The factors relating to the spread of fires from fire- resistant buildings to adjacent buildings during the Hyogo-ken Nambu earthquake were analyzed from the following perspectives. 1. Relationships between the extent of fire damage and seismic damage to building structures, and between the characteristics, including building use, of the buildings of fire origin and occurrence of fire-spread. 2. Relationships between occurrence of fire-spread and distances between burned and adjacent bu ildings, and structure of adjacent buildings. 3. Relationships between the extent of fire damage to buildings and fire fighting of fire brigade.
The cause of fire damage to fire-resistant buildings and auasi-fire-resistant buildings in urban fire were analyzed from the following perspectives. 1. Relationships between the damage and the type of windows, including a size, a kind of glass, an existence of balcony, the distance to burning buildings, plus those between the extent of fire damage and the damage of exterior walls of the building. 2. Relationships between the extent of fire damage of the building and the characteristics of buildings, including building use, structure and scale. 3. Relationships between the extent of fire damage of the building and the number of the face of the wall closes to a fire, the structure of burning building.
We developed a system that is a combination of sound information and picture. We studied the estimation of the direction of incidental plane waves with a small sized electric generator outdoor experimentally. As average numbers of the cross spectrum increase, sound source points are concentrated in a place, in the case that the sound source is random noise. We studied the visualization of sound insulation by this svstem in the anechoic room and outdoors. We confirmed the result and we were able to visualize the diffraction by setting the wall.
The authors have carried out studies about human visual perception for torsional motion. The crucial points in this approach are the visual perception of the torsional motion, the relation between the visual perception and the physical perception as well as the comparison of evaluation standards with the results of the experiments. The authors come to a following conclusion: 1. Measuring the degree of motion with a scale in angular velocity, the human perception threshold appears to be independent of the frequency. 2. Average human perception of torsional motion is 0.79[mrad/s]. 3. Visual perception is more sensitive than physical perception. 4. Visual perception threshold of the experiments are lower than the numerical values of standards.
In effective use of solar energy and the heating and cooling load calculation of buildings for energy conservation, the actual state meteorological data is indispensable. The sky radiance distribution has been expediently assumed to be uniform distribution in the heating and cooling load calculation of buildings because there was no suitable sky radiance distribution model. It is necessary to propose sky radiance distribution model, which can corresoond to all sky conditions from clear sky to overcast sky. A suitable index is necessary to presume sky radiance distribution because sky radiance distribution is not measured in ordinary weather observations. In this paper, normalized global irradiance and cloudless index are defined based on measured data as indices to classify sky radiance distributions. The relationship between both indices and sky radiance distributions was examined, and the validity as the indices for the presumption of sky radiance distributions was confirmed.
Water surfaces so as canals and rivers are expected to cool urban hot climate in summer. The objective of this paper is to clarify the effect of sea breeze along Nakagawa Canal in Nagoya on the urban sensational climate. Air temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction and solar radiation were observed along the canal and in the neighborhood of Nagoya station. The standard new effective temperatures SET* modified with the effect of solar radiation were calculated by the observation data. The results demonstrated that the sea breeze reached up to Nagoya station, and air temperature began to increase when wind speed slowed down. SET* under the sea breeze blowing kept to be lower and cooling effect of sea breeze on sensational climate was found.
The similarity law of the airflow in the room has been discussed for a long time. But the similarity condition of the natural convection is not clear yet. To clarify the similarity condition of the natural convection in the cavity with its floor heating, the scaled model experiments are conducted. As the result, the similarity of the air temperature distribution was realized in the condition of larger Rayleigh Number(> 5×10^7) than that proposed by Baturin (Rayleigh Number > 2 × 10^7).
