The purpose of this study is to analyze the variations of the sustainable way of living in 3K type condominium built by Tokyo Housing Association at 1956. In this report, we use the hearing survey for many habitants in 56 units. Through this survey, various pattern of information about the change of family composition and some planning reform have been extracted. Especially, the way and opportunity of network living in this condominium, the reason and time of planning reform, the term of applying children's private room, and the change of mother's staying area were precisely clarified though the mutual analysis of some typical examples.
This paper aimes to clear actual conditions of public housing at Taipei city from the viewpoint of the repair by residents and the using style of private rooms. So we carried out observation and hearing survey for 262 households in 14 public housing estates. And we analized above-mentioned conditions by some characteristics such as building period,acquisition process,plan type,number of private rooms. The main conculusions are as following; 1) The scale and content of repair by residents is very various and there are some large-scake repairs changing plan type and number of private rooms. 2) The using style of private room without bed room diverges by plan type. 3) The existence of "TAKAYUKA — private room as family room connected to living room —" is worthy of attention.
The reorganization of the Kominkan, Japanese social educational facilities, was started with the merger of munincipalities at the Heisei era. The purpose of this paper is to clarify actual conditions and plans of the reorganization of them, and to discuss on the vision and the issues of changing them into the centers for activities to improve community environments. Documents on the web sites and the hearing investigation were held to all municipalities in the Chugoku region. Conclusions are as follows; 1. The municipalities of 53.6% in the Chugoku region will finish the reorganization of the Kominkan until 2011. 2. Five types are seen as the roles of the centers after the reorganization, including the centers for activities to improve community environments. 3. As a background of the change, there is a policy to promote the activities for community. Therefore, there is a strong possibility that the Kominkan will become the receptacle of base of the activities for community. 4. The basic form of the center is thought to consist of a place as local information hub, a place for local governing and a place for social education. 5. As issues of architectural planning the center, taking the locality into account to make form of them and effective uses of existing facilities were pointed out.
In this study we analyzed alteration of teachers-space of junior-high-school, where they have changed from departmentalized classroom system to special classroom system, and got some insights of the teachers' room. Since it is essential for teachers of the same school year to have much communication and cooperation for student guidance, teachers' working space should not be separated. The teachers' room must be arranged to enable them to discuss or to hold meetings freely, regardless of the school scale or the school management method. Besides, if all members are sets, it is best from overall viewpoint of the school management.
Based on the result of our previous paper, the purpose of this study is to clarify the spatiotemporal working patterns of discretionary labor in detail, and to propose the index of measuring and comparing the working mobility of individual labor. First, about 48 labors categorized in the 4 working styles, the features of their working time distributions are investigated by recounting the e-mail access log in each style. Next, the locations (longitude and latitude) of their external workplaces are specified based on the IP addresses recorded in the log file, and the zenithal map is drawn to confirm their spatial distribution using GIS. The relations between the distances from the office and amounts of work at the external workplaces are analyzed on the spatiotemporal distribution charts. Then, the distances are normalized by translating to the hyperbolic plan, and the working mobility index is formulated. The index is to give a certain dimension to the concept of “field of presence” substituted for “point of presence” in the post sedentary society.
This study focuses on the PFI supporting organizations in United Kingdom and their supporting activities toward the public clients, which include central government departments and local authorities in UK. By comparing their support in public procurement aspect and architectural design aspect with that of Japan, there is a clear structure in UK PFI support system, the Regulation Control System, which is to do with the central government reviewing projects in relation to their policy and programmes, and the Planning Support System, which is to do with supporting local authorities' actual PFI projects. By scrutinizing the two PFI public library projects in UK and in Japan, there is also a difference in procurement structure in a relationship between the architect, the client and the contractor in designing process.
The main purpose of this study is to prove that pain and aggravation of rheumatism promote housing arrangements. From the results of 8 case studies subjected people suffering from articular rheumatism in Sweden, it became clear the following 3 aspects. 1. Evaluations of Physical Functional QOL were higher, though evaluations of Pain QOL were severe. 2. Some cases were provided assistive devices when they were diagnosed as RA, and then they introduced housing adaptations and the use of assistive devices considering about their pain and symptom. 3. Many cases used transportation support as public provided service. About informal support, their partner provided support for housekeeping and daily activities.
