In this paper, the situation of outing childcare (childcare in public spaces) was examined targeting the small-scale childcare bases and authorized nurseries. We also compared the evaluations and needs of the urban environment based on children' s age and head-count, though the investigation of different type of bases that are located in the same region and their area of outing are overlapping. The major findings are as follows: 1) Outing childcare is routine at any kind of childcare establishment, children and caregivers are outing every day from the bases of family like babysitters and authenticated nurseries. Although the total time of outing childcare is longest at authorized nurseries, children and caregiver are outing airily in a short time at small scale-childcare basis. 2) Taking advantage of the urban environment greatly enriches the quality of childcare, as caregivers report that it operates “to relieve children' s stress, ” “to have experience that outside of a room, ” and “to learn public rules” as the significance and purpose of outing childcare. 3) The most prominent activity for family-like babysitters involves walking. For this reason, enriching the environments with paths, such as walkways and promenades, is effective in improving the quality of childcare. In the case of authenticated nurseries, children and caregivers often stay at a distance of around 300 to 400 meters from their base. Therefore, it is desirable that there are destinations such as appropriately scaled parks within this distance range. In addition, in the case of the authorized nursery, in cases where it is difficult for children and caregivers to stop during movement on the street, then outing childcare may be positioned as an opportunity to learn the public rules. 4) Different Parks or places are selected depending on children' s ages and the type of bases that use the same area as the place of outing childcare. It is considered that the target age of equipment in the park and the probability to use there with children of various ages are effectively and properly utilizing urban space. 5) Based on the caregivers' environmental evaluation at the time of outing childcare, the comments on “nature, animals” and “presence of play location” are large in any base type. Since the comments regarding “childcare value” of the urban environmental elements has the highest mention rate in the authorized nurseries, it can be said that unique value is placed on outing childcare is more common. 6) The mention rate of “ease of movement” is the same between the authenticated nurseries and family-like babysitters, and “safety” is especially high in authenticated nurseries. In this way, we confirmed that there is a difference in the point of view of the urban environment evaluation depending on the type of base. Given these findings, the authors find it important to authorize and assess the children' s age and head-count and the corresponding surrounding environment when the bases establishing. Further, during the maintenance and updating of urban spaces, it should be considered what kind of childcare bases will be established by the municipality. Then the urban environment will be more efficiently enhanced the value as a place for childcare. For example, it is important to more greatly prioritize promenade maintenance and policy to enhance small-scale childcare bases, and to support the proper use of locations by setting different equipment at each park based on target age or occupancy instead with uniformly.
This study focused on the local residents' contact pattern of Facility For The Elderly and correlation with environmental characteristic of site. Then, we tried to verify the hypothetical consciousness structure which is combined with previous paper's one. It was ‘Community attachment － Evaluation of facility － Contact pattern of facility’ and correlation between environmental characteristic of site and these triangular model. As a result, there were four factors on contact type to the facility, which were ‘Facility contact’, ‘Information contact’, ‘Sensory contact’, and ‘Service contact'. And as a result of cluster analysis by using four factors above, there were five contact pattern groups in respondent, which were ‘No contact group’, ‘Sensory contact group’, ‘Service contact group’, ‘Service/facility contact group’, and ‘Information/facility contact group’. Then these five groups also could divide 2 groups － ‘Passive contact group’ and ‘Active contact group’- as large classification. Through observing about individual properties or image of facility and difference of each group's proportion, the relation between contact pattern and individual properties or contact pattern and image of facility was able to be considered. And through covariance structure analysis, we could clarify causal relationship between facility contact and evaluation of facility, and also verify that there was influence of site environment in the consciousness structure. Facility contact seemed to have negative influence to evaluating facility in the detached house area regardless density. Three or more factors worked evaluating facility in the detached house area and the high density apartment area, on the other hand, in the low density apartment area, only sensory contact showed significant relation. Meanwhile, in the high rise building area, facility contact has positive influence. So, it can be said that though same factor, contact factors works different effect by character of site environment. In house complex area, residents' individual image of facility which had been formed by some reason influenced the evaluation of facility more strongly than contact factors. In nature area (In this area, the facility is isolated from residential area), only information contact was significant, and in industrial area, it was able to be thought that there was no causal relation between contact factors and factors of evaluation of facility. Through this study, we could verify the possibility that contacting facility formed consciousness factors and these factors penetrated into consciousness of man who was living around the facility. And we also could verify that there could be certain consciousness structure which was composed of these factors and there could be certain pattern model of consciousness structure by characteristic of site environment. In summary together with the conclusion of previous paper, it could be said that contacting the Facility For The Elderly influence not only to consciousness about evaluating the facility, but also to consciousness about community attachment. So, we also could said that the meaning of existing facility in the area or meaning of contacting the facility could estimate by grounds based on the effect on the local residents' or whole community. In other words, it was clarified that Facility For The Elderly was expected not only role of local welfare for elderly-people but also role of the factor for vitalization of the local area or promoting social capital. These conclusions could be the important key of site planning or design planning of facility, or planning of local exchange activity of facility.
