Introduction The territoriality and openness of housing space in alley-space were cleared to investigate the existing residential area in the previous study. Specifically, the closer housings are toward the alley, the fewer self-expression elements are. The fewer dwellers use the alley, the weaker neighbor relations become. Then as a result necessities of a neighbor community are lower. It should mention that in previous study the comparison between long-term changes of territoriality in the past and present of residential areas was not investigated.
Purpose of research The aim of this study is to investigate long-term changes of territoriality in the existing residential area to re-examine previous research area. So, territoriality in the current residential area is cleared at present, too.
Research method The first research was conducted in 1982 and the second one in 2016. The pictures of the alleys and dwellings entrance area were used to analyze the long-term changes of physical settings. The first questionnaire was compared with the second one to distinguish the changes of territoriality. Then, the results of the survey in Yanaka, Nakacho and Tsukishima were analyzed to describe the territoriality in the existing residential area.
Conclusions Our key findings can be summarized as follows: (1) The less dwellers use the alleys and roads, the weaker relationship between neighbors become and there is a rapid decline in the sense of safety and exclusion. (2) As a result of an increase in inhabitants of apartment and residents moved into, neighbors' relationships tend to be weaker. However, the number of houses in the greeting zones remains the same ten as the previous study. (3) The changes of the sense of exclusion are influenced by changes in road shapes that are blind alleys or not. (4) As a consequence of rising in the number of vacant houses and blind areas, residents feel insecure more. (5) In spite of the fact that residences are supplied with intercom, home security, gate and access control and also surrounded by fences, the residents still feel insecure.
This study examines how the traditional and characteristic spaces of the Osaka modern Nagaya (row-houses) have been adapted to support the lifestyles of contemporary resident settlers through an investigation of 18 Nagaya occupants. The relationships between Nagaya space characteristics and occupant living styles were found to be particularly notable when considering (1) how Nagaya spaces with earthen-floors were utilized, (2) the residents' relationship with the Nagaya garden, (3) living styles that embrace room continuity, and (4) floor material selection and seating style.
The results obtained can be summarized as follows: (1) Nagaya are utilized as venues for combined business and/or communal activities as well as residences. Within them, residents tend to engage in a wide variety of work and community activities. (2) The modern Osaka Nagaya can be classified based on four floor plans by paying attention to the earthen floor locations. The relationship of these four floor plans with workplace activities can be discerned. For example, floor plans with wide earthen floors in the front are often utilized as stores or community activity hubs, whereas back rooms or second floor rooms having floor plans with entrance earthen floors are often utilized as medical and welfare/care service locations. (3) Room continuity styles particular to Nagaya were seen in every case. Based on the way first floor rooms were used, Nagaya spaces can be classified into three types and analyzed. In the first (continuous type) style, the opening and closing of various fittings are used to adjust space segments for each use, in particular, when switching functions between living space and work space that host shops or offices. However, there were also numerous one-room types in which all the fittings were removed and the entire room (second style) or some rooms (third style) were used as an open space. The living characteristics of the one-room type depended on their intended use, and could be more easily subdivided by hanging walls or wing walls. (4) Nagaya gardens were commonly retained after renovations, and were carefully tended. By arranging the living areas preferentially in locations where the garden can be seen, the new residents could create more comfortable indoor environments. (5) In Nagaya occupied by new residents, the number of tatami rooms have declined in favor of wooden flooring, especially on the first floor. Furthermore, dining rooms were commonly remodeled into “table and chair” seating styles, while in the living rooms a “closer to the floor” seating style is now preferred. In the bedrooms, the proportion of floor seating style layouts is higher, but in most cases tended to reflect family compositions.
Based on the above, it can be seen that the unique characteristics of the Osaka modern Nagaya have been positively retained and are currently being utilized as dwellings by families who want to enjoy residential styles that are not limited by the range imposed by nLDK housing. In most of the Nagaya examined, various renovations were added at the time of occupancy, or were added incrementally during the living process. Nevertheless, the traditional and characteristic spatial arrangements—such as the garden, the earthen floor areas, and the continuity of rooms—were retained, and lifestyles that actively utilize these advantages are evolving. In our current era, in which modernization accompanied by westernization has almost completed changed the urban housing paradigm, Osaka modern Nagaya, which reflect Japanese traditional living arrangements, are being used effectively by modern residents, and have not lost their value as housing stock.