The relationship between the concentration of individual VOC and the perceived air quality voted by sensory panel of eight judges was determined in the experiment type 1 with five VOCs, i.e., octane, nonane. decane, undecane, and dodecane emitted from wood stain. Consecutively the relationship between the VOC concentration in the mixture of the five VOCs and the perceived air quality had been investigated in the exDeriment type 2. The predicted odor intensity in the exoeriment type 2, which was calculated by the sum of odor intensity determined from the relations of the individual VOC concentration and odor intensity obtained in the experiment type 1, was compared with the value of the actually voted odor intensity. The actually voted odor intensity was smaller than the predicted odor intensity, and became almost equal to the highest odor intensity predicted from single VOC concentration.
The aim of the study is to propose a prediction method of indoor Formaldehyde concentration based on the emission characteristics in small chambers for a full-scale experimental house. Concentrations of Formaldehyde, temperatures, humidity, ventilation rates and routes, and emission rates from the interior surface were compared with the predicted data. It was found that indoor concentrations calculated with the emission rates using FLEC and the ventilation rates agreed well with the measured results. Indoor concentration was influenced by temperature and ventilation rate, and it decreased gradually by time. The speed of decay was lower than that in small chambers. The predicted indoor concentrations considering the decay speed aereed well with the measured results.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the indoor air quality in elementary schools. The concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and formaldehyde, the air change rate, the air temperature and the relative humidity were measured in three elementary schools in Kagoshima city. The average air change rate measured in summer experiment was high at 18 h^<-l> in classrooms, where the windows and doors were opened. In winter experiment, it was low at h^<-1> because the windows and doors were closed. The VOCs concentrations in the classroom, where the renovation had just comoleted before this study, were relatively high in summer experiment.
Airborne molecular contaminants in indoor or cleanroom air have been recognized as the important problems of human health or semiconductor processes. It was reported that the emission flux of volatile organic compounds (VOC) was controlled by the evaporation from building material surfaces and the internal diffusion within the building materials, therefore the internal behavior is the important factor for understanding the emission mechanisms. In this study, the VOC emission from the surface and the concentration of VOC within the building material were evaluated by using the small environmental chamber methods under different temperatures and using the screening test method, respectively. Then the model with the factor of VOC diffusion in the materials and the mass transfer from the material surfaces was used for estimating the emission flux from the experimental internal concentration data within the material. As a result, the emission flux that could be extrapolated by the model agreed with the chamber test data therefore it was clarified that the internal concentration within the material had a great effect on the emission flux.
The experimental results on the cooling load of a large factory space using a three dimentional 1/10 scaled down model are described. Comparison was made on the vertical temperature distribution and cooling load among the cases of overall air-conditioning, occuoied zone air-conditioning and spot air-conditioning. From the measuredresults of vertical temperature distribution it was found that occupied zone air-conditioning cooled the space of 3m or more above the floor level when internal heat generation was increased and that spot air-conditioning did not cool it even if internal heat generation became greater. When internal heat generation was 26.7W/m^2, 133W/m^2 of floor area, the percentage of cooling load curtailment of occuoied zone air-conditioning to overall air-conditioning were 32%, 19%, and 8% respectively and that of spot air-conditioning 74%, and 78%, and 81% respectively. It was found that the energy-saving effect by occupied zone air-conditioning decreases as internal heat generation was large and that the energy-saving by spot air-conditioning became large even when internal heat generation increased.
A numerical climate chamber was developed. It is a system to carry out numerical experiments of air conditioning systems including their control systems. It would be used to predict, evaluate, and validate indoor environments and energy consumntion for various air conditioning systems in detail in order to design ontimal air conditioning system for various rooms under various conditions. The numerical climate chamber virtually reproduces an existing actual indoor climate chamber in a computer including both of its HVAC system and control system by connecting conventional dynamic HVAC system simulation with CFD simulation of indoor environment. In this study, the prediction result of the numerical climate chamber was compared with the experimental ones and its validity was confirmed. The system enables us to analyze system performance while considering detailed distribution of indoor air temperature.
