This study investigates the role of risk factors and ease factors in residential burglars' target selection process using a computer - simulated model. The results showed that burglars considered risk factor as the most important factor in target block searching and risk and ease factor were equally considered in target house searching. While the detailed risk and ease factors which affect burglars' target searching process are identified and the implications of these findings are considered, the limitations of the results are also discussed.
Due to rapid economic growth in Shanghai, there is currently an increase in projects of Lilong housing renewal. The changes are affecting everything from the cityscape to the Lilong housing community and even the lifestyle of the residents. The Luwan District was chosen as the study area. The research aimed to examine the renewal trend and all its accompanying social background factors from a macro-level point of view as well as the assessment and satisfaction from the residents' viewpoints. The research methods included information collection and analyses from archival records, interviews of researchers and local authorities and a questionnaire of residents. The findings show that the renewal methods became more diverse in contrast to the projects carried out before the 1990s, and that conservation is considered as an important concept but carried out in different ways. Furthermore, through interviews with the residents, it was found that residents who stay at their former housing location are more satisfied with their neighbors and the community and contribute more to the local area's vitality than those who moved to new housing in an outer suburb.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the daily activities of elderly individuals in local communities and speculate the relationships of the elderly with people, with buildings, and with social services within the community. To show clearly what connects elderly individuals and the community, we defined such relationships between them as a term 'CHIEN.' This paper is aimed at investigating the changes of 'CHIEN' of the elderly. Interview surveys on daily activities and human relationships have been conducted four times in two years. Analyses of the data which have been collected from these interview surveys enabled us to recognise the relationships of the changes in their daily activities with the changes of their psychological and physical conditions, their daily activities, and their supportive environments. The outcomes of this paper will likely contribute to the planning of the local community especially for the elderly.
Despite the fact that more elderly residents tend to live in medical facilities rather than in welfare institution, few researches have focused on the settings in medical facilities for the elderly. This paper focuses on a hospital for the elderly which has been rebuilt and, from the viewpoint of the residents' mode of stay, aims to clarify the form of utilization of the shared spaces in the facility. The results are as follows: 1) In order to control the influences by the surrounding people, the residents appropriately use various shared spaces depending on whom they spend time with. The residents with not sever ADL levels tend to make interactions in the newly added common spaces except the two living spaces. 2) In the living spaces, interactions among the residents and also between the residents and the carers decreases because utilization of the living spaces by the residents with not sever ADL levels and the carers is not seen frequently. But, on the other hand, the physical settings such as a kitchenette are effective and expected to make interactions among the residents.
In many hospitals, since it passes several years after construction, institution-alterations, such as an extension and repair, are performed. I think it what should be performed first to get to know whether it runs short whether the institution scale is sufficient to the medical treatment performed now. In the hospital which is continuing the medical treatment after completion of an institution for years, the situation peculiar to a hospital has happened and it is thought that the difference has arisen also by the medical contents for every section. It aims at finding out the technique of knowing how many institution scales of each section are sufficient in the hospital which is performing the present medical treatment.
The purpose of this paper is to grasp characteristics of children's behavior during fire escape. For this purpose we developed an escape simulator which represents a school building on fire, and verified that it is useful for investigation into characteristics of route choice during fire escape. The results are summarized as follows; ・The escape simulator is an effective means for investigating characteristics of route choice during escape. ・Route choice experiments using this simulator are able to get almost the same result as the route map investigation's. ・Using this simulator, we can analyze subjects' characteristics of route choice which change every minute, and so can grasp more detail regarding behavior during fire escape.
The purpose of this article is to clarify 'comfortable places' of urban area in Tokyo and Osaka. Questionnaire were taken from office workers in both areas. Workers described their 'comfortable places' that they had constructed in their everyday city life. To analyze these places, the viewpoints of state were taken, and workers' 'comfortable places' were classified by 'suru(act)', 'naru(become)', 'dearu(be)' place-expressions. The findings are as follows, 1) Workers' main 'comfortable places' included restaurants, shops, streets, parks, townscapes, and landscapes. 2) Typical keywords about place-expressions were selected and several types of 'comfortable places' were organized using these keywords. 3) Place-expressions 'naru(become)' is most significant and superior to others. 4) The usefulness of analyzing using 'suru(act)', 'naru(become)', 'dearu(be)' place-expressions was confirmed.
This paper proposes a non-local distribution theory of time resource, which allows one to deal directly with the distributed time resource potentials, to incorporate its dynamic adjustment mechanism of parts and whole of activities as well as uncertainty into the scheduling model. The elastic network scheduling method is derived from the temporal potentials, and will be applied to a simple case to show distinct characteristics compared to the classical network method CPM.