1. Introduction In the field of care insurance, Continue Living is required in regions that have long existed on an ideal of a community-based integrated care system. To support Continue Living for the elderly, we need a system that not only provides medicine and care but also prevention, health, life support and that can use systems integrally and appropriately in areas of daily living. Out of these, (1) cooperation in provision of medicine and care and (2) prevention, health, life support, and various preparations of counseling services are important problems of the future. Especially, the latter services concerning prevention and health, and life support, are required to develop in each region. However, this service has been established in the insurance system. Omuta city started the Community Center Project in 2006, and this project has worked on the prevention of a long-term care state and health class in the core of community centers. It is located throughout the city: the number of community centers was 36 and 40 facilities in 2010 and 2014, respectively. This study aims to clarify the time series change of facility management and the factors that activate it. The investigation period was between 2010 and 2014, five and nine years since the project started.
2. Research Method The objects of this study were all the community centers opened in Omuta city as of April 2014. The methods used included a questionnaire, interview, and location survey. The questionnaire comprised facility management and actual performance for each facility. The recovery rate of the questionnaires was 100% in 2010 and 92.5% (actual performance rate was 87.5%) in 2014. Interviews were conducted on 10 facilities. The locational survey rate was 40/40 and the analyses of floor plans were 39/40.
3. Discussion 1) The facility of “Opening at amount of time hours” in 2010 and 2014 was more than 80%. The facility operated from six to nine hours. The percentage for opening hours was about 60%. 2) A steering group in action decreased proprietary activities by corporations and increased group activities by citizens. 3) In 2014, the average monthly number of openings per facility was 20 counts; the average monthly number of participants per facility was 163 people. A comparison of 2010 and 2014 show a significant difference of 1% for both indexes. 4) In the case study, community centers served the function of providing consultation services from social welfare workers and residents, finding problems, and noticing changes of local residents. It also acted as an intermediary to specialized agencies and coordinated with various organizations. 5) Factors influencing the revitalization of community centers from statistical investigation were as follows: (a) Having staff on duty at all times in the community center, and always being open in the daytime; (b) Conducting original activities for children and commissioned projects from local governments; (c) Advertising facilities in the area to create public relations papers; (d) Developing a relationship between human resources, such as regarding volunteer; and (e) Participating in neighborhood community associations and community activities.
A behavior observation survey with facial expression measurement was conducted before and after the introduction at a facility for people with severe intellectual disabilities, and the following changes were noted.
1) Interview survey with staff indicated the improvement of care.2) Occupancy rate in the shared space increased.3) “TV watching” and “preference behavior” increased significantly.4) SI (the degrees of smiling) increased significantly in 8 residents.5) SI for “mealtime” increased significantly in 4 residents and “idleness” in 7 residents.6)Median SI for “preference behavior” and “TV watching” increased.