By the revlsed AUSSSM, a series of numerical experiments were presented, which was strategically designed. The revised AUSSSM notes an acronym of Architecture-Urban-Soil Simultaneous Simulation Model, which is deemed as one of the most powerful methodologies to predict the air temperature increasing in an urban area, well recognized by a term of Heat Island. The revised ASSSM would be admired by the most specific feature considering an apropriate balance among the sub-models to guarantee its entire accuracy. As a primary experiment, so-called Variation Study was tried to pick up relatively significant factors affecting air temperature increases in an urban area among assumed factors relevant to the urban planning, architectural design and architectural-mechanical performances. As the next step, a really huge experiment by the Design of Experiment Theory was performed, where L_<81>(3^<40>) was adopted as an orthogonal array. And this brought a significant result with the ANOVA Table and Table for Estimation of Factorial Effects, which could be regarded as a quantitative diagnosis for the discussing Heat Island Phenomenon.
In this study, the two kinds of the Word-choice method with a unipolar scale were prepared for rating thermal sensation and comfort. 0ne is Single-rating method and the other is Multiple-rating one. Experiments were corried out in winter under the following combined conditions: air temperatures were 18, 22, 26, 29 and 33(℃) and relative humidities were 30, 50 and 80(%). Japanese sixteen healthy (8 females, 8 males) students were participaed to the exneriments for 60 minutes in the climate chamber. The subjects were asked their psychological state using two methods of rating on the word-choice method with both of the unipolar scale and the conventional rating-scale method. As a result, based on Single rating of Word-choice method with a unipolar scale, SET* indicating thermal neutrality was found to be 25.9℃. Japanese are used to express atatakai (warm) and suzushii (cool) as expressions of comfortable state different from atui (hot) and samui (cold). Although the Single-rating was able to measure only one sensation among sensations to occar at the same time, the Multiple-rating was able to measure almost all sensations without omission.
This study was conducted to evaluate the house reoair program for the elderly in Machida City, Tokyo, and the pertinent house repair advisory svstem from the viewpoint of trends in yearly change. The study included 547 cases of house repairs in Machida City from 1996 to 1999. At the same time, we also carried out personal interview surveys with the Machida City house repair advisors, the users of house repair services. and the care support center for the elderly. The main results of the study are as follows. Users are getting younger each year, especially those who have moderate ADL. Advisors, whose services are highly appreciated by the users, are involved in about 40% of the cases.
This study focuses on credit-based upper secondary school. The high school has the characteristic that its students choose their space with keeping type of space. It is supposed that a way of using the space is varied by new facilities and new methods of informational transmission as years go by. The study aims to reveal students' way of using the space and their transmission system of information by cluster analysis. As a result, 1) Based on type of space, students use the space in various ways. 2) The students use the space as the place which has a function like a home base expanding the image of a locker room. 3) The students have their own type of space. The miss frequency of the informational transmission is different in every type. Therefore, the information should be located as same quality in the space and the passage of school building. 4) There is a strong relationship between the possession of mobile phone by students and their and choice of space. There is a highter propabilitys of mistakes in informations transmission for students who have mobile phones comoared to students who do not have mobile phones.