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the intelligibility of university campus after improving the signage system, which is set up based on the problems found in the space structure and the signage. The wayfinding behavior by the first-comers to Suita Campus of Osaka University was investigated in 1998, 1999, and 2001, through the questionnaire surveys and the observations of overt behavior which mainly focused on the influences of intentional changes of signage system. We found that, from 1998, 1999 to 2001, (1) the wayfinding behavior was significantly developed, which was that the lostness and the excessive walking ratio decreased, and (2) the complaints about the signage in the campus decreased. We conclude that the improvement of intelligibility shall be related to the improvements of signage.
The main issue is comparison of local city sphere in prefectures by commutation and attends school. We select Osaka, Fukuoka and Oita prefectures as subject areas. At first we examine the exchange ratio for setting up local city sphere and verify the validity of the exchange ratio. Next, the constitution and change of the local city spheres were made clear and compared in five times. By this analysis, we grasp the characteristics of the relation ship and constitution in three prefectures. Further more, the constitution characteristics is classified and the schematic diagrams are made.
abstract : In this study, the change of land use and degree of mixture of land use from 1974 to 1996 are analyzed through Detailed Digital Information issued by GSI with focusing on distance from coastal line in megalopolis on waterfront between Osaka and Kobe. The Information entropy of Shanon is applied to calculate degree of mixture of land use. The followings are concluded; 1.The land use and degree of mixture of land use vary according to distance from coastal line, and influence on land use change for 10 years. 2.They are related to each other and characterize areas on waterfront.
This study aims to clarify the transition of townscape through paint colors at the West Historic Quarter in Hakodate where many old western style houses remain with wood siding. The main method is to scrub a small part of painted wooden walls, windowframes and posts of houses with sandpaper and to find concentric color rings of paint layers, which we named "temporal color ring". As a result, we found that the color of the townscape has changed seven times in the period over one century from the begining of the Meiji era until present day, and after the 1970s the characteristic colors are pink and pale green, and decorative painting by different colors among walls and other parts.
This paper illustrates the application of text mining approach to extracting potential information from HCFP (Housing Construction Five-year Program) text documents using lexical statistics. After obtaining the lexical statistic from the collected Reports (Toshin) and Program (Keikaku) of HCFP, we intensively investigated the relation between the actual documents' contextual meaning and the resulting information obtained by multivariate analysis and network analysis. The results clearly show that the lexical statistic of frequency and co-occurrence of key words have beneficial information on both capturing key issues and degree of centralities of key words in HCFP documents. These encouraging findings suggest the promising possibility of application of this methodology in urban planning and architecture domain.
This paper shows the concept and the available evaluating method for public facilities management on a self-governing body. A bird's-eye method is the evaluating one at same time the managing situations of many different facilities in all over the administrative district The availability of method could be confirmed by evaluating the management records of city halls, assembly facilities, libraries and children's houses in SETAGAYA-KU, Tokyo. Also the managing characteristics and the managing position of public facilities were clarified, so that the strategy planning of facility management in next stage could be easy.
The purpose of this paper is to review the urban redevelopment history of postwar Tokyo from the view point of wooden barrack pub area. Wooden barrack pub area was rooted in postwar black market, and mainly transformed during postwar reconstruction and high growth. In former age it continued as same form, but in later age it changed in various elements such as trade style, institution of redevelopment, trend of business owners, and structure of land ownership. Consequently the urban space especially around the railroad station was transformed. Wooden barrack pub area functioned as an incubator through which newcomers assimilated into the big city, and walked ahead of new urban redevelopment and urban space.
On this study, 881 pictorial drawings of Town-House in the 18th through early 19th century have been extracted from Kenninji archives, and broken down into four patterns of Toridoma, Okudotna, Toridoma-Okudoma, and Maedoma type by the earth floor types. From the analysis, Maedoma type, found exclusively in Uraya, had an overwhelming majority while the other three patterns existed equally in Omoteya. However, the number of Toridoma-Okudoma and Okudoma type decreased, and Omoteya came to have Toridoma type pattern alone. Consequently, only two patterns of Maedoma type and Toridoma type remained in the late 18th century.
This work intends to disclose the ordering system for actual firefighting in Kyoto city under the Tokugawa regime (Tokugawa era). Some studies described that the magistrate office decided to substitute the professional firefighter for the fire extinguishing team consisting of citizen because of their sabotage, in 1777. But, in this paper, it will be clarified the performance of the citizen at the firing location. In conclusion, they were used to be performed as the fire fighter and occasionally had good results so the magistrate office counted on them.
