In pressurization smoke control system, air supply rates may be calculated under the condition that all the doors are open in order to cope with the worst scenario for the air supply rates. Nevertheless, opening conditions of the doors may have an influence on the pressures of corridor, elevator shaft and vestibule in actual fire. In this study, the effects of opening conditions of the fire-room doors on corridor pressure and required air supply rates are considered, and the existence of a smoke-free situation in corridor even on fully developed fire is found. In addition, the effect on pressure difference between elevator shaft and corridor is examined, when the staircase doors happened to be closed and the pressure of corridor may rise. As a result, the method for design pressure relief between corridor and outdoor is proposed to satisfy the smoke stop condition between elevator shaft and corridor.
Ultraviolet Radiation is classified according to wavelength into three categories such as UV-A (315-400nm), UV-B (280-315nm), and UV-C (under 280nm). In these categories, UV-B is especially dangerous by causing damages such as cataracts, loss of skin immunity and increase in skin cancer. For this reason it is important to avoid overexposure to ultraviolet radiation. The first step in this avoidance is understand the sky UV'B radiance distribution and reflection of UV-B in areas of human activity. Although sky luminance distribution has been studied around the world, the sky ultraviolet radiance distribution has not yet been studied. This study is designed to observe an analyze the sky UV-B radiance distributions. And ultraviolet daylight factors were calculated based on the regression equation of the sky UV-B radiance distribution of clear sky.
This paper proposes a computational method of simulating interaction between the state and transition of environment and the state and action of human in the environment. The proposed model is composed of two different types of simulation models and a module that couples the models. One model simulates the thermal behavior of a building by numerical calculation based on the state equations representing the heat balance among the elements of the building. The other model simulates how an action is determined in a certain situation and how the action changes a part of environment. Logic programming is employed for the simulation. The module mediates the data that are the different descriptions of the same entities in the similation models.
A large thermal capacity is effective in keeping heat load more flat, and making the heating and cooling equipment small. In this study, it shows about the effects on applying the PCM (Phase Change Material)-wallboard, which is the plasterboard with PCM pellets, and the melting point of the PCM is approximately the room temperature. This melting point of the PCM is helpful to keep the space temperature and heat load more flat all the year around. By using the PCM-wallboard to a wooden house, it makes the space temperature and heat load more flat, as that of concrete house, by the latent heat thermal storage. This paper shows about the measurement for the thermal behavior of the PCM-wallboard as a basic ability, the field experiments using experimental model houses, and the study on the simulation program, to examine the possibility of keeping the space temperature and heat load more flat and also the possibility of the peak-cut control.
Recently organic gas is one of the most important factors to control the AMC (Airborne Molecular Contaminants) in a cleanroom. It is used to measure the gas emission flux in the small chamber test for selecting a cleanroom materials or estimating cleanroom air concentration. However for estimating air concentration after a long term, it is necessary to measure the gas emission flux for a longtime. And for estimating of concentration in cleanroom air, it is used to calculate by the gas emission flux. But there are a quite a few reports that examined the relationship between actual data and calculation. In this study, we examined the rate constant of double exponential model. It was found that the logarithm of the rate constant related to 1/T, so it is possible to estimate the rate constant at room temperature for a short time. And a tendency to decrease of concentration was in good accordance between actual data and calculation.
Energy Conservation Buildings are very effective for restraint of global warming. To find the most suitable strategies for energy conservation, it is necessary to assess various combinations of energy conservation techniques based on both environmental and economic viewpoints. Since these assessments are laborious and time consuming, an assessment tool has been desired. This paper describes a computer program named "Integrated Assessment System for Energy Conservation" that allows engineers and architects to recombine many energy conservation techniques easily in early phase of architectural and building services planning. Through computer simulation, vector diagrams to find the most suitable combination will be presented.