This paper develops a basic tessellation model based on the overlapping calculation of simple Voronoi diagrams to estimate the distance decay pattern of number of users in a spatial demand structure for regional facilities with capacity. Distance decay of facilities with a certain capacity was analyzed using a computer simulation, and a new tessellation model was derived in relation to the intersections of the Voronoi regions of neighboring facilities. First, a Monte Carlo simulation was conducted based on the assumptions involved in the intervening opportunities model. The result reveals that the curve of distance decay consists of a high-density area in a region proximal to the facilities, a uniform intermediate-density area within the Voronoi region, and an area of exponential decline outside this region. Second, we formulated a theoretical model of the resulting distance decay. This tessellation model gives a theoretical distance-decay function which shows a good fit to the results of the simulation.
Although yashikirin(premises forest) of fukugi (Garcinia subelliptica) trees were common in Okinawa before World War Two, there are only a handful of villages that retain the traditional landscape of fukugi trees today. This study analyses the physical characteristics of yashikirin in Imadomari Village, Nakijin on Okinawa Island and Tonaki Village on Tonaki Island to compare them with yashikirin in Bise Village, Motobu on Okinawa Island and Higashi and Nishi Villages on Aguni Island. Through comparing the physical features of yashikirin in each village, it can be concluded that the trees have been planted in correspondense with the microclimates of each location, particularly to withstand the srtong winds during the winter months. The results of the study also suggest that the historical development of the villages can be traced through the locations of older trees. Although Bise and Tonaki are better known as locations with fukugi yashikirin, Higashi and Nishi on Aguni and Imadomari are also worthy of mention as older trees can be found in these areas.
The area of this study is near to the seismic center in what got up on March 25, 2007, and it is the Monzen-cho, Wajima-shi Morooka district Touge village which suffered serious damage. In this article, I clarified the succession of the house for generations, the actual situation of the succession of the residence for the Touge village of the disaster area of the Noto Peninsula earthquake. And I considered the vacant land problem of the village, the use of the vacant land of the non-occupant after the earthquake disaster, the issue of management.
The intent of this research was to point out the nature of bases of activity intended for the creation of a sustainable region. 1)There is utility in creating bases of activity with a social entrepreneurial perspective that factors in the use of existing stock in urban areas. 2)Bases of activity should be conducive to regular, daily use by neighborhood residents and avoid becoming a space for only select individuals.3)Bases of activity should be used to examine strategic business' means of attracting visitors that contribute to the solving of regional issues in a manner that conforms to the purpose of the affiliated activities group.
The movement in Hagi city would show you an advanced example as the community development utilizing cultural heritages. 2 points could be clear after analyzing the background of its concept and the systems to work it out. 1. At first, the concept of “Urban Heritage” can be explained by picking up “Culture Resources” in that area by an absolute scale and indicating them with a story of the city as “Urban Heritage” which has both elements, “ Authenticity” and “Integrity”. 2. And next point is the management of these resources by the database. It makes them the basic document of the administration measure which can be public. Therefore, the locals and the private enterprise in utilizing them such as the making of scenes and tourism development can join the living environment maintenance. As a result, the preservation, the maintenance and the maintained situation are enabled.
The first specifications for fire zones in Asahikawa City, Hokkaido, were laid down fifty years ago; since then, the city has undergone considerable expansion. Because of changes in the requirements related to urban structures and buildings, the fire zone specifications have changed considerably in comparison with the initial specifications. Consequently, it has become very difficult to assign accurate fire hazard ratings for fire zones and semi-fire zones in urban areas. To overcome this problem, it is necessary to adopt an objectively specified standard. In this study, we evaluated the fire prevention performance of Asahikawa City by using CVF, aiming at a specified review in fire prevention and a semi-fire zone and settled on a specified standard of a fire zone and a semi-fire zone based on the evaluation result.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify effectiveness of the Quality Rural Residential Promotion Law for the land use control technique at the suburbs. At first, we arranged the operative situation of the law and its characteristic. Next, we arranged a basic policy to institute before the Quality Rural Residence is built from examples of 39 municipalities which had operated the law, and we analyzed these characteristic. Moreover, we selected 4 cities has construction plan in the Urbanization Control Area as a case study, and hearing these cities. From these results, we considered about the ideal operative measure of the law as the development application for the Urbanization Control Area.