After the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, Japanese government supplied over 50,000 units of temporary housings. And residential environment was built in temporary housing due to long-term evacuation such as new friends and places for daily use. However, residents must leave from temporary housing and this is considered to have damage for people who can not easily adapt to the environmental changes like older persons. Under this situation, in Asto-Nagamachi area in Sendai, around eighty families relocated from the temporary housing to the three apartment of disaster public housing in a neighboring area as a group based on the community of temporary housing instead of going back to their living area before the disaster. This study focuses on the relocation process and environmental changes of the case as a community-based relocation in a neighboring area from temporary housing to disaster public housing and clarifies efficacy of the relocation method to reduce negative effects of relocation from viewpoints of the environmental transition. In this study, we used case study approach and conducted three main surveys: 1) Interview to key persons about relocation process. 2) Questionnaire survey conducted on all residents living in three apartments of the disaster public housing, making comparison between people from the temporary housing in neighboring area and people from other places. 3) Interview to eight residents who relocated from the temporary housing about changes in their living environment, relationship with friend of the temporary housing and places kept to use. Consequently, it can be said that this relocation methods, community-based and in neighboring area, from temporary housing to disaster public housing reduces negative effects of relocation as following reasons: 1) A good process of the relocation: The residents participated the process of the relocation proactively, for instance, moved their small furniture and goods by themselves because the relocation is short distance (270-650m). And there were some supports such as consulting about the application and helping the moving by residents especially leaders of residents association. 2) To reduce the risk of negative effects of relocation: People who relocated from the temporary housing had more neighbors for daily conversation, more participation in residents association than people who relocated from other places. The relocation reduces the risk of negative effects after relocations such as less social engagement and loss of the role in area community. 3) Continuing living environment in the relocation: The residents kept to use the same surrounding facilities such as shopping stores and the hospital. Besides, they also had natural relationship with friends by chatting in the store. The meeting place in temporary housing kept open for around one year after the relocation. Some residents visited there to join some events a few times a month and to chat with stationed local officer. And They kept relationship by continuing habits in temporary housing, for example, to join radio exercise held in the park next to the disaster public housing, participate in residents' association in disaster public housing and eat lunch at friend's house.
1. Purpose of research Based on a comparative analysis of three regional cities in Ishikawa Prefecture—Kanazawa, Kaga, and Suzu—this study extracts common characteristics of the living areas of elderly residents living in the three cities, then considers whether the junior high school district would serve as the basis for defining official senior care service areas. 2. Methods The basic methodology was to cross tabulate interview survey results regarding the daily living areas of elderly subjects, some of whom required support or care while others were no care-requiring, living in the three cities. The data covered a total of 727 subjects, of whom 307 required care or support and 420 were no care-requiring. 3. Results and Discussion Analysis revealed the following common characteristics of living areas for elderly in the three cities: a) There is an area of places within walking range and another area of places that can be reached only by some mode of transportation; b) The elderly requiring care or support rarely walk outside; c) Average moving time spent when using transportation is approximately12 minutes; d) Destinations for older people needing support or care are clinics, hospitals and nursing care facilities; e) Living areas tend to overlap districts where secondary hospitals, shopping facilities, etc. are located. f) Except for the district at the tip of the prefecture, the outgoing straight line distances for each district averaged 1-3 km, but within that range the living area districts in Kaga and Suzu were somewhat larger than in Kanazawa. Next, we considered the validity of using junior high school districts as the basis for setting official senior care service areas. First, we reassessed the correspondence between elementary school districts and community organization as basic regional units. It was found that from the standpoint of living area of seniors in the three cities, the junior high school district matched an abstract area corresponding to 1-3 elementary school districts. But the time distance limit of 30 minutes as the basis was thought to be too long for the elderly. In terms of the best place to locate senior care service centers in a district, we might suggest inside of the elderly' living areas where they can reach in the average moving time, especially the outskirts of district where secondary hospitals and shopping facilities were available, or along a transport network heading into an urban core.
Introduction: University campuses started to be built since the late 19th century in China, strongly influenced by the Beaux-Arts planning style, characterized by monumental buildings with strong axis and enclosed open space. Together with the main buildings constructed in different periods, such open spaces become representive spaces in the uiniversities, and also form outdoor activity and circulation spaces for students and faculties with various landscape elements such as garden, square, walking path, bench, etc.. By analysing the functions and layout of landscape elements under the influence of the distinctive Chinese cultural and social background, this study aims to clarify the characteristics of landscape composition in open spaces in China.