Thermal capacity of building envelope has an effect of reducing heating and cooling storage load. This paper argues how much peak and cumulative energy can be reduced by utilizing building thermal storage. The author has already proposed a dynamic optimization technique solving such a problem. In this paper, the optimization technique is employed for annual calculation where the object system is an office room equipped with electric-driven packaged air conditioner. The optimized functions are 1) cumulative electricity, 2) peak electricity, and 3) electricity charge. Electricity charge optimization is dealt with as multi-objective problem composed of minimizing cumulative electricity and minimizing peak electricity. The optimal trajectory of room air temperature and electrical demand are also investigated for each season.
Single-/double-effect absorption refrigerators that use exhaust heat from fuel cells apply the characteristics of exhaust heat recovered from fuel cells to achieve highly efficient operation. When absorption refrigerators using fuel cell exhaust heat are operated continuously throughout the year, the cooling capacity changes significantly depending on the temperature of the coolant water. Cooling capacity deteriorates with summer operating conditions as compared to winter operating conditions. We thus examined the possibility of improving performance by adding a gas-burning function to supplement the reduced cooling capacity. As a result, we confirmed that we were able to improve the cooling performance as desired.
Due to researching the actual conditions of the urban climate in Nagano City, the authors obtained the following results: (1) Land use maps were made by observing remote sensing data in Nagano City. Information concerning the temperature, absolute humidity and nocturnal radiation was collected. Weather maps were created by analyzing this data. (2) The flux of direct-normal solar radiation and horizontal sky radiation maps were made by breaking down global radiation into direct and diffuse components. (3) Wind direction and wind velocity maps were produced by the examination of collected data from ten different locations in Nagano City.
Fundamental hygrothermal properties of soil were obtained by a series of numerical experiments in which the hygrothermal dynamics model was adopted as an exact solution. These properties as Evaporation Ratio, Hydraulic Transmittance and Moisture Diffusivity are simultaneously requisite in the simplified calculation model to estimate evaporation rate from soil surface, the authors developed. Time-series data of calculation led to the relationships between normalized weight water content of discrete soil surface layer and above-mentioned three properties, respectively. These relationships seem to be the most appropriate presentation of the hygrothermal properties from the view point of practical use. Good agreement between the exact solution and simplified one as compared with the Constant Evaporation Ratio Model, was considered to warrant a validity of the identified properties.
In this research, we pay attention to one of the man's high and non-particular sensations, sense of time, and try to examine how the index synthetically realize the interaction of man and his space based on the interview investigation in the outdoors. Subjects feel the time shorter when self-affection is rest, and longer when space-image is untidy and lonely. But for the man who feels depressed in the lonely place, the sense of time becomes shorter. It is suggested that sense of time expresses unconscious and original interaction of man with his space.
We surveyed college students values regarding their living environment. A 30 item questionnaire on the evaluation of the living environment was conducted three times for 606 newly entering college freshmen. We used covariance structure models to examine for effects of their value systems, physical environment and hometown. A factor analysis of the 30 item environmental evaluation showed 2 upper factors; i.e. 'natural' and 'artificial' and 8 lower factors. We also obtained covariance structures of evaluation of the living environment by using 3 factors; i.e. 'natural environmental conservation', 'urban infrastructure improvement', and 'urban convenience'. It was found that for both hometown and residence, physical environment of hometowns affected evaluation of the 3 factors and value systems affected the synthetic evaluation for living environment. It was also shown that environmental cognition of residence integrated with environmental transition because the numbers of 'unknown' in residence evaluation gradually decreased.
This paper explains about secular change of residents and dwelling unit floor plans in Pilot House Housing Development built in 1947, which was one of the oldest "Free Planned Condominium " in Japan. Main results are as follows. 1) Early nuclear family residents with 2 children became old couples or old couples with an adult child. 2) Vacated spaces left by separations of children were often used passively. 3) Dwelling unit floor plans which are older than 10 years were changed more than 80 %. 4) Extension of living rooms increases recently.