In the Meiji Period, Nikko Tosho-gu was written in the textbook on geography in primary school. The estimation of Nikko Tosho-gu in professional education was different from that in primary school. This study is to make clear the difference between primary and professional education
Being based on the surveyed data of 254 examples collected since 1997 in the four provinces of the Northern parts of Viet Nam ; Bac Ninh, Ha Tay, Nam Dinh and Thanh Hoa, this paper refers to an evolutional process of the spatial composition which we can find in the traditional Vietnamese dwellings. At first, analyzing the different structural systems shown between the central axial part and the lateral sides in the main room, the authors describe a functional shift occured in the main room. Then, viewing a devekiomental process caused by changing the practical use of hien, we discuss an evlutional changing developmental process caused by changing the practical use of hien, we discuss an evolutional changing of the spatial meaning in the whole main building composed of a main room, lateral sub-was and hien.
This study aims to clarify the relations between the architectural space and the regionality described in Saikaku's works at Genroku period through the two methods. First, it is that we extract the words of architectural space and the characters from Saikaku's literacy works. Besides, we classify into architectural and contextual element. Second, it is that we plot on the map to grasp the point of the relation about the region. It is as follows. In the Genroku period, Japan was able to have a variety of regions characterized by architectural words and characters. At this ages, the social strata clearly exist among living people. And it had influence upon the architecural space as a spatial boundary such as the gate, door, and the sliding door. The regionaliry is full of colors. In Kansai area, every region is connected with each other. But, on the contrary, the Musashi area had been isolated from Kantoh area, in spite of their architectual prosperity.
The author argues the construction method of the proportion by Kenzo Tange through the reduction method by the angles of elevation. Even in the cases of simple function buildings of his early works like Hiroshima Peace Center, it is impossible to get complete proportion balance only with the simple drawing methods, because it is necessary to consider the influence of reduction and extension of the angles of elevation to get actual beautiful proportion 3 dimensionally. For this purpose studies of details of sections with models through his eyes is necessary, and as the result he could reach the good works.
Regarding geometrical relationships closely connected with Mies' "successful relationship" in the open plans from analysis of his transitional, from his European to American, projects in the 1940's, the Museum for a Small City, the Farnsworth House, the 1947 Exhibition and the 50 by 50 Feet House, it is found that Mies was increasing the geometrical relationships one by one, from collinearity through similarity to equilateral triangles, in response to the appearance of the new type of open plan.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of sight-seeing courses described in guidebooks of Kyoto in the first half of the Edo period, through the analysis of the Inner-city(Rakuchu). Compared with the Outer-city(Rakugai) courses being stereotyped in two styles, the Inner-city courses are described in various styles. By analyzing the reality of the sight-seeing courses, the starting points and the spatial cognition of the Inner and the Outer-city, we can understand that the sight-seeing in the guidebooks was constructed in both realistic and imaginary ways.
There were three levels during the brick town Ginza was completed. All levels were successions to urban structure and space construction of the Edo Period. First of all, there was the conception level. The new government had plans to purchase the entire area of Ginza and reconstruct it in the way they wanted. But they ended up purchasing only the land making up the roads that were extended or newly constructed. The second level was street plan. The main road (Ginza-Dori) was extended to 15KEN (about 27.3m). Other roads were extended to 10KEN, 8KEN and 3KEN. But they had almost made them on streets of the Edo Period. The last one was architecture plan. Thomas James Waters experimented with Ginza with the methods including "all brick buildings", construction of buildings whose "building-scale was in accordance with road width", construction of "row buildings", placement of a continued "pedestrian pavement", and "style-uniformity". The case of "row buildings" was architecture plan that made good use of urban structure and space construction of the Edo Period.
A Morlgolian Yurt is traditionally composed of four Dwelling Spaces. Men sit in the Westside of the Yurt, Women in the East whereas Fire is located at the Centre and the worship space in the North of the Yurt. A Yurt builder in the earliest Mongolian history and today, has to obey the rules of orientation ; that is, the Entrance of the Yurt faces South, the Westside in the Yurt be the primary space, the Eastern secondary whereas the North reserved for the sacred. Were the Clay-moulded Dwellings built by the Mongolian since the Ching Dynasty (1644-1911AD) constructed with the rules of orientation above? And if so, how did the Concept of the yurt's Space Composition physically shape up the space composition of the Clay-moulded Dwellings? In this research it is hoped that by its comparison to the Yurt the space composition of the Clay-moulded Dwelling can be crystallized.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify how the private property rights have been treated in the British Listed Building System. It is a very big problem when the historical buildings are conserved by the government powers. It is the most outstanding character that it does not need the owners' consent when the government put a certain building on the statutory list in Britain. Therefore I focused on how the system has been established and examined the argument when it was enacted. I also discussed how the private property right has been thought in the history of the British Town Planning System. As a result, I reached the following conclusions. At the beginning, the government initiated and introduced the compensation system, but it did not go well. Gradually, the public consensus for conservation had changed because they saw many historic buildings were destroyed rapidly by the development, and the powerful system was established with the backing of public opinion.