Methods: One open space faced by main buildings and enclosed by buildings or urban roads on at least two sides is defined as "campus open space unit (COS unit)", and the set of such units as "COS". Based on such definitions, 142 COS units and 54 COS are extracted from 54 campuses built before 1949. Firstly, by dividing the construction year of buildings into four phases according to the Chinese historical background, phases of buildings surrounding the COS units and the number of COS units in each campus were examined as a brief overview. Secondly, in order to discuss the functional characteristics of landscape elements, types of plane/line/point elements related to the static/dynamic behavior, and their combination were examined in each COS unit. Thirdly, in order to discuss how landscape elements form a symbolic space with the surrounding buildings, layout of landscape elements related to the main building and school gate were examined in each COS unit. Fourthly, based on the results above, 6 patterns of landscape unit categorized by the combination of function and layout of landscape elements were discussed. Moreover, according to the static/dynamic and symbolic/non-symbolic characters, combinations of these patterns in each campus were divided into 8 types of landscape composition, and distribution of cases, relations and inclination of types were examined.
Results: 1) Multiple COS units, surrounding by buildings built in different phases, are formed in many campuses. 2) More COS units were built as static gardens by vegetation and water than only as square or playground for dynamic activities. Influenced by the traditional Chinese culture, natural environment is considered appropiate to the campus, rather than built by only artificial materials. 3) Completely symmetric layout is formed by only one strong axis, while basically/partially symmetric layout is sometimes formed by multiple axes of main buildings constructed in different phases. More symmetric layouts are usually formed by one plane element, while multiple elements mixed in one COS unit are in less symmetry. 4) Static and dynamic, symbolic and non-symbolic COS units coexist in many campuses. More COS units with single plane element connected to the school gate are gardens and in symmetric layout, creating a sequence from formal to casual, while the ones with multiple elements create continuous spaces with various atmospheres for different activities.
Conclusions: This study has clarified that the characteristics of landscape composition in open spaces in China are related to the function and layout of landscape elements. By the construction over years with different time trends, open spaces are composed by various landscape elements in symmetric or asymmetric layout, forming a hybrid characteristics in many campuses.
As the number of working parents is increasing, also the need for childcare services increases, and facilities are required as “alternative home base” for school-age children to spend afterschool hours and seasonal holidays when parents are at work. However, the supply of possible facilities has not been sufficient in quantity nor in quality even though the school-age childcare system in Japan was established in 1997 based on the Child Welfare Act. One potential solution to answer this need is offered by more efficient utilisation of existing private buildings. According to the statistics of Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in 2016, but currently only 20% of these facilities utilize private buildings. This study analyses the current facility conditions and the process of converting existing private buildings for school-age childcare. The analysis is based on a questionnaire and eight interviews with the staff at after-school childcare centres in Osaka city carried out in 2015. The analysis showed that the process of utilizing existing private buildings for childcare consist of three phases. In phase 1, the organizers need to find a property by themselves, but it is extremely difficult for them to find facilities that suit the children`s activities. Thus they require support from the local authorities to obtain information about the vacancy and availability of the property. A further challenge is that the property must meet certain conditions: a playground is located nearby, a kitchen is available, and there is sufficient space for the number of children in day care. In addition, it must be located at a suitable distance from the school and playground and the rent needs to be affordable. In phase 2, the property needs renovation before occupancy because it is generally aged and planned for other use. The results of the questionnaire show the properties were refurbished on the expense of the users. In all the cases, they paid for the interior renovations, and in four cases they paid for the facility as well. However, the facilities could not be sufficiently renovated because of the limited budget. Thus, funding for earthquake-resistant structures and emergency exits should be provided by the government. In phase 3, the challenge is to ensure long-term occupancy as the facility is supposed to be an alternative home for the children. The results of the questionnaire show that the users had experienced relocation once or twice in every 10 years on average. Thus selecting an appropriate property and suitable renovation could lengthen the period of utilisation because the main reasons for relocation are request by property owner or neighbours to move out, and improper facilities. The results show that more than 80 per cent of the current facilities are sufficient with a kitchen, W.C. and a rest space. On the other hand, 60-80 per cent of the facilities had an emergency exit and route, a work space, an entrance, a storage, space to separate different kinds of activities, and a changing space. Less than 60% had a dooryard and shower. Based on the analysis, this study identified ten requirements for sufficient facility improvement: ·A living room where all children and staff can be assemble in. ·Spaces to separate daynamic and static activities. ·Sufficient visibility that allows supervision of the children. ·Adequate number of toilet bowls for the children. ·A kitchen available for cooking. ·Adequate entrance for the use of children. ·Storage for equipment and materials for camping and bazaars. ·Door yard between the street and entrance. ·Emergency exit and route in addition to the main entrance. ·Physical settings that prevent noise.