This study shows the traditional spatial structure and landscape conservation of the Nagan Eupsung. Environment improvement project of Nagan Eupsung is based on traditional science: ‘Feng Shui’. It also clarifies the changes and characteristic of land utilization and environment improvement project. There are 2 types of space organization which is based on ‘Feng Shui’ in Nagan Eupsung. One is “Bae-san Shape（背山型）” and the other is “Hang-Ju Shape（行舟型）”. In terms of more specific space organization, Nagan Eupsung has dual structure. Nagan Eupsung consist of three ‘Ri’ and each ‘Ri（里）’ has the community space such as ‘Dang-San（堂山）’ although it seems like Nagan Eupsung consist of one village. Therefore, dual structure of Nagan Eupsung are composed of the space organization which is organized by three ‘Ri’ and which is combined with one Eupsung. Nagan Eupsung had been changed from traditional house into the seat of general ‘Myeon’ office. This study focus on the environment improvement project which classifies the element of dot, line and surface and which is based on ‘Feng Shui’ when the restoration project was under the way.
This paper aim to clarify the situation of the isolation in urban districts of large city and a district of intermediate and mountainous area among residents in the view point of recreational life. Modern consuming life such as an internet life and delivery services, convenience shop spreading, the change of traditional way of thinking as a hierarchy social system breaking, as democratic social system spreading, and the labor circumstances changing to severe under globalization, are backgrounds of isolation. We want to compare the situation of isolation and of social bonds breaking through case studies. We send questionnaire survey at the Miyako-dai district in Matsudo city, Chiba prefecture, at the Kanayama district in Sapporo city, Hokaido prefecture and at the Umegashima district in Sizuoka city, Sizuoka prefecuture. Miyako-dai district is selected as a urban district of large city in metropolitan area. Kanayama district is selected as a urban district of large city in province area. Umegashima is selected as a village district in an intermediate and mountainous area. 343 questionnaire sheets are recollected at the Miyako-dai district(1795 families live, recollecting rate is 19.1%). 397 are recollected at the Kanayama district(1415 families live, recollecting rate is 28.0%). 103 are recollected at the Umegashima district( 172 families live, recollecting rate is 59.9%). We have to pay attention that under limitation of case study, this study does not point out the whole situation of Japan. Analyzing the whole situation of Japan is the next study subject to do.
It makes clear as follows. 1) About from 40% to 60% residents do not join each local association activities while about 10% resident do in intermediate and mountainous area. 2) About from 20% to 35% resident do not join almost all of local association activities and about 10% resident do not join almost all of association activities. 3) About 40% residents in urban district of large city in metropolitan area and about 20% in an urban district of large city of province area are isolated in their regional society. 4) About 10% residents in urban district are isolated in whole society except relatives. 5) Such isolation groups of residents are seen in every ages which is not seen in a specific age. 6) In general, at viewpoints of the way of thinking, life style, and information, village societies are said to have become urbanized. But the village society of the case study seem to have maintained social bonds which have passed from ancient times. 7) Including previous studies, isolation are serious in urban district, while it is not serious in intermediate and mountainous area. But the tendency of suburban village district is middle of urban district and village district in intermediate and mountainous area.
Today, the central urban districts of many cities are formed based on city plans implemented after World War II. These plans succeed infrastructures developed during the postwar reconstruction period. After the postwar reconstruction, urban districts throughout Japan have been transformed into effective street spaces through various planning measures. The “building setback” method is one such measure to develop street spaces. Since 1971, Okayama City—under the leadership of Yoshihito Tani, the then chief of the building guidance section of the city—has implemented a measure called the setback method for developing its street spaces. In this method, the municipal government requests relevant buildings being built to be set back from the street, with no easing measures provided. The method was advocated and introduced by the then mayor Hirao Okazaki, who hoped to improve the landscape of the downtown area, where the streets seemed oppressive. This study defines characteristics of the urban district in Okayama City by determining how the street spaces developed through the setback method are how they are maintained and utilized today. Following are the findings on the present situation of the setback method. More than 240 buildings on four major streets follow the setback method today. The number includes many shops and small residential houses for which satisfying the voluntary guidance criteria of the method was believed to be challenging because of the supposed reduction in sales floor area for shops, which in turn may result in reduced sales, or the supposed difficulty caused by physical restrictions of the small houses. Notably, over 40 percent of the buildings on all four streets follow the setback method to the expected extent, and in some cases, they meet more than the expected criteria. Because the maintenance of the setback areas is the responsibility of the owners of the respective buildings, some of these areas suffer a lack of care in terms of maintaining a green cover or insufficient consideration for the landscape with the passing of the years. Rules for maintenance of the setback areas are expected to be reconsidered, and support by the city will be necessary in the future. Furthermore, a lack of unity among the buildings makes it difficult for the district to conduct evaluations as part of city planning, and this becomes another issue about postwar architectural heritage to be solved. Many aspects of buildings and cities developed after the war remain unexamined. Reassessment of buildings built under the setback method will be necessary for their fair appreciation before they are demolished. Suggestions for landscaping policies will be a future theme.