Group living (GL) for people suffered from dementia jn Japan is getting more popular after the introduction of public care insurance in 2000. However, the quality of living and care environment is not yet satisfactory enough. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the environmental factors influencing upon people's behaviors in group livings in order to evaluate the quality of GL. Eleven GLs in Finland were selected as survey fields and behavior and the setting of all residents were recorded by observation. The main results are abstracted as follows: (1) Differences of spatial features and residents' activity or dementia condition influencing upon the each GL's character. (2) Residents' lives and behaviors were affected strongly by their ability of moving, dementia level and staffs way of support. (3) Most of residents's activities occurred in the area between their private room and main living area where attached to dining room. (4) Ideal size of the group might be 8 to 9 people in the context of communication. (5) The differences of the extent of dementia affect the communication between residents, and staffs relation to the residents must be fully considered the situation of the group. (6) Each factor in the environment related each other and influenced the lives of residents and staffs. So when evaluate the environment of GL, it is necessary to see their lives from not only surface factors but also the substantial viewpoint, lives and behaviors.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the visual characteristics of seat arrangement in concert halls. A questionnaire on concert halls was prepared to evaluate the relationships between various factors and the general impressions that concert hall users have of seat environments. By completing this form, these subject provided a spychological evaluation of seating at various locations in typically planned concert hall seating arrangements. In addition, physical quantities are calculated to give four parameters that express the relationship between each seat and the stage and characterize the visual space at seats. Analysis of the psychological evaluation, and the correlation between this evaluation and the physical quantities and arrangement of seats, provides guide points for design and evaluation of seat arrangement by visual characteristics in concert halls.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the building characteristics of RWMD (Rental Wooden Multiple Dwellings) in Tokyo and to clarify those actual conditions according to construction period. The following results are obtained; 1) the characteristics of RWMD can be clarified according to the construction period and the provision condition of facilities, 2) the characteristics obtained from this study can be used for estimating the construction period of RWMD without the construction documents, 3) RWMD has a standardized tendency to use ready-made parts as finishing, 4) many RWMD that has good facilities, such as provision of exclusive use of toilet and bath, have been supplied from the 1980s.
To clarify the characteristics of Rental Wooden Multiple Dwellings (RWMD) in the early Showa era, 7 buildings of the present RWMD built in the first half of 1930s were investigated. The characteristics specified from this investigation are as follows; l) the design of exterior appearance and main entrance is semi-European style-Types, 2) the dwelling units are located at the both side of indoor corridor. 3) the manager who habitually resides plays an important role in the management of RWMD, 4) the size of dwelling unit for rent is six or four half-Tatami mats, 5) a gas range and closet are furnished for exclusive use, and a washroom, toilet, and kitchen are for common use.
This research aims at clarifying evaluation of residents to public cultural facilities such as library and art gallery based on a questionnaire survey at three districts in Toyonaka city, Osaka with contingent valuation method (CVM), which is the method to calculate mean willingness to pay including not only the utility value of facility but also its non-utility value. The survey shows that many residents have such opinion that public facilities afe limited to be constructed. The analysis shows the applicability of CVM as a method to consider residents' intentions at construction programming and planning stage of public facilities.
In this paper, we considered the structure on the changes of the main house in housing lot and the influence to clear relationship between elements of settlement in rural area of paddy field on flatlands. On Shinshima settlement of Sawara city in Chiba prefecture, we analyzed the relative changes with the renewal of the main house on the buildings, the open spaces and the border spaces in housing lot, and as other elements, the spaces out of housing lot, life style, agriculural management and employment form. The main contents of this paper are as follows. 1) As relationship on open space in housing lot, the day yard and the vegetable garden are replaced to the planting garden and the gravel vard from residential demands with the renewal of the main house. 2) On border space of housing lot, the relations to addjoining buildings change the hedges and the walls. And the entrance, the gate and the fences are changed with the relations on the change of the path of flow. 3) As relationship on buildings in housing lot, the materials of buildings relate the main house to the open spaces, the hedges and other buildings. And with the constructions of the main house, there are the relative changes to the buildings, the open spaces and the border spaces in housing lot.
This research aims to examine the evaluations of and hopes for the rural living environments by the residents and visitors participate in the urban-rural interchanges. The main results are follows: 1.The traditional and cultural resources in rural area are highly evaluated both residents and visitors. It is necessary to appeal their resources generally. 2. The visitors hope to preserve the natural environment and the residents hope to improve living facilities. It is important to examine the principle of the ways to improve the institutions based on their hopes.