The purpose of this study is to analyze and evaluate the Chayama and Sunabe project in Okinawa provided by the Ryukyu Housing and Development Estate (RHD)by looking at the extension process of their extensible houses. As survey methods, observations of housings and interviews with residents were used. Some results show as follows: 1) The extensible style was introduced by RHD to make the best use of RC construction. However, extensible style was not a main factor of purchase for residents. 2) The transisional process is divided by 3 terms, mass renovations at the beginning, extension term, stable term. At the extension, 4 types of extension styles were observed and it is thought that the provision of spatial diversity. The utilization greatly affects the life-style of dwellers especially for reserved space as extension of housing. The extension able space assure the residents that they make the diverse and flexible life which is stemmed from their autonomous life style.
The purpose is to clarify the building process of coal mining settlements by comparing 2 mines. As a result, hills and damp grounds and so on that were low yield, were selected as the site, because there had been a rice-producing district in Chikuho region. The both areas were self-supporting planed, and insides had minimum establishments of life for them. Each supply of houses for coal miners from 1919 (after the world war I) to 1930 (before the Manchurian Incident) was quite different in each personnel management system and a operating policy. In the period under control from 1931 to 1949 (the end of the world war II), the time selected by each company effected each form of settlement. The coal mining settlements were related to the business strategy of each company, deeply.
This study aims at considering about planning of primary schools through the investigation works that observed the actual conditions of pupils' activities were undertaken at Utase Primary School since 4 years ago when it established. This paper reported the feature of the way to use spaces and the actual conditions of pupils' grouping (; they were analyzed from the viewpoint of furniture arrangements and pupils' activities). This work revealed as follows:, 1) In Utase, there were some various spaces in learning spaces. It is different from learning spaces as before that were composed by only 'class spaces' and 'open spaces'. 2) The various spaces were composed in the spaces of each grade, but it has been changing continually by increasing the number of pupils and classes. Finally, it showed the relations between learning activities, the various spaces and the groups of activities.
The purpose of this study is to get a fundamental knowledge in the architectural planning of play setting shared by all children include handicapped. For this objective, the investigation works to observe 5 intellectual handicapped children chosen from 3 day-service institutions was undertaken in about one week (include integrate program) for one child. Some results are shown as follows. 1) Playing of subject children increase at integrate program, 2) There are various participation and breakaway in children's presence, 3) It is important to make not only fixed play structure but all play settings.
The purpose of this study is to know how the elderlys rccognize the community and human relations in the context of their daily life. We define such relations between the elderly and the community as a term 'CHIEN'. For this purpose, a questionnaire survey and an interview survey were conducted in an area in Tohoku region. Qualitative analysis of the elderly' s life conditions from viewpoint of 'CHIKN' showed the structure of the elderly's life in the community. That is relationships amang the elderly's life need, behavior and their living environment which supports their daily life.
In this study, the evaluation structure on materials and/or construction methods for urban shrines and temples was analyzed based on measurement of images by using SD method and questionnaire survey. Three factors; i.e., emotional evaluation, traditional and natural, a sex difference and weight were obtained by factor analyses. By structure analyses on the semantic space, it becomes clear that temples and shrines are well for natural wood and stone, and worst for plastic materials. The result of questionnaire survey shows that there exists a difference in selecting construction methods between general peoples and temple owners.
Based on three case studies of social welfare facilities in proto-typical settings in a farm village, a town, and a city, we investigated how the facilities for persons with intellectual disability had been located and how they had been perceived and accepted by the local community. The following are results achieved by analyzing the diachronically receptive processes in case studies: 1) Employment opportunities which the facilities provided to the local people made it more easily receptive to people in the community. 2) The facilities played an important role of interacting with the local people in the local community. 3) The facilities tried to establish equal partnership with the local community. 4) Small group living was a key to reducing prejudice against persons with intellectual disability, and made people in the community more easily interactive under ordinary circumstances. 5) Reliable back-up supports were found to be essential in assisting independent living with persons with intellectual disability.
This is the second report of the study on the planning of material supply department in hospital buildings. First of all, this paper describes the investigation on materials management system in 49 hospitals with SPD function. Secondly, I analyzed the relation of the system to floor plan of material supply department in the hospitals from view point of supply, processing and distribution system. As the results, I was able to clarify that, although the SPD floor plans in most of the hospitals are well made, actual operations of supply, processing and distribution system are not fully functioning in almost all the hospitals.