As local city centers continue to decline, events called "Shopping area activation: three sacred treasures (Bars, town seminars, and 100 yen shopping areas)" have begun to be held in central business districts throughout the country, and are receiving favorable reviews. These events differ from those intended to increase town visitors in that they lead visitors directly to each restaurant and aim to help establishments acquire new customers. Our research focused on "Nagaoka Bar-Gai" which is an event that has been held in the area around Nagaoka station since 2012. We aimed to evaluate ticket use for this event quantitatively and to analyze its effectiveness as well as to highlight problems encountered by participants and participating restaurants based on a questionnaire survey. Our analysis of the nationwide "bar event" trend, and our investigation into the effects of and the problems faced by the "Nagaoka Bar-Gai" made the following points clear: 1. Bar events have spread rapidly throughout the whole country since 2011. While some areas faithfully follow the style of the original Hakodate west area bar event, others have chosen to change ticket fees. Also, some areas' objective is to activate the local economy, and others seem to be focused on promoting sales. We learned that there are various management styles for this type of event and they seem to be held periodically because their positive effects are recognized in many areas. 2. Many participants were able to happily explore the central area via the "Nagaoka Bar-Gai". More than 60 restaurants joined each time, and more than 6500 tickets were sold. The many visitors going from restaurant to restaurant map-in-hand on Bar-Gai day energized the central area. 3. Both participants and participating restaurant owners have shown a high degree of satisfaction with the event and have joined repeatedly. This may be because both owners and visitors simply enjoy the event and advertising their dishes or discovering new restaurants. Participating restaurants don't feel an immediate benefit, but often many repeat participants return to Bar-Gai participating restaurants in their daily lives after the Bar-Gai event. It can, therefore, be said that Bar-Gai also contributes to customer development, and that one of the event's aims, to guide customers directly to each restaurant, was achieved. 4. Participating restaurants mentioned various event management problems, but the linking of different restaurants in the area as a network under a common theme and ticket enabled the central area to be used like a theme park and was considered highly effective. Bar-Gai has successfully produced a new flow of people in the central area.
This paper analyzed expertise of key figures for outline of building law made by War Damage Reconstruction Institute after the World War II and characteristics of deliberation process of draft of building law. Key figures discussed this building law from various perspectives. There were some negative opinions in the committee, but recognized the advantage of proposition correlate well with urban planning. Revised building law based on key figure opinions was added title of “Project of Fireproof Building” and “Scenery”. Zoning of this law became the ideal division based on a theory of urban planning. In this way, key figures were going to position new suggestion of this law positively. On the other hand, an indistinct point about regulation contents was left.
This paper applies a spatio-temporal model to assess the variability of local parameters associated with the urban population change over time. With the Person Trip survey dataset and the detailed digital map of land use, Geographically and Temporally Weighted Regression (GTWR) is used to analyze the relationship between distributions of occupants inside residential buildings and commercial buildings in Tokyo Metropolitan Area (TMA). The outcome of the models has shown that GTWR has higher explanatory power (R2=95%) compared to global regression model (R2=0.5%) and Geographically Weighted Regression (R2=91%). Furthermore, there is a significant pattern of spatio-temporal characteristics for distribution of populations at the inner city, its neighborhoods and suburbs of Tokyo.