The aim of this study is to clarify the effects of window and posture on the motivation and psychological evaluation during a meeting. A meeting is thought to share personal knowledge and experience, request more stimulation from each other and get more new ideas. But in fact, in a meeting, some problems were found such as lack of concentration, while no ideas came up. The issue is how to arrange the layout of a space to improve motivation in a meeting.
To find the effects of window and posture, Simulated experiments are produced in a simulated study space. The room for the experiment is 7.87 meters long, 3.60 meters wide, and 3.15 meters high. 8 desks in island type layout are arranged. Every desk is 1.40 meters long, 0.06 meters wide, and 0.71 meters high, while a mini desk is put on the desk, which is 0.30 meters long, 0.45 meters wide, and 0.19 meters high. Subjects are asked to take a meeting, whose title was already decided. The number of meetings is either 4 people or 2 people. The posture of the meeting is decided as either sitting or standing. Regarding the meeting of 2 people, the posture includes facing each other and shoulder to shoulder. 6 kinds of meeting are asked to be done, that is standing for 4 people, sitting for 2 people facing each other, sitting for 2 people shoulder to shoulder, standing for 2 people facing, standing for 2 people shoulder to shoulder, sitting for 4 people. During the experiment, subjects are asked to speak the key words by a decided theme while writing them down on the sheets for 4 minutes, and to reply to questionnaires regarding to psychological evaluation after they have finished the meeting. They were asked to take the score of the motivation by themselves, taking 100 points as perfection in the questionnaires. 24 subjects as 3 groups (8 people per group) did the case of a space with windows; while 24 subjects did the case of a space without windows. All 48 subjects are male undergraduate students. Analysis contains motivation and psychological evaluation. Motivation is based on the score of personal motivation and number of key words talked by subjects; while psychological evaluation is based on the result of questionnaire. Modified score is defined as the score divided by the average of all scores of the same subject.
As a conclusion, the following was clarified. Regarding to meetings of 4 people, firstly, in the space without windows the brightness is more equal, the feeling of unity of the group is stronger, people feel more pleasure, the motivation is higher than in the case with windows. Secondly, the motivation with sitting subjects is higher than with standing subjects. Regarding to meetings of 2 people, firstly, in the case of sitting in a space with windows, the eyesight can divert and the view is wide, the motivation is higher than in the space without windows. Secondly, In a space without windows, the motivation with standing subjects is higher than with sitting subject. It is thought that people can move freely and the surroundings can be seen more in the case of the standing subjects.
The issue in future is to study the difference of personal ability of getting new key words and the case of more people in a meeting group.
Independent excretion requires disabled children to acquire communication ability and the ability to maintain posture throughout the process of growth. These efforts require a combination of medical care, rehabilitation and education. However, under the current circumstances, teaching and training for excretion are provided at hospitals, rehabilitation facilities or schools when they are not given under home conditions. Further, the need for the development of changing excretion environments along with the growth of disabled children is not referred to. No studies have been found that address these issues as well as appropriate excretion environments based on the stages of growth or development of disabled children from the perspective of architectural planning studies. Consequently, the objective of our studies is to highlight the current situations and environments of excretion among disabled children and the actual conditions of the development of excretion environments based on the stages of growth or development of disabled children (physical/intellectual ability). We conducted a survey using a questionnaire and obtained responses from 729 disabled children. We classified the disabled children based on the physical or excretion conditions into groups that share similar difficulties in terms of excretion environments and analyzed them group by group. Our survey revealed the following:
1. Some disabled children use diapers in spite of no excretion disability. If children have difficulties going to the toilet owing to reason of physical functions, housing environments need to be developed from the perspective of caregivers who assist disabled children with moving. 2. The development of excretion environments would enable disabled children to excrete or change diapers at the toilet. Even though disabled children use diapers at their houses, they would be able to excrete at the toilet using assistance tools or toilet bowls of various shapes at rehabilitation facilities or schools. The development of excretion environments at houses which allow disabled children to excrete without help is needed. 3. Few houses have sufficient excretion environments. Information on how to develop environments at houses or subsidy housing is lacking. 4. Excretion environments at public toilets away from home are highly unsuitable. That they have no table for adults to change children's diapers suggests they do not assume use by disabled children. 5. Children with severe intellectual disability such as sound hypersensitivity, allotriophagy or coprophilia have different issues from physically disabled children with respect to the development of excretion environments.