This study aims at showing that the hypothesis recently suggested by the researchers of children's image drawings are applicable to adults' more complex architectural drawings; that is, improvement of the skills for making drawings cannot be achieved without obtaining appropriate strategies for planning and controlling drawing sequences. In this paper, the authors carefully analyze the drawing sequences of the 21 novice subjects on their ways of designing their own houses and argue whether their strategies of organizing drawing sequences are limited or not. The 5 types of drawing sequences are found among all the subjects: additive sequence with developing floor area/corridor area, simple subtractive sequence, subtractive sequence with corridor area, sequence of cutting off, sequence of geometric division. However, the former 4 types, to which most of the subjects' drawing sequences belong, are inevitably based on the linear process in which the rooms are drawn one by one to the adjacent until it eventually ends up with the most ambiguous rooms, mostly in the rear rest part of the house. As the result, it is argued that some of the characteristic deforms that appear in novice subjects' drawings should be attributed to the consequences of this linear drawing progress.
Building parts and building systems are changed with performance requirements of the times. Subjects of developments are different according to the way of reacting to the performance requirements by developers. We think that differences between "Housing and Urban Development Corporation" and "private companies" are shown in developments of sanitary equipments. Then we researched the change of developmental items and performance requirements in both, and grasped influences for developmental items of performance requirements. Also, we made a pattern for developmental processes and we found relation of developmental items and performance requirements in both.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect that the ceiling height difference of a room have on perception of room volume and spatial impressions. The various width and position of the ceiling height difference of a room is presented randomly. In the first experiment, The Method of Magnitude Estimation is used; subjects are then compared the volumes of high-ceilinged area and of low-ceilinged area. In the second experiment, subjects are then asked spatial impressions on 4 items (i.e. how many spaces are perceived, which space is felt as the main space, feeling of comfortableness, sense of oppression). Subjects are experienced the experimental room in standing and reclining postures. The results are summarized as below; 1). Perception of room volume and spatial impressions has highly correlated with the width and position of the ceiling height difference of a room. 2). Reclining postures were influenced by the ceiling height difference of a room more than standing postures.
Digital 3D maps with more universal interface are becoming more available using VRML, which enables real-time display of 3D data on the Internet. Thus far, commercially provided digital 3D maps have not yet realized the some merits. They provide only small portions of urban and spatial information related to their purposes, and their responses to the growing complexity of a city are minimal. In this study, we remedy the situation by developing a flexible interface with the efficient functions to manage spatial and attribute data of urban information.
From the point of view of environment behavior studies, this paper proposes an alternative approach in housing environment design drawn from recent ethnomethodological developments in sociology, social science, anthropology and cognitive science. The orientation in design action led by an architect is constituted through the sequence construction of conversation between the architect and the client, and the contents of housing environment design develop through the customary regulation and restriction in conversation. It becomes clear that we must re-study the premise which communication can build a consensus because the orientation acts on the client as force or power and controls his independence.
This article formulates an optimal location problem for multiple service facilities which provide with some part of all the services. Two facilities which provide with high degree overlapping services have mutually expulsive relation each other. However, the relation shifts to mutually complement as the services provided by the facilities diversify and the degree of overlapping facility function decreases. It is found that the balanced condition of the two brings about non-uniform optimal configuration of facilities generally. It is notable that the high degree overlapping facilities should be located so that the configuration has a vibrated systematic pattern.
This paper is a report of the investigation conducted in order to discuss individual difference based on the ability to understand the street patterns from the view point of a real time sight behavior and cognitive map. An experiment was done in one grid shaped street and one irregularly twisted street. There were two ways to memorize forms in the experiment: a real walk through the pathway or a CG animation presented walk through the same pathway. After memorizing the course, the subject walked the pathway by himself. There were 40 subjects :25 males and 15 females. We analysed the results according to the individual difference. As a result of the sight behavior and cognitive map analysis of the subjects who learned the course by CG animation (total 20 subjects: 11 subjects, good at grid shaped street recognition and 8 subjects, good at irregularly twisted street recognition) , it became clear that for the subjects, good at irregularly twisted streets, visual guidance alone was enough to understand properly its legibility.