The railway stations have been called as the reoresentative place in the city. Visiting the railway stations might have the first impression of the city. The modern buildings of the railway station consist of station. the shopping complex and the theaters. As it is hard to find the 'station' in these buildings, it might have lost one of its bright atmospheric impressions of the city. 0ne of the aims of this paper is to find the atmospheric terms in the station. By the developed repertory grid method it was less difficult to elect these terms in 326 questionnaire samples. The 4 terms of 'design' and 'servicabtiy', "impression' and 'culture' were selected on the preliminary and standard questionnaires in which primary 16 terms were reduced to 4 in grouping work by ISM. Principal ingredient analysis is adopted to pick up foetors of 'image' and 'place' for the favorable and or suitable station.
This paper deals with the rebuilding of Tokyo from the late 1920s to 1930s after the land-readjustment following the Great Kanto Earthquake. The author analyzes the changes of architectures, ownership in both land and buildings, and residents in Okachimachi 3 Chome District and concludes as follows; 1. More than 70% of temporal buildings had been removed and reconstructed till 1935. Uniting lots, buildings came to have bigger sizes in average than before. 2. 0n the other hands residents, especially tenants, moved into and out from the district. Just 22.4% of households continued to live through the 30's.
This study cleared follows. 1.The design of form on the roads and blocks for improvement of old housing areas were affected by the characteristics of areas, such as their locations and size of areas, and targets and methods of improvement actions. 2.Many action area plans have standard small size blocks composing of detached houses. 3.And the other areas, mainly existing in Capital Tbkyo. have large scale blocks with several narrow lanes in their inside. These large size area plans have priority roads for their improvement. 4. A few of them have middle size blocks with special access road, as cul-de-sac, and flat type dwellings, and it is expected that the improvement actions will develop and proceed on these areas through these plans.
The purpose of this paper is to describe changes in the going-out activities of the elderly urban residents, and to clarify its spatial differences in Kumamoto city. In this paper, we analyze the elderly's going-out activity based on the large-scale survey, that is "person-trip survey data (PT-data)". As the first step, we describe changes in the character of the elderly's daily life based on the analysis of total data in each case of PT84 and PT97. And as the next step, to analyze the spatial pattern by which the personal difference supposed to be reflected, we have extracted five types of the elderly's going-out feature. As a result of the analysis of this paper, we found that the elderly's going-out activities have changed its features in recent years. They have expanded thier activity in terms of space and time, and varied their travel mode. It's assumed that these changes are influenced by the increase in the elderly's private car use. And, as a results of the analysis of the snatial differences, we found that the elderly's private car use have increased for the most area of the Kumamoto city, but those have a differnt interpletation in the built-up area and outside. In the built-up area, it brought the variety of the elderly's going-out activity, but outside the built-up area, increased the gap between private car user and the other people.
Vigan is one of the most preserved Spanish colonial towns in the Philippines. With numerous historical buildings and houses, UNESCO registered Vigan as the World Heritage in December 1999. As an entrepot flourished by Chinese mestizo residents, Vigan forms an amalgam of native, Chinese and Spanish cultural landscape. The public spaces such as the poblacion (city center) strongly reflects Leyes de Indias (Laws of Indies): plaza surrounded by cathedral, convent, city hall, and relatively grid street pattern. Yet, deviation from the Spanish colonial city planning concept is visible, in comprising two main plazas, and in the indistinct racial residential separation. The paper is composed of : administration history of Vigan and the Philippines ;reference to the Leves de Indias colonial law and other Hispanized towns ; and considerations on block formation, road width, and lot division in Vigan. In conclusion, this paper proposes 3×3 block subdivision style and the modified use of Spanish module svstem in Vigan.
At Wakamiya in Ashiya city, very interesting project, blighted residential area renewal project, was made. The changing from the primary plan containing only apartments to the secondary plan including both scattered apartments and detached houses. In this study, we find out these two subjects. 1 Finding out about the process of this project. Which has 3 stages, primary plan, changed plan and executing the plan. 2 Clearing up the evaluation for this 3 stage project, using the result of inquiry for the owners and residents.