Through recent deregulation on urban development lows, the number of super-high-rise residential buildings has increased and the locations have been diversified in the Tokyo Metropolis. Super-high-rise residential buildings development leads rapid population growth in neighborhood that increases new demand for public facilities. Therefore, it is necessary for urban planning to understand its trend and mechanism. There are a lot of researches about the development features in the central Tokyo, however there are no study concerning its location trend in metropolitan suburbs. This paper aims to investigate comprehensively the location of super-high-rise residential buildings in the Tokyo Metropolis and analyzes the features of its development in suburbs. In order to collect data about the development, this paper firstly conducted literature review and interviews to officers of housing supply public corporations, research institution and development department of 4 major cities in the Tokyo Metropolis. Based on the research, it is confirmed that there are 789 super-high-rise residential buildings in the Tokyo Metropolis and 220 of them in suburbs. 9 to 10 buildings have been completed every year and its agglomeration has also been increasing. Secondly, this paper analyzes the location trend from a view point of traffic convenience, land use around the location and urban planning. Following four points are found as the location trend of super-high-rise residential buildings in suburbs. 1) Accessibility for the central Tokyo is important factor as same as the location. Most of super-high-rise residential buildings are located within 50km from Tokyo and also around the railway stations along with the radial railroad lines in the Tokyo Metropolis. 2) Super-high-rise residential building developments are identified three categories by development method, such as “site redevelopment”, “site integrated development” and “new urban area development”. Many condos had been completed by new urban development before 1990s, but in the number of its development in urbanized area has increased, and impact of the development is bigger than the development in the other area in recent years. 3) Most of site redevelopments are concentrated within 700 meters from railway station, even if the legal floor area ratio is as low as 300%. However, the number of site redevelopment has declined in recent years. The reason is considered that the site suiting for the development conditions is getting exhausted. 4) In site integrated development, 80% of condo is located within 370 meters from the stations and in commercial areas where the legal floor area ratio is over 400%. Whilst recently the number of most types of the development has been decreasing, the number of the development in suburban center areas has rapidly increasing. This research suggests that suburban center areas attract more super-high-rise condos in the future because of the expansion of housing demand instead of the floor demand for commercial use. Further studies are needed in order to clarify the influence for the social and economic structure of metropolitan suburbs by increasing super-high-rise condos in the suburban center.
Recently developments in the existing urban & local industry area destroy the local community network and the spatial characteristics, and the local industries are getting weaker according to the change of industrial structure, so that there is a need to make the sustainable urban & local industry space. Aims to get suggestions for that, this study focuses on the leather industrial area, which has mixed use spaces from modern times in the existing urban area of Tokyo. The target area, Northern Taito Ward, is an area where the leather industry is located from early modern times which has been dominated the wholesale and secondary processing industry on a Family scale (integration & specialization of small scale industry). So that individual buildings in which residence and workshop functions are combined have been popular style in this area. The methodology of this study (“A study on the fact and inheritance of urban Residential-Industrial mixed-use area from the view of Regional-Industrial structure”) is to incorporate the perspective of industrial structure with the discussion on the living environments of mixed-use spaces. So that the final goal is to disclose about the spatial characteristics of the target area and the importance of having view point of not only living but also industry networks in the argument on the mixed-used buildings. As the First step, this paper discusses about the transition of regional-industrial structure in the target area, northern Taito-Ward from high economic growth period to the present in 4 steps. In the first method, the statistical survey revealed the position of the target area; the northern part of Taito Ward, seen from the leather industry structure. Located in Tokyo, one of Japanese 2 major leather production areas, it is a region where the production of processed products of pigskin (especially shoes industry) is thriving and features a division of labor system. Secondly, to catch the movement of transactions inside the area, we quantified the business relationships in the lists in 1970 and dropped them on the maps. Within the area, establishments located separately depending on the type of industry as well, and it was found that there was a high-density business relationship at short distance inside the area at that time. Thirdly, we extracted the leather industrial establishments from the town page and made the current list. And finally, by comparing the location and business relationship of the establishments in 1970 with the current location, we caught the transition of the regional-industrial structure. There was no major change in the total number of leather establishments, but the number of manufacturers declined and the number of affiliated material stores increased. Distribution of the area by the industrial position tends to be distributed, and it turned out that commercialization occurred in the whole area. In order to disclose that how the spatial elements of this area accepted the change of transactions, and how the influence form the town by appearing in the landscapes, we will investigate the fact situation of urban space of this area and compare the result with the transition of regional-industrial construction.