This study aims to clarify the eye fixation characters of sequence from car window. On this paper, first, we recorded the motion of the subject right eyes using eye-mark recorder, and described the difference of the eye fixation characters between speed condition of car window; normal and double speed. The eye fixation characters in this case signify the range of the eye mark, the object of the view, the distance between the subject's eye and the objects of view. Secondly, we clarified relationships the eye fixation character and the sequential landscape from car window. In conclusion, the speed variety of sequential landscape has influence on eye fixation characters. Finally, we varified the eye fixation characters by using quantitative description method.
The purpose of this study is to develop a general method of facility location by Genetic Algorithm based on Co-Evolution. To this end, this article proposes a new method which forms an individual by the following two chromosomes, that is, 'location chromosome' and 'allocation chromosome'. These two chromosomes co-evolve in an individual. The proposed method is applied to a location-allocation problem of day facilities for the elderly in Karasuyama district of Setagaya-ku, Tokyo. The results are as follows: 1) this method shows an excellent ability to search a solution; 2) the solutions are obtained through a series of alternate trial-and-error by two chromosomes; 3) this method searches a solution which balances various factors of facility location, which gives practicality to the proposed method.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the forming process and the distribution of the Imperial Estates in central Tokyo since the Meiji Era, and to examine the importance of these lands in the formation of modern capital. The study is based on the investigation of documents and materials, and is mainly refered to the description on "Teishitsu-Rinyakyoku Gojunenshi" [fifty years history of Imperial Forestry Bureau]. First of all, we made the list of "the first category" of the Imperial Estate, mostly consisted with palaces, which existed in pre-war period in the central Tokyo. Secondly, we made the distribution map at 3rd, 14th and 23rd year of Meiji, 12th year of Taisho and 12th year of Showa Era, and analyzed its transition. Pointing out that the Imperial Estates had relations with the Europeanization of the capital at the middle of Meiji Era and the establishment of Scenic Zone and Aesthetic Zone, We examined the importance of the Imperial Estates in the urban history at Tokyo.
This study focuses on shopping behavior on holidays and weekdays as residents' main outdoor living behavior. The purpose of this study is to identify the characteristics of residency type by evaluating residents and their shopping behavior and to find the problems of living environment in Tsuyama city, a local medium and small size city. First, the characteristics of shopping behavior classified by residency type is identified by the research on outdoor living behavior. On the other hand, the problems on improvement of the living environment are made clear by questionnaire distributed to residents. The conclusions are as follows; (1) percentage of shopping in the shopping area near to each residence is high; (2) transportation to the shopping complex varies according to its location; (3) residents' intentions to their living environments also varies according to their residency type.
Be important to make a life cycle renewal plan practical use at the university facilities. It thinks that it is to grasp a life cycle renewal plan in the facility management system from the viewpoint of the building management and to deal out. That a facility management ledger and a life cycle renewal plan are connected in a series of systems for its purpose and that the optimal effective use is attempted are important. In this paper, it made these in the wear eyes and it studied about the life cycle renewal expense calculation technique to support facility management.
The purpose of this study is to examine how the home center can promote the dwellers' DIY ability that is needed for house maintenance. The results are as follows: (1) 77% of the respondents use the home center. (2) The home center has adequate parking space and a variety of goods. On the other hand the home center is inferior to them in specialties of goods, service for customers and technical advice. (3) The customers have requests for more improved service over the counter, more specialized provision of big machines, electric machines and the workshop in the home center. Improved service over the counter is requested from a greater number of customers. The present service doesn't meet their present DIY stage. It does not meet the needs of the customers who are willing to make progress in their DIY ability and, especially, who have a high level of skills.