In 2001, decree No. 2001-1361 made it obligatory to arrange for a caretaker, called Gardien(ne), in social housing in France. This study examines the argument process of this decree, whereby the French government introduced human management in social housing. The results are follows: - The Gardien(ne) system is a part of crime prevention through environmental design against vandalism in common spaces.
- Most of the system's initial cost is paid by the government housing budget and real estate tax exemptions rather than by the social housing agency, which can demand three-fourths of the running cost from inhabitants.
Research Background and Purpose How to encourage the voluntary management activities of residents is an important issue in the management of public housing. Those who bear a responsibility of public housing management are, municipality as public housing operator, management subsisting agent and designated manager as who commissioned management by municipality, and residents as tenant of public house. Of these managements, although management by residents is significant in preservation of condominium discipline and in maintenance of living environment, placing the center on the field of life management, framework of self-management by residents is not indicated. Meanwhile, when seeing public house as reflection of housing policy, it commonly provides high percentage of shared space and high level of living environment compared to private rental housing. However on the other hand, this gives wide area for residents to manage as a group, and gives high burden on the management. Furthermore, in the recent situation that position of public house as housing safety net is strengthened, weakening of community and lack of leaders of management has been concern. Thus the need for measures to encourage the collective management activities of residents is rising increasingly. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to obtain knowledge on support method on self-management by residents, by grasping the problem recognition and implementation status of support program on it.
Research Method Firstly, questionnaire survey was conducted to 358 municipalities in total, which are nationwide prefectures, designated cities, and prefectural city and municipality in the Kyushu, and earned 245 valid responses (valid recovery rate: 68.4%), in order to grasp the community problem and implementation status in public house. Secondly, additional telephone interview to 128 municipalities, which were conducting support program on self-management by residents according to the result of questionnaire survey, were done to get hold of the outline of the program. Also, by field survey on the municipalities that showed characteristic program, the system of public housing management, the background of the program and supporting method was understood. Upon analysis, municipalities that answered the questionnaire were classified into six groups in the two axes: elderly household rate and management number of public houses.
Conclusion The problem in management by residents due to reduction of order as collective living and weakening of community is increasing mainly in the municipalities holding large management number. The municipalities that have achievement record of the counter measure stay in about 10% of the total, with the exception of the individual response by the installation of issuance and consultation of enlightenment document. However, it is able to see the example of program trying to achieve bottom-up management techniques of residents through the holding of public meetings and workshops in municipalities in the mid-range. Upon the support of welfare activities, the specific measures limited to public house were partial to the support for elderly and people with disabilities, and childcare support is almost not seen. Although the number of community support program put forward is still very few, there are one-stop type specific support program to public housing implemented in Nagoya city and Omuta city. In these programs, the municipalities take support by providing a forum for consultation with residents to discuss measures and issues of management. Moreover, these support is contributing not only on the life management but also on operational management and on maintenance, such as promoting the use and forming operational group of shared facilities and maintenance of green space.
1. Introduction Although PERT/CPM method is recognized as an inevitable method for planning and scheduling in building construction projects, it has been applied to less construction projects as a planning and scheduling method, as it is not suitable for repetitive activities such as multi-floor buildings and large apartment houses with many dwellings. The authors proposed a new graphical representation which is based on the conventional network diagram and scheduling method for a building project with repetitive activities.
2. Previous Research Works The authors reviewed the previous works, and pointed out that many research works on planning and scheduling for repetitive activities have been done, but that those research works modeled the repetitive activities using non-network diagrams. Furthermore, there has been no research work which has established the planning and scheduling method using network diagrams for repetitive activities.
3. Basic Concept of Network Diagram and Scheduling Method for Repetitive Activities The authors proposed the network diagram which shows only the precedence relations among activities in common work zones. And the authors defined those relations in the table of activity data as well as in the table of work zone data. Moreover, the authors introduced the concept of “work tickets” as a work instruction for each work zone. To calculate the schedule dates, the authors utilized the concept of the flow of work tickets along the precedence arrows in network diagrams. The time when the work ticket has entered into an activity and the time when it has left from the activity could correspond respectively to the start date and finish date.