The aim of this paper is to verify the effectiveness of people walking with their dogs to keep an eye on their neighborhood, or “the eyes in the community”. It is considered that demonstrating the characteristics of the spatial cognition of walkers with dogs is a useful way to support such an effect. Therefore, in this study, we compare sketch maps drawn by two groups of residents, first dog-owners who are used to walk dogs in their neighborhood, and second non-owners who do not own dogs, and analyze how dog-walkers perceive their local area in order to clarify the roles they play in the community. The survey area is Gokanme-cho, Seya-ku, Yokohama-shi and its surrounding area. We have distributed survey forms to 40 people living in the area, and obtained 25 effective answers. In the survey, we asked each subject to draw a free drawing map of his/her neighborhood and mark an area where he/she greet daily to neighbors. In addition, we asked dog-owners to mark his/her daily walking courses with dog and also places where he/she have make contact with others on the sketch map. Although there is no significant difference between total lengths of paths drawn by the two groups, an range of paths drawn by dog-owners extends beyond major roads recognized as edges of the area. This result may be explained by the fact that dog-owners seek suitable courses for walking-dogs widely and they often have several walking courses. Dog-owners are potentially “the eyes in the community” to watch children in the park, because they walk with dogs more widely than non-owners and visit such places with few passers-by, for example, small parks locate by an expressway side-roads and places out of reach of people's eyes. On the other hand, they may choose such places for avoiding people's eyes because they let their dogs to shit. Therefore, there can be a duality with the dog-walkers' “the eyes in the community”. In parks where access with dogs are restricted, recognition rate by the dog-owners is low, and in contrast, parks open to dog-walkers show high recognition rate. The perception rate by dog-walkers seems to be linked to the experience while walking their dogs. Characteristic places where dog-walkers often interact with others are spaces where they can stay safely with dogs, and spaces open to dog-walkers stay. It can be said that even small spaces will attract human interactions while walking dogs. Thus, this paper has shown that the walking with dogs can be "the eyes in the community" and effective for causing new interaction. It occurs beyond the range of daily greetings.
This study examined the residential area created based on community care through a case study. In the case study, Kitasuma-danchi in Kobe City developed by Hyogo housing co-op in 1975 was analyzed. In Kitasuma-danchi, the housing co-op, the residents' association, and social welfare corporations provided various types of facilities. In particular, three social welfare corporations, the attributes of which differ from each other, managed a total of ten facilities for the elderly and the disabled. First, this study examined the development of Kitasuma-danchi by the housing co-op and analyzed the facilities created by the residents' association. Kitasuma-danchi was the first large-scale housing complex developed by the Hyogo Labour Bank, which developed housing complexes for members of trade unions. When planning this project, the housing co-op was established in order to unify the construction and management of the housing complex. In addition to the construction of residences, the housing co-op had provided facilities such as co-op stores, day nurseries, and meeting places, for residents who became members of the housing co-op. The residents' association was responsible for reflecting the residents' needs in the above-mentioned facilities provided by the housing co-op. As members, the residents had a right to reflect their intentions in the facilities provided by the housing co-op. Next, this study analyzed the process by which social welfare facilities were provided by social welfare corporations. Social welfare corporation A was newly established by the housing co-op to manage day nurseries. It was managed by the officers of the residents' association and provided facilities for the elderly and the disabled after the day nurseries. In Kitasuma-danchi, social welfare corporations B and C also managed social welfare facilities. In the 1980s, social welfare corporation B was in charge of a facility for the disabled in Hyogo Prefecture. Social welfare corporation C was managed by the users' families, and it provided a facility for the disabled in the 1990s. After understanding the needs of the elderly, the residents' association provided a facility for the elderly managed by social welfare corporation A. Before social welfare corporation A began to offer social welfare services for the disabled, the residents had to understand social welfare for the disabled through the experience gained by social welfare corporations B and C and the needs of social welfare for the disabled existing in the local communities. In recent times, these social welfare corporations have provided various types of social welfare facilities using vacant land and unoccupied residences. This was realized after the residents' association had examined the current situation of Kitasuma-danchi and satisfied the residents' interests. Finally, this study examined the actual state of community care constructed through the resident's encouragement to the residential area. The result revealed that community care created a new form of using spaces in the housing complex and one of its roles was to update the residential area.
