevation, cross section and materials all in one drawing, it straightforwardly communicates the details of the space to be created.
·Design Priority - By writing the designs' order of priority, The DD drawing does not only serve as a blueprint during the construction of the building but also as a design guideline. This enables the priorities to be shared during modifications.
·3D modeling supplements the intuitive understanding of complex 3D structures and details, and its main purpose is to communicate the design accurately.
·Unlike the structure of Japan's blueprints where drawings are grouped based on its type, it was found that the structure of DD drawings groups certain spaces and parts together.
Maintenance performed by house owners is not itself sufficient to ensure that traditional wooden houses are maintained and will be preserved as community resources that define local streetscapes; rather, collaboration with the local community, tradesmen with specialist technical expertise in a variety of fields, and public support are also considered necessary. This study examined both potential and ideal approaches for such community-based initiatives. Given that “regular carpenters” play a dominant role in the maintenance of traditional wooden houses, we conducted a questionnaire survey on traditional wooden houses and streetscape preservation among contractors engaged in building and carpentry within Nara Prefecture. The contractors were manufacturing and fabrication specialists that support the maintenance efforts of house occupants. The survey results showed that training technical experts and securing appropriate materials are necessary in order to maintain and preserve traditional wooden houses. In addition, it is necessary to carefully consider the effectiveness of subsidy schemes and the difficulty associated with producing work estimates, promote awareness among local residents, and provide community support and education in order to support these efforts. There is widespread acceptance that traditional wooden houses with their traditional character must be preserved in order to maintain harmony with local landscapes, but also that these houses need to meet the requirements of the house occupants. Specifically, these efforts need to be pursued as collaborative initiatives between the occupants, local residents, specialists, and various tradesmen, with an emphasis on the quality of life of the house occupants. The survey also clearly showed that building contractors recognize that they need to collaborate in the maintenance of traditional wooden houses and also that they are willing to be involved in the effort.
In the Edo era, many carpenters lived in Ogino-mura village, Sagami-no-kuni province. It can be classified their activities into three time. Primarily, they got the technique by working together with famous carpenters. Secondly, they began to work on their own in order to have grown. Third, they are from the point of view of building industry, became indispensable to the region. It was discussed the process that the carpenters of the Edo era were inherited and accumulated the technology in this paper. In order to build the architecture, it requires a huge amount of costs and a large number of labor force. Thus, it was possible that only the privileged classes acquire the means of production. As a result, techniques for carpenter was concentrated in a particular institution. And it was a nation and temples from ancient times through the Middle Ages. When it comes to the early modern period, private carpenter has emerged. It is academic challenges whether the technology among them is how inherited and accumulation.
This paper reports the basic research and the background of the Old Brick Warehouse of the Commercial Bank of Honjo, completed in 1896, Honjo city, Saitama prefecture. This paper, is the first of the follow-through repots on this architecture.
The results of this study are shown as bellow, (1) By referring to “Photography on Buildings by the Shimizu-kata” (volume 2), we have found out that the Warehouse was designed by Sotaro OKAMOTO and Teikichi SHIMIZU, both company staff of Shimizu-ten and so it was built by the company in 1896. (2) By measuring the plans and sections, we reported basic information of this brick warehouse. (3) This brick warehouse was built for cocoon collateral. By studying its backgrounds, it was made clear that this collateral had two functions, “banking” and “warehousing”. From mid-Meiji era to Taisyo era, in Honjo and Maebashi city, many small and mid-sized businesses in the silk industry were established. These influenced cocoon collaterals as building-types to arise. (4) The warehouse is capable in taking custody of cocoon throughout the year. Which was verified by examining the plan, section and joinery of opening sections. And, this mechanism fulfills the requisition in such as generalized methods marked in “Jitsuyo Sanso-syo” (Tamiji ISHII. Yuurindo, Tokyo, Japan. 1889) of Meiji era.