4. Network Diagram and Scheduling Method for Sophisticated Repetitive Activities To apply this method to sophisticated projects with repetitive activities, the authors developed the algorisms to handle the flow of “work tickets” in network diagrams so that the following conditions could be included in repetitive activities. (1)Work zones which include activities of different contents and different durations (2)Precedence relations between activities in different work zones (3)Precedence relations to activities from activities in several work zones (4)Restrictions which prohibit more than two simultaneous activities in a specific area
5. Verification of the Usefulness of the Scheduling Method The authors applied this method to plan and schedule a four-story apartment house with 32 dwellings, so as to verify the usefulness to represent the sophisticated precedence relations among many work zones by using network diagrams and to calculate the earliest date and the latest date of each activity in the construction project. As the result of the verification, the authors successfully represented the repetitive activities as network diagrams, and correctly calculated the schedule date of each activity.
6. Conclusion The authors summarized the feasible conditions of repetitive activities to which the method in this paper is able to be applied, and clarified this method would become more important as a planning and scheduling method, because the building construction project are required to be more efficient by applying repetitive activities in the project.
This paper aims to clarify the differences of usage pattern which the group size brings by taking notice of the free play style in which pupils spend a large portion of weekday time in the after-school care facility that converted a barn of farmhouse. Although this facility had been converted a barn of farmhouse, the floor for playing has 60.9 square meter and it is near the space of usual classroom of elementary school. Since the facility located in a rural area, there are few use pupils as about ten to 20 persons, and the floor space per pupil has satisfied the conference proposal standard (3.96square meters) so this is a standard type facility that is equal to the proposal level from the viewpoint of pupil's necessary floor space in the intermediate and mountainous area. Furthermore, the ground for playing outside has been improved near the facility, and the exterior spaces, such as the south garden of main building and pond, are also used as a place for playing. Most pupils are playing in outdoor space for a long time on fine weather day, and the importance of securing a outdoor playground of sufficient is pointed out for the care of pupils in after school hours of weekday. From the viewpoint of architectural planning, this facility is converted into the two-room and three domain type that was utilized the space composition of existing barn, and it has been divided into multipurpose room and playroom. Since the difference of pupil's arrival time to the facility, the time zone that snack, study and indoor play develop in parallel exists, so by assigning study to multipurpose room and snack and indoor play to playroom, the facility can respond to about 20 pupils. The time zone of free play has few pupils who hold indoor play as several persons, because most pupils may hold playing outside in fine weather day. Study and static play are assigned to multipurpose room, and the dynamic play is assigned to playroom on rainy weather day, so the mutual interference is avoided. Therefore, also in the case of floor space of about 60-square meter, if it has space composition of two-room and three spheres, it will be judged that the correspondence to about 15 to 20 pupils of low class is possible enough.
This research aims to examine the rise in popularity of the Heian revival style of court-nobles' residences during the early modern period. This paper traces this history in detail, focusing on the main residence of the head of the Ichijō family. It is known that this residence featured a revival style main hall (shinden) as far back as the seventeenth century. In the eighteenth century, it was well known as one of the finest examples of this style. After the Tenmei conflagration, the hall was rebuilt, again in the Heian revival style. This is supported by the fact that Kigo Harima was in charge of the main hall's reconstruction at this time. The details of this paper's findings are as follows.