The purpose of this paper exnlains (l). the function and the operation of Building line System in the changing Taiwan city planning. (2). the practical aoolication of Building line and the formation actual results of narrow streets 'Xian You Xiang Dao' in Tai-Zhong City. The results are as follows: (1). Building line in Taiwan was carried out by "Taiwan City Planning Ordinance". The formation of the roads and narrow streets was attempted by the designation of Building line. In the postwar, Building line System was succeeded to by "City Planning Law" "Taiwan Building Management Regulations" and "Building Law". It had the relation were close to the master planning and the detail planning that were the new city planning system. The application of Building line put emhasis for the roads formation, and the application Building line linked with the detail planning, and it was applied carefully. (2). Building line in Tai-Zhong City was based on "Tai-Zhong Provincial Restriction Regulations". Building line was used for the formation of the narrow streets of the large block inside in the center of the old town area. There were many narrow streets which were formed today from the days after the war, and there was high effect with 64% of the formation rates.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the 'preliminary consultation and public participation (1996)' policy in Haarlem in the Netherlands. It explains the original policy and focuses on a specific redevelopment project by applying the policy. It could be said that public participation in Haarlem is advanced by following reasons; (l)Various participation ways are authorized especially in the early stage of planning, (2)The city council has made decisions based on the original policy, (3)lnformation is exchanged in each stage, (4)The organizational public participation system has promoted transparent and appropriate decision making process.
This study examines the development of pedestrian malls in Sydney Metropolitan Area since the 1960s and analyses conditions and actual usage by pedestrians. Field surveys and interviews with local councils were carried out to study locations, historical background and reasons for introduction, land use, facilities and management of pedestrian malls. For the usage analysis, volumes and activities of pedestrians on the malls are surveyed for 10 of the existing 18 malls. The malls are categorized into four types by the results; high-use malls, access malls, stay malls and low-use malls. The level of usage, character and function of the malls vary depending on the location and surrouning land use.
In Sapporo, the implementations of five city planning parks were decided in 1942 and 1943. This study analyses the contents of implementation plan and the characteristics of the process of projects from 1942 to 1945. The contents and characteristics are as follows; l) The Durchases of land had been taken into practice quickly for a few years. 2) Because of wartime, the city planning road projects reduced or gave up, but city planning park projects continued. 3) In the area of two parks, land readjustment projects were implemented, so the site of parks were acquired through the land readjustment projects.
We examined the improvement of the environment of small rivers in urban areas, and its influences on administration, citizen, elementary school and their roles in the use and maintenance of the rivers. The results are followings. (1) Administration, citizen and elementary schools had various activities on the river after the improvement. (2) The improvement has an effect on the formation of the citizen group and on the activity of administration, citizen and elementary schools. (3) We think that such factor is "the lead work by citizen who love the river", "the well environment was serviced", "the atroroach by administration" and "the mutual approach between administration. citizen elementary school". "the chanees of citizen" heart.
This essay is the third chapter of the "STUDY ON GROUP HOME FOR MENTALLY RETARDED PERSONS". It is focused on the analysis of the living of the residents in two regions in Tokyo (Joto and Johoku area), which is added to the areas previously researched. This will be divided into three main parts; firstly, to classify "Group Home" into categories of a lでsidential form, a plane formation. and a layout consisting of a living room, dining room and kitchen (LDK), secondly, to discuss how floor space per person and their lives and leisure hour are related with the evaluation of a residential environment of the living, thirdly, to clarify the characteristics of the "Group Home". On the basis of those points, it would be specified the conditions of "Group Home" and its problems by considering of the existence of the living, evaluation of a residential environment, and their activity.