From the above, it could be said that this brick warehouse shows a stage of development in silk industry under the promotion of new industry in Japan. These banks which support the small and mid-sized companies of the silk industry has vitalized the cocoon market, enriched the silk-raising farmers in Honjo and Maebashi city and so forth. These private banks were keys to the regional economy and so this possibly could be the reason it had enough facility investments.
In this paper, we only refer to the features of this warehouse under regional history. But hereon, we will report on the technique of the brick-works and wood-works. Because this warehouse is thought to be built with a high level of technical capability of the mid-Meiji era, since it is recorded as one of the main buildings of Shimizu-ten. Thus, we plan to compare this warehouse to other brickworks and the manuals of the same period.
This article examined "AICHIKEN NO BU" "GIHUKEN NO BU" "AIGI SINSAI SYASIN" "SINSAI SYASIN" photographed by Kin MIYASITA recorded the Nobi earthquake and "AIGI SETUMEISYO" "MEIJI 24 NEN 10 GATU 28 NITI SINSAI SYASIN SETUMEISYO", following points become clear. 1) After the Nobi earthquake, Kin MIYASITA took pictures of the stricken area by the requests of the Aichi Police and the railroad agency. In the collection of photographs settled these, there are "AICHIKEN NO BU" "GIHUKEN NO BU" possessed at Architectural Institute of Japan, "SINSAI SYASIN" at Gifu region meteorological observatory, "SINSAI SYASIN" at Nagoya University, "AIGI SINSAI SYASIN" at Aichi Prefectural library. 2) "AIGI SINSAI SYASIN" was made to explain the photograph of the photo album gathered up particularly, and this may be able to reach "AICHIKEN NO BU" "GIHUKEN NO BU" are equal very well. In other words, it may be said that ２ books are the definitive edition of the Nobi earthquake stricken area photographed by Kin Miyashita. 3) Only the number was written on the photograph mount of "AIGI SINSAI SYASIN" of the Aichi Prefectural library with a writing brush. This number applies to the explanation number in "AIGI SETUMEISYO". Therefore it is thought that "AIGI SINSAI SYASIN" of the Aichi Prefectural library was produced after the establishment of "AIGI SETUMEISYO". 4) From the wrong kanji included in the afterword, "AIGI SINSAISYASIN" of Nippon University was proved to be the earliest establishment as the Nobi earthquake photo album of Miyashita. In addition, "AICHIKEN NO BU" "GIHUKEN NO BU" and "AIGI SINSAI SYASIN" of Aichi Prefectural library where the sequence of the photograph obeyed "AIGI SETUMEISYO" were produced latest, it is thought that these were produced after January, 1892 when "AIGI SETUMEISYO" was edited. 5) Miyashita was concerned with editing of "MEIJI 24 NEN SEYUMEISYO" in the beginning of December, 1891, in the next month, he revised ibidem, and he gathered up "AIGI RYOKEN SETUMEISYO". In addition, the photograph album corresponding to "MEIJI 24 NENSETUMEISYO" has been never seen, but contents are equivalent to "MEIJI 24 NEN SYASINTYO" published in 1931.
This report is intended to clarify the characteristics of houses which Shichiro Kigo designed. Firstly, analyze the style of houses and its background. Secondly, consider about Kigo's thought and method for introducing Japanese rooms of Western-style houses. Kigo adopted various styles by each intention of the owner, residential use, structure when he designed houses. Kinds of style is Japanese, French Renaissance style, Dutch Colonial style, Art Deco, Spanish style. Above all, Spanish style was adopted frequently. And those houses are recognized as the beginning of the Spanish architectural influences in modern Japan. Many people were exhorting double life that incorporates the lifestyle of Japanese and Western both ways in modern Japan. But, Kigo preached the need for a Japanese room. Kigo embodied the thought, provided with a Japanese room in a number of Western-Style houses. At first, the constitution was Japanese room inside of the Western-style houses. But, exterior of Toshikuni House which was built in 1928 was Western-style and Japanese-style were fused. In that occasion, the Japanese-style floor-level window for sweeping out dust was adopted to Western-style house by made out of the eaves deeper. In addition, came to be consider the gradually portion in border with Western-style and Japanese-style in the indoor. Many houses in modern Japan were based to Japanese-style, it was introduced Western-style rooms as a service space. Percentage of Japanese room was reduced with the passage of year. On the other hand, many owner of Kigo had that experience living abroad. So Life base of Kigo's Houses were Western-style. And, introduced a Japanese room in there. If looking at the trend of Spanish style in modern Japan, interior was also a Western-style in early stages. Next, introduced Japanese room from 1928－1929. And made out of the eaves deeper in accordance with climate of Japan. Kigo "even imitate the Western-style house, one must think of house as a Japanese" based on the thought, drove the adaptation of the Spanish style to Japan.