The Ichijō family's main residence gradually grew in size during the first half of the seventeenth century. From the time that the residence was improved and expanded in Keian 2 (1649) until the Meiji period, there were no changes in its size or form. The Heian revival main hall can be first seen in a drawing depicting the initial improvements in Keian 2. However, it did not have a strong Heian revival personality: it was a planar building, similar to the main hall of the Konoe family residence from the same time period, and functioned as a place to hold audiences. That said, compared to the Konoe family residence, the building site plan—comprising the main hall, the hallway (futamune-rō) and inner gate corridor (chūmon-rō) connected to the main hall, and the corridor for the household staff (samurai-rō)—better embodied the revival style. The head of the family at the time, Ichijō Akiyoshi, referred to the Shinkaimon-zu in the Honkaimon-Shinkaimon-zu when it was being built. The main hall, rebuilt in Enpō 5 (1677), no longer functioned as a place to hold audiences. Comprised of a moya and hisashi, it more closely embodied the Heian style than before. When rebuilding it, Ichijō Kaneteru, then head of the family, referred to not only the Shinkaimon-zu in the Honkaimon-Shinkaimon-zu but also the Honkaimon-zu. The Honkaimon-Shinkaimon-zu was created in the later medieval period by Kujō Hisatsune, evidently with the Heian-period residence of his ancestors in mind. This is evidence that the study of court-nobles during the medieval period influenced the Heian revival style during the early modern period. This hall was so well known at the time for its Heian revival style (ōko-no-katachi) that Yoshimune, the eighth Tokugawa shogun, sought the building plan used during its construction. The main hall rebuilt after the Tenmei conflagration appears to have also been in the Heian revival style. This is supported by the fact that Kigo Harima, who was involved in both the reconstruction of the Dairi (the Imperial Palace) in this style and the building of the Takatsukasa family's Heian revival main hall during the same period, was in charge of construction.
This study utilizes sandplay experiments as a means to analyze the development of 4 and 5 year old kindergarten children's creative spatial organization of toys. The children were asked to arrange several toys in a box filled with sand, and they were told to play in the sand box and with the toys freely. Fifty-one children, 25 boys and 26 girls between 4 and 5 years old, participated in the sandplay experiments. By analyzing the displacement of the toys in the box, the researchers were able to identify and classify the children's developmental steps in the creation and recognition of their spatial organization of the toys ranging from simple toy arrangements to more complex ones. “Enumeration” was the simplest example of toy arrangement, where the children enjoyed placing the toys in the box one after the other, and they did not establish any meaningful relationship between the toys. Some children placed the toys in a disorderly fashion, while others placed the toys in rows. When the toys were arranged in rows, they showed an emphasis in a certain direction. As an example, some children had all the toys facing right, other children made rows of toys parallel to the box sides. The “chaotic” classification is another example of a simple toy arrangement, where the children randomly and sometimes unstoppably stuffed toys in the box. Consequently, this resulted in a box that was completely packed with toys. The toy arrangement classified as “structured arrangement” refers to examples where the children gave meaning and a clear spatial relationship to the toys and how the toys were displayed in the box. Two archetypical spatial images were identified in those structured arrangements. Boys had a tendency to show what is described hereafter as “spatial plurality,” while girls, in contrast, presented a different tendency toward “female spatial singularity.” Spatial plurality appeared when the toys were arranged in a way that incorporated motion (cars, trains, boats) or intrusion and expanding spaces outside of the box. On the other hand, female spatial singularity was seen when the toys were arranged in an enclosed area; and, the relationship between the toys was one of inclusion, and the toys were restrained to the box. The girls placed the toys in a manner that created these internal spaces. For example, they used furniture toys and simulated the inside of a house, or they used toy figures of people and animals to suggest that they were living happily together. These archetypical spatial images have already been identified in former sandplay experiments with older subjects. In this study with kindergarten age children the differences between boys and girls spatial images were identified in all of the structured arrangements. However, in the experiments herein, structured arrangements were fewer than the enumeration or chaotic arrangements. Some children showed the characteristics of spatial plurality or female spatial singularity, when they started placing the toys; but, at the end, they finished by filling all of the empty spaces with toys. Other children would place the toys in rows; but, in a corner of the box, they would place a table and a chair or a hospital and an ambulance, showing a start on giving meaning and spatial relationships to the toys. These examples of arrangements between simple and structured showed the first steps towards spatial recognition. The children's intellectual capacity for recognizing and interacting with spatial organization appears in the form of this structural arrangement schema － spatial plurality or female spatial singularity.