Far suburban residential areas, located around 50 km from Central Tokyo, are facing problems such as a decreasing and aging population and an increase in the number of vacant houses. One solution to these problems is promotion of “kinkyo” (living near relatives). When a young household lives near their parents, they can receive childcare support from their parents and the parents, in turn, may be cared for by their children in the future. However, the current situation of kinkyo cannot be determined from existing statistics and its benefits have not been proven with evidence. We aimed to grasp the current situation of kinkyo and prove its benefits in Koma-Musashidai District in Hidaka City, Saitama, Japan. Approximately 5000 people from 2000 households live in the district. First, we conducted a questionnaire survey of residents with the cooperation of the residents' organization in November 2015, to which 611 householders or their spouses responded. Next, an interview survey with the only real estate agent in the district, which deals with approximately 80% of real estate transactions in the district, was conducted in January 2017 to ask about transactions between 2010 and 2016. Then, we conducted a word-of-mouth survey of residents to get information on positional relationships between parent-child kinkyo pairs on a housing map in September 2017. The results of the questionnaire survey showed the proportion of residents who lived near their parents or children was more than 10% and around one-third of young (<45 years old) households responded that their parents lived in the same district. Significantly high percentage of households who lived near their parents inhabited townhouses, which occupy around 20% of housing in the district and are smaller and less expensive than detached houses. The proportion of kinkyo in real estate transactions was around 20% and pregnancy or the birth of grandchildren was often a trigger of a child's household move into the district. Regarding positional relationships between parent-child pairs, they tended to live in the same neighborhood among seven neighborhoods in the district and parent-child pairs lived significantly nearer on average than randomly selected pairs from all houses in the district. Regarding the benefits of aged parents living near their child's household, the child or his/her spouse routinely went shopping on behalf of the parents; therefore, they tended to have significantly less inconvenience than other aged residents. Additionally, aged parents tended to have less anxiety regarding continuing to live in the district and their home as their final abode, as well as better self-rated health. The findings of this study on the current situation of kinkyo and its benefits provide evidence for the promotion of kinkyo. Residents' associations could serve as the voices of aged residents who live near their children and enjoy the benefits of kinkyo to other residents in the district and their children living outside of the area. Real estate agents should deliver information about newly vacant properties within a neighborhood to its residents first because parent-child pairs tend to live close to each other. The municipality should moderate the required conditions of subsidies for the promotion of kinkyo because households moving into the district previously did not meet its strict conditions.