This research investigates the modernization of architecture and urban planning in Catalonia, Spain, under the direction of G.A.T.C.P.A.C. (Grup d'Arquitectes i Tècnics Catalans per al Progrés de l'Arquitectura Contemporània, 1930-1939). Special attention is paid to Mediterranean vernacular architecture and furniture, by reading of the bulletin “A.C.” (Documentos de Actividad Contemporánea, 1931-1937).
We aim to clarify a number of issues. First, articles about Mediterranean vernacular architecture appeared in “A.C.” nos. 1, 6, 18, 19, and 21, particularly nos. 18, 19, and 21 (Chapter 2). Second, through an analysis of “A.C.” nos. 1, 6, 18, 19, and 21, we establish the fact that G.A.T.C.P.A.C. defined common characteristics of vernacular and modern architecture as “constant,” and that these characteristics had the following four features: 1) Modern and vernacular architecture are in accord with Mediterranean life and climate (e.g., openings and courtyards connect the interiors and exteriors of buildings; walls and roofs separate interiors from exteriors for shading, insulation, ventilation, etc.). 2) As a rule, housing aims for the minimum spatial cell. This spatial cell responds to different personal environmental conditions. This aggregation of cells creates villages which give people a feeling of solidarity and optimistic thought. 3) There is harmony in the region’s use of natural elements (e.g., original color of building materials, ambient light and shadow). This harmony gives people peaceful and hopeful feelings, instead of the solemnness afforded by traditional architectural ornamentation. 4) Lyricism is generated by the use of Mediterranean traditional furniture and half-outdoor spaces, such as patios, where collective activity takes place. This lyricism provides a psychological bridge from interior space to outdoor activities. Furthermore, G.A.T.C.P.A.C. applied the above characteristics to its own architecture along with the functional city planning project for Barcelona (Chapter 3). Third, the above proposals of G.A.T.C.P.A.C. were influenced by the following four issues: 1) Urban problems such as overpopulation and an insanitary environment, as seen in Barcelona. 2) Popularity of leisure activities in Catalonia, Spain, in the 1920s. 3) National policies of the Second Spanish Republic, such as improvement of working conditions and the promotion of sports and tourism in the 1930s. 4) Arguments at the CIAM IV Meeting in 1933, which served to spearhead the international modern architectural movement (Chapter 4). The authors argue that G.A.T.C.P.A.C. members believed that national issues could be solved via a comprehensive approach to object design, architectural and urban planning in Barcelona. They emphasize the rationality and lyricism inherent in Mediterranean vernacular architecture and outdoor activities.
The American reception of the two eminent architectural theoreticians, namely the Englishman John Ruskin and Frenchman Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, was preceded by the formulation of functionalist theory before 1850 by Horatio Greenough, whose idea of architectural design would be widely popularized by Ralph Waldo Emerson, the leading philosopher of transcendentalism, just after Greenough’s untimely death. This introductory phase led to the portrayal of Ruskin as a functionalist; Viollet-le-Duc would eventually take his place during the Francophile tide of the 60’s. Thus, the American architectural world elaborated its own consistent functionalist genealogy, while referring and freely interpreting the words of these men according to contemporary thought, before the translated publication of Discourses on Architecture in 1875.