This study aims at examining a better supply, planning and management system of condominium. We clarified characteristics on management-level and problems by number of units and by scale of condominiums in the suburb of Tbkyo Metropolis, Chiba-shi The condominiums with small number of units, less than 50 units, have few common facilities and don't have fundamental system of management. The condominiums with medium number of units, from 100 to 200 units, have fundamental common facilities and a fundamental management system, which are relatively higher capabilities for management of living environment. The condominiums with large number of units, more than 200 units, have many and rich common facilities, high management-level, but they have difficulty to reach an agreement on management and reconstruction among the residents.
The purpose of this study is the verification of the applicability of "The formulas which can conveniently calculate at Life Cycle Cost (LCC) considering the maintenance conditions" that had been sueeested previously by us to the government office buildings. First, the actual conditions of each maintenance cost in those buildings were clarified, and the renewal costs in those buildings were analyzed. Next, the difference of the managements of maintenance costs between the private office buildings and the government office buildings was shown. The main differences were as follows; 1) Comparing with the private buildings, the government office building's commission costs were lower and the expenses for electricity were a little higher. 2) Although the expenditure times of maintenance costs in the private buildings were concentrated at the same stage,the times in the government office buildings were not concentrated. As a result of having applied the formulas to the government office buildings, the formulas were useful to those buildings. Besides, the execution times of the renewal in the buildings were considered by having applied "The evaluation method for judgment on renewal term".
Ebisu shrine, located in the Kennin-Ji Monzen area, was famous for the god of wealth in the Edo period. However being under financial pressure, it was difficult to maintain this shrine in those days. To break such a condition, the parishioners planned to get more money offerings in the latter half of the 18^<th> century. As a result, a new festival "Toka Ebisu" has been held in Ebisu shrine and the exterior of the main building of this shrine was made honorable to attract more people who visit the shrine and make monetary offerings to win the favor of the god.
This paper treats the Art Deco style architectural works of Kazue Yakushiji (1884-1965) between the end of Taisho era and the beginning of the Shouwa era. He played an active role in architectural designs in Okayama and Kurashiki under the patronage of Magosaburou Oohara (1880-1943). Although the Prince Yasuhiko Asaka's residence (1933) was highly valued as the Art Deco style, this paper has proved that Yakushiji had designed the Kouji Fujioka's residence (1926), the Magosaburou Oohara's residence, the Yuurinsou (1928), with the architectural style far earlier than the Prince Yasuhiko Asaka's residence. In addition, his works synchronized with the Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes in 1925, which also confirms Architect Yakushiji's earlier introduction of the Art Deco Style to Japan.
The former house of W. Bockmann is located in the central area (Vossstrasse) of Berlin (registered as a cultural asset in 1995). The house was rebuilt in the 1930s but the facade, the entrance hall and the interiors of the second and third floors were preserved. From the German point of view, the house is of value as the only historical building on the street, the representative of the second half of the 19th century and a standard of city planning in the future. From the Japanese side, the house is important historically because the Japanese architect and craftsmen stayed here for the planning of Japanese government offices under the guidance of Bockmann.
I tried to topologically clear the structure of the mortal dwelling by interpreting of Ojoyoshu. This book describes that the mortal dwelling enables us to be born in the Pure Land. The vital significance of being in the mortal place can be realized by correlating "hotoke", "a patient" and "an attendant". In other word, the structure of their correlation builds up an intimate relationship among 3 positions, in which an idea that all human beings are to be dead, is strongly believed.
February in 1955, architectural journalism published "Japanese pavi1ion of Sao Pauro" designed by Sutemi HORIGUCHI architect. At the situation of the World War Second. We had have "dispute" about "tradition" by this architectual work. In this "dispute", Hiroshi OHE architect was standing on exauisite position, between he had been product supervising and not designer. And then he published the paper "Creati ve-Sub1imation of A Classic" in January in 1956 when he maked sure of this "dispute". This paper expressed "anguish" of his heart, and presented situasion in Japan after the World War Second.