The aim of this work was to provide data for improving facility management, by comprehensively ascertaining building defects reported by residents, and providing specific examples of management actions taken against them. As an example, we attempted to analyze reported defects in a comparatively large "intelligent" building and management measures taken against them, based on data collected over a 42-month period by the building management system, and indicate the actual facts involved quantitatively. We consider that the results obtained may give useful information to facility management, as a method for quantitatively demonstrating the efficacy of future building management work.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the site plan and the plan of the main building of Tsuchimikado-Higashinotoin Dairi. By this study, I tried to confirm the influence of Tsuchimikado-Higashinotoin Dairi on Oeido-Dairi. and suggested the importance of the gijosho. The treatise is organized in the following manner: Introduction Chap. 1 The site plan of Tsuchimikado-Higashinotoin Dairi. Chap.2 The plan of shinden. shinden-nishrrou and kogosho. Conclusion
This paper investigates the influence by people's directional consciousness on the formation of the suburbs residential area. Residential areas have spread out in the suburbs of Osaka since the end of the Meiji Era. When people chose the residential area, they tried to avoid the residential area in the direction of the northeast that is "unlucky quarter". In addition, in order to overcome the common superstition of "unlucky quarter" held by people, the developer who developed the residential area took advantage of the religious power of Buddhism to invite temples.
Dong people in Xinghuang county of Hunan province of China is the branch of Dong people in Hunan province. The life style is different from other peoples and Dong people in other place. The most famous feature is that Dong People in Xinghuang county live in the fierplace on the upper floor. There is certainly one fireplace for one family. Dong people in Xinghuan county have the habit that a few fraternal families live in one house. In this case there were a few fireplace in the same house. The frame of the rural houses was changed in order to arrange a few rooms with the fireplace. We made research on the fireplace, it's scale, it's position and the development of it's frame.
This paper deals with Colbert's thought on the architecture of the Louvre palace before Bernini's arrival in France. Colbert consulted many French and Italian architects demanding for reasonable ideas about the design. And he chose Bernini's design sent from Rome. But Colbert wrote to Bernini detailed observations and required him to revise the design. Colbert's efforts suggests that he tried to turn the process of design into an accumulation of clear and reasonable decisions so that he could easily intervene in the process and administer it.
This paper describes how the cathedral of Laon contributed to the progress in the early gothic style in the twelfth century. On the interior elevation of Laon, the shaft-rings placed on each cornice level seem to create the horizontal line drawn over the detached shafts. In the other early gothic cathedrals, the continuous horizontal lines of their cornices are broken by the detached shafts. On the contrary, in the "classic" cathedrals as Chartres, every cornice is drawn over the detached shafts. Therefore, it brings us to the conclusion that Laon had an effect on die horizontality of the "classic" cathedrals.
Dominican friar Agostino del Riccio (1541-98) was an ardent gardener who wrote agricultural theses on practical gardening and many other works about natural history. In one thesis, he projected an ideal garden for a sovereign, gathering many elements derived from contemporary gardens. These elements, which contained many natural objects, strongly reflected Riccio's interests about natural history. This study examins his ways of representing the natural world, and identifies parallel ways of representation in contemporary studies of natural history, recently termed Emblematic Natural History by history of science scholars.
This paper focuses on Mamoru Yamada's architectural design of Hiroshima Post Hospital. As the first series of his design for the hospital, it represented the latest hospital layout including a definite design on the zoning and a movable outline function. Especially when we refer to the layout of consultation rooms. With the internal medicine room as the center, the surgery, ophthalmology, and x-ray room were allocated according to the American 'History Corridor' design. With the sunroof, the technique of catching the sunlight had been used. In order to get enough sunlight for the corridor, in between the border of each room, parapet is used as the upper part of the roof as well as the well-ventilated window. This type of architectural design concept marks the beginning of the modern rationalistic architectural in the modern Japan. In addition, it has a profound impact on the latest rationalistic work such as the architectural design of Tokyo Post Hospital.