This paper aims to clarify the framework of the image of places in contemporary society through the analysis of words on sightseeing brochures of the towns which promote themselves as Shokyoto (little Kyoto). These towns attempt to enhance their historical value by borrowing the image of Kyoto, old Japanese capital city. They have obtained unique historical image which have transformed from that of Kyoto. Local governments and tourist offices of these towns have published sightseeing brochures to express their historical attractions. Therefore, the framework of their image can be read from them. Firstly, the contents of historical attraction of each town were examined from two aspects of words on sightseeing brochures; Value Objects and their history (Fig. 1, 2 and 3, Table 1 and 2). Hierarchical relations between Value Objects were considered to capture the whole historical attraction of each town, which are composed of all Value Objects in each sightseeing brochure. These relations were analyzed from the context and the appearance frequency of Value Objects in the text, we found 56 groups of hierarchically-linked Value Objects (Value Groups) (Fig. 4 and 5). Consequently, a set of Value Groups can be recognized as the whole historical attraction of each town from words on the sightseeing brochures. Secondly, according to the content of Value Object which is on the top of hierarchy, the characters of each Value Group were classified into following four categories; whole-of-town type, space-of-town type, life-in-town type, and periphery-of-town type. Space-of-town type and life- in-town type were classified further into four categories; linear-space type, spotted-space type, activity type and article type (Fig. 6). Thirdly, in order to capture the whole historical attraciton of each town, the set of Value Groups in each sightseeing brochure was considered, and 6 patterns were extracted (Table 3). We found characteristic relations between combinations of Value Groups and geographical distribution of the towns; towns located to the east of Kyoto tend to include whole-of-town type, and towns located to the west of Kyoto tend to include space-of-town type. These results suggest the difference of the meaning of Kyoto between eastern and western part of Japan. Finally, all the results above were compared with those of Koedo (little Edo), which were investigated in the previous report (Fig. 7, 8, 9 and 10). As a result, characteristic frameworks of the image of Shokyoto and Koedo were found relatively: The pattern which consists of several whole-of-town types (pattern ウ), and the pattern which includes periphery-of-town type (pattern P) were peculiar to Shokyoto. Meanwhile, the pattern which consists of single life-in-town type (pattern III), and the pattern which consists of several space-of-town types ( pattern IV) were peculiar to Koedo. These results suggest distinctive frameworks of the image of Shokyoto and Koedo: The framework of Shokyoto is a metaphorical image of Kyoto, which overlook the whole character of the town. On the other hand, the framework of Koedo is a metonymic image of Edo, which highlights either spatial or cultural character of the town.
This paper aims to clarify the birth and growth process of commercial clusters in Kobe city under occupation and grasp the tendency of continuance and disappearance, and the consider influence on urban structure in modern era. It had not been recognized enough until now that the actual revival situation of black-markets, markets, shopping street in Minatogawa-Shinkaichi area and Sannnomiya area. In this study, it was clarified that the formation dynamics of commercial clusters in Kobe, from viewpoint of organization, location, function. The initiative of street-stall keepers, repatriate organizations in Minatogawa, and resident alien organization in Sannomiya area were seen in the formation of these commercial spaces. The area damaged by WWII was led to the business district by birth black-markets and new commercial spaces, for example the around railroad underpass and station area. And there were many cases that two different objects collided between the continuation hope of the leased land contract by the person of business and reconstruction projects of local government. At first, it was intended that the barrack restaurant's main function was support of needy person. But with the improvement of economic conditions, the function shifted to one factor of the local revitalization. In Sannomiya and Minatogawa area, the large land where people lived in before was taken over by GHQ to build their troop housing. These suddenly orders disturbed the life rebuilding of local inhabitants, and the control to how to use of the public space was investigate many times over. The people were evicted from place of residence. But they found nearby open space and moved to there by themselves. As a result, GHQ and local inhabitants lived in space next to each other. Under the situation, there was the example which GHQ ordered removal the houses of inhabitants, because of which regard as problem hygiene, public morals, a beautiful sight. So the local government started war damage reconstruction projects which include negotiations for the land use made slow progress, because there were so many actors of variety in the transformation of central area, Kobe. The land readjustment project of Kobe city that began for war-damage revival continued until 1993. The redevelopment business of the Sannomiya area continued for a long time. The Sannomiya district city area remodeling project of the station west began in 1966 for the environmental improvement of the densely built wooden house areas. The Sannomiya east district redevelopment project was carried out since 1975, but in particular the project was stagnant in Asahi-dori 4 district where "Sannomiya international market" since Oct 1946 and declined. The main reason that the situation of densely built wooden house areas continued from 1946 to redevelopment projects for a long time was influence of the large-scale and complex commerce clusters that were prior to the local government's reconstruction plan.
The Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972) of UNESCO is known as the most
effective international legal instrument for the conservation of cultural and natural heritage. In order to judge the value of World
Heritage sites, two concepts of "Outstanding Universal Value" and "Representativity" are to be taken into consideration. The proper
understanding of these concepts that may sometimes contradict each other is essential for the future administration of the
Convention and its credibility. This paper analyzes the discussions of the World Heritage Committee on these concepts and its
This paper clarifies how people get contact with information space in their daily life through tweet data, and identify characteriistics of each area from the viewpoint of relationship between information space and substance space. Recently, flow between these two spaces have become activated through technical innovation, and Twitter represents the relationship. This paper defines temporal-spatial attributes of tweets and describes regional characteristics by utilizing the attributes. In particular, we suggest a method to identify user's residenatial/working areas based on their tweeting pattern, and moreover, visualize the potential distributions of each area. This paper can be divided into two parts. One is identification of tweets' attributes, and the other is visualization of regional characteristics. There are various studies on identification of tweets' attributes especially identification of user's residential area by analyzing tweet data, but most of them need to take advantage of some locar words/data, therefore are lacking in universalities. On the other hand, this paper enables comprehensive estimation by only using tweet's location and time data. Moreover, while most of studies on visualization of regional characteristics treat tweet data just as substitute for other geographic data (e.g. person-trip data, GPS data), this paper utilizes characterisitcs of Twitter and introduce new attributes of tweets. In this paper, we acquired 12,553,361 tweets between March 26th - April 28th. 2015 covering all parts of Japan. By calculating these data by user, we analyze from each viewpoint of stagnation, continuousness of tweeting, and exogeneity. First, we define tweet distance as a distance between locations of two successive tweets by the same user, and tweet span as an interspace between times of two successive tweets by the same user. By examining these two values, we can evaluate tweets' stagnation and contiuousness of tweeting. Therefore, short tweet distance means the user stagnate at one spot and short tweet span indicates that the user post tweets in a row. Next, we estimate tweets' exogeneity by identifying users' main tweeting points. Through spatial clustering, we acquire two main clusters for each user and define their center points as main tweeting points. Then, we categorize the two points into daytime/nighttime main tweeting points by modal tweeting time of each main cluster. Based on the distribution of daytime/nighttime main tweeting points, it can be said that daytime main tweeting points represent users' working area (or school) and nightime one do users' residential area. Actually, average distance between daytime/nighttime main tweeting points is ~30km, which is roughly equivalent to average distance between working space and residential area in Tokyo. In chapter 5, we visualize the regional characteristics by utilizing the three tweets' attributes introduced in the previous chapter. In concrete terms, we select two areas in Tokyo (Harajuku and Akihabara) and visualize the potential distribution for each. First, we apply Kernel density estimation to the areas and observe the tweet-density. Moreover, by levaraging Kriging metohd, we enable to visualize stagnation potential, continuous-tweeting potential, and exogeneity potential. From the viewpoint of projection from information space, we can not only reacknowledge the images of each area, but also discover some new regional characteristics which have been veiled in the substance space. This paper realizes the method to evaluate the substance space from the viewpoint of information space. It is possible to utilize this method and knowledge for various purposes from urban planning to marketing.