Since landscape law was enforced, some local governments have tried to control building height for preservation of landscape perspective. This study aims to research and examine their achievements, and to make clear how to control building height for preservation of landscape perspective. By analyzing the manner how each local government use existing legal system, I find that the city planning law and the landscape law are used in a mutual complementary manner for preserving landscape perspective, and it is necessary to consider more effective legal system.
In Japan, obesity and health problems caused by lack of exercise have been often observed especially among middle aged males. While these are becoming major healthcare issues, Japanese citizens do not have enough accesses to exercise facilities in each region. Therefore, I investigated the actual usage of fitness clubs and examined a solution of them, it has been proved that there are certain populations who do not intend to exercise despite visiting fitness clubs. In conclusion, in order to attract more citizen to the clubs, developments and implementations of innovative services which make them more practical at the clubs than at home, are strongly expected.
This paper aims to examine the differences of residential environment between compact cities and none compact cities. Compact cities' built-up areas are inclined to be higher accumulated of population compared to none compact cities', and these highly accumulation might harm residential environment. Through the examination, we merely found the noticeable differences of residential environment, especially housing standards, between compact cities and none compact cities. One of the reasons for this result is that the compact cities' detached housing size, especially site and built area, is less uneven compared to that of none compact cities. This shows the similarity of each size of detached houses is one of the elements that the compact cities have.
In this research, the concept of the cleaning quality management method for government buildings that was developed in our previous study is applied to apartment blocks, to verify the possibility of application of this method. It was identified that the residents of apartment blocks focus on “dust” and “stains” on commonly-used areas such as “floors” and “walls” respectively, when evaluating cleaning quality. Based on this result, we next established “Subjects for Evaluation” such as “floors” and “walls”, and “Evaluation Items” such as “darkening” and “stains”, and set an “Evaluation Level” for each of the “Evaluation Items”. In addition, in this research we conducted a survey on residents' evaluation of cleaning quality for the residents of 25 buildings, and discuss improvements of cleaning quality through the application of this method as well as verifying the possibility of the application of this method.
The processes of this study are : We conducted hearings and questionnaire survey on building moving specialists; Based on the responses building moving specialists, we analyzed why buildings were moved and how hard the movement construction. The main results from this study are as follows. 1) Building moving is effective for long term serviceability, as well as, the economy of the composite real estate(i.e. buildings and land). 2) Building moving was socially requested in city planning businesses. At the same time, we clarified an advantage of building movement against the conversion of the building, and also clarified the condition in which building moving is widely accepted.
Meijiadayuan is commercial complex which was built by Huachao, who are immigrated to United State, in 1920's. Meijiadayuan was nominated as world heritage site as same as neighboring Kaiping city's historical site, but the recognition for Meijiadayuan was deferred. As a result, the site was almost abandoned. This study is to clarify the following 4 points about Meijiadayuan, 1) Its developing process from 19th century. 2) Damaging process of the historical building. 3) Relationship between the damaging process and the present living style 4) Considering the above 1) to 3), propose the method to preserve the historical site.
This paper deals with the extinction of “Nokiyaku” in the beginning of Meiji period in Kyoto. The contents of Nokiyaku were tax and labor, so that duty for town people who have house in the city from Edo period. Nokiyaku had set about every 6 meters of house's frontage, so become the unit about townscape. By the way, the land ticket “Chiken” was published in 1874, so Nokiyaku had distinguished.
The aim of this study is to illustrate the spatial structure characteristics of Okura-dokoro located along the Kitakami River in the Morioka Domain during the Edo period. We applied the typological methods to analyze the features of spatial constituent elements and compositions of Okura-dokoros. As the results, four Okura-dokoros in Morioka Domain were categorized in a type, while their counterparts in other Tohoku domain's Okura-dokoros located on the rivers are categorized in other types, and when compared, the uniqueness of Morioka Domain's Okura-dokoros were highlighted.
There are two purposes of this paper. The first is a transition of expansion of corporate towns, developed by steel industry companies. Another one is site plan of welfare facilities. At development, about end of Meiji era, corporate towns took position that surround factories. Expansion period, since 1934 when established of Nippon Steel Corporation, each corporate towns becomes independent of the factory by corporate policy. It had developed basement of east area in Muroran, and influence of urban planning was a little. In each corporate town, facilities site orderly with a trunk road and daily life facilities located central of those area. The grade of company's house is high above in the sloping land. A living environment of staff district, high, dry and good view, looks like a suburbs around major cities developed by private railway company and realty company. Development of corporate town in Muroran is a base of present residential quarter and urban area.
In the ancient Khmer city Chok Gargyar, many archaeological remains including temples and other religious facilities and several types of the civil structures were newly documented in a survey from 2007 to 2010. This paper showed that there is certain significant meaning to the positions of archaeological remains distributed throughout this ancient city. The temples appear to be distributed irregularly at a glance, but those located around Prasat Thom came to be seen as sharing a common plan. It was also found that the approach from the royal road to the city led to the central temple of Prasat Thom, and that the straight pilgrimage route ran straight to the pyramid temple “Prang” with were landmarks of this city. Worshipers and the center of the city were not only connected by a symbolic, invisible relationship, but they were also visibly related, as though in manifestation of the ruler's strong unifying power.
The aim of this study is to clarify the particular spatial characteristics of Loggia space, as public space, in contemporary architecture. Loggia space is defined as an ambiguity of architectural territory and at the same time an exterior space. Initially, the relationship between loggia space and interior space, such as positional relation of plan, section and supporting systems, is investigated. Secondly, the relationship between loggia space and adjacent external space, such as public squares, streets, and surrounding buildings, is investigated. Thirdly, the various typological characteristic of loggia space is generated through the combination of the building patterns and the adjacent external space patterns. Finally, the combination of two contrasting axis of spatial qualties, the architectural aspect of structure vs. covering and the external relation to openness vs. gap space, is clarified as a basic characteristic of loggia space.
Street Pavement in Preservation Districts for Groups of Traditional Buildings are required a conservation point of view in addition to the general aspects such as design and function. The purpose of this study is to clarify the existing conditions and problems of street pavements in Preservation Districts for Groups of Traditional Buildings. Through the questionnaire, interview to municipalities and onsite survey, following points were indicated. More than 80% use asphalt, and second most are natural stones. Most municipalities do not have clear strategies for pavements. Vague concepts such as “traditional image” and “harmony to the character of the area” are prior to the historic evidence. From the conservation point of view, it is recommended that the designs of street pavements refer to the existing historic evidence. As for the most area with little evidence, street pavement should be less represented rather than using many pompous materials, and it is leaded to the appropriate street landscapes.
The purpose of this paper is to realize the tendency to the distribution of painters' address by schools, and to deliberate whether to involve between the distribution of painters' address and patrons. The results are as follows: (1)Sizyo-school gathered on Sizyo-dori. (2)Maruyama-school gathered on Higasinakasuzi-dori after Koka. (3)Kisi-school gathered around Teramatihigasinodoin and on Itizyo-dori and Nakatatiuri-dori. (4)Hara-school gathered on Itizyo-dori and Nakatatiuridori. (5)Motiduki-school gathered a narrow area. (6)Kano-school showed a same tendency as Motiduki school after Tenpo. (7)Tosa-school gathered on Teramatimarutamati. (8)Turusawa-school divided into Turusawa, Yamamoto, and Isida. (9)The painter of letters gathered on outskirts.
This paper refers to a few observations on structural features of the Old City of Sana'a in Yemen, focusing on constituent elements of harah/harat, traditional neighbourhood units, and transition of land use. There are 56 harat in the city today. The area of the old city of Sana'a, which developed many times since the Saba era, was figured under the first Ottoman occupation. The main constituent elements of harah are a mosque, a green field called a maqushama which belongs to a mosque, houses, streets, and sharhat, small open square. Under the modernization, such as installation of water supply and sewerage system, Sana'a is changing in traditional harah politically, socially, even physically. Such circumstances affect historic environment of Sana'a.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the planning documents for conservation and utilization of historic buildings certified by Yokohama city and to consider the feature of the method of the certification system for historic buildings of Yokohama city. The results are as follows. The documents of 51 buildings in Naka-ward refer 59 places -41 buildings, 7 streets and 10 parks- as the landscape value of buildings. The overall references make 11 groups of buildings, streets and parks. The result of analysis indicates the certification system of Yokohama city tend to conserve the relationships of buildings, streets and park.