Building projects need many decision-making, and clients cooperate to decide with architects, supervisors, general contractors and other consultants in projects. Especially in Japan, because the project members trust each other and the ability of Japanese general contractors is excellent, clients often make a decision in construction phase. However, the laws in Japan don't define client's decision in construction phase clearly, and that often makes some kinds of risk (e.g., design change, delay of projects, and high cost). This paper aims to clarify factors and influence of client's decision-making in construction phase in Japan. There are three main laws related construction projects in Japan, Building Standards Act, Act on Architects and Building Engineers, and Construction Business Act. In addition, there are several standard specifications of construction work and standard forms of contract in Japan. These three laws and some standards define client's decision-making as follows.  if they find some mistakes in drawings in construction phase, clients must make architects correct it.  by agreement with the project member, clients can change drawings in construction phase.  if the design change affects structure, clients must perform structural calculation and obtain the application of building confirmation.  In case that it is reasonable to select in construction phase such as color, material and equipment, clients can select them in construction phase after clarifying in drawings. Therefore, we took the questionnaire about current status of client's decision-making involved in reinforcement work, steel work, exterior work, and equipment work. Questionnaire was an open-ended question method and composed of three questions as below.  what kind of client's decision-making is there?  what factors of decision-making are there?  what influence of decision-making is there? The sample was restricted to people in construction project and the respondents were belonged to clients, developers, architects, and general contractors. A total of 78 questionnaires were distributed by e-mail and 14 samples were collected. The results of survey revealed the difference of client's behavior between 4 works. In reinforcement work and steel work, clients do not decide and instruct the number of reinforcement and performance of a steel member directly. However, clients affect these works indirectly. In design phase, sometimes, clients do not decide certain use of space because they want to follow a trend or they have not decided tenant yet. In this case, clients decide these things in construction phase and that makes change the position of partition and piping sleeve in reinforcement work and steel work. In exterior work, it is reasonable to decide color and material of exterior in construction phase because clients cannot judge from only drawings whether the design is good. General contractors make mock-up for clients to check the design and clients decide or change the design detail directly. In equipment work, clients affect it in two ways. In case that it is reasonable to decide it in construction phase, clients decide the position, number, and performance of equipment directly. On other hand, in the case that clients decide use of space in construction phase, the use and size of the room determine the required position, number and performance of equipment. Finally, in order to analyze factors of client's decision-making, we applied the fishbone diagram analysis. Fishbone diagram is the tool for identifying the root causes of problem, which was “Client's decision-making in construction phase” in this paper. This diagram has 3 main causes (project member, building type, building element) and 42 secondary causes. In addition, it was modeled how client's decision-making in construction phase affects the post-process of four works.
This paper is the first part of a study of discourses by Makino Masami (1903-1983) in modern Japan, and is based on a study presented at Architectural Institute of Japan Kinki Branch research report (Planning system) in 2010 and 2015. The purpose of this paper is to clarify and to examine his theory of architectural evolution and the controversy over it. After graduating from Tokyo Imperial University (present the University of Tokyo) in 1927, Makino was employed at the Okura-doboku Corporation (present Taisei Corporation). He went to France, and became a disciple of Le Corbusier in 1928. After he returned to Japan in 1929, he was widely active as a writer, a lecturer and an architect, and then a treatise called “Kenchiku-shicho o kataru (On the architectural theory)”, in which he pointed out the laws concerning architectural evolution. In the second chapter, some historians presented the view that Makino did not give a lecture titled “Kenchiku-shicho o kataru” with the same name as his treatise, but the author clarified Makino gave the lecture from some articles of academic journal “Architecture Journal” and other journals of architecture published. In the third chapter, the author digested the treatise “Kenchiku-shicho o kataru”, consisting of 4 chapters. The points of these chapters are as follows: 1) There is a nature that exists constantly inside an architecture, called “Idenshitsu (gene)”, “Kenchiku no honshitsu (the essence of architecture)”, or “Kenchiku-shicho (architectural thought)”. 2) The essence of Japanese architecture is discussed by applying the theory of architectural evolution to Japanese architecture. The points concerning it are as follows: the Japanese mind who love nature, simplicity, implicity, and neatness. 3) Modern architectural thought focuses on functionalism and efficiency including economy. International architecture especially attaches more importance to the economy than a straight external appearance. 4) The similarities between Japanese and modern architectural thoughts is discussed, and proposes a future course that Japanese architecture should take in response to it. In the fourth chapter, the author ascertained the various responses which the “Kenchiku-shicho o kataru” evoked. Particularly the controversy over the theory of architectural evolution, between Makino and Magara Tozo (1904-1985), held in “Architecture Journal” in 1930 were intense. In the fifth chapter, the author chronologically summarized the developments and points of the controversy. Magara criticized the ideal side of the theory of architectural evolution from the historical materialism point of view. He claimed that the essence of architecture did not a priori exist, scientifically derived from experiment and observation of social and economic facts rather than idea. Makino objected that the thought which emphasizes economic factor was a biased view. The theory of architectural evolution was metaphorically explained by the evolution of a biological species, then the gene, called “Idenshitsu”, “Kenchiku no honshitsu” or “Kenchiku-shicho”, did not exist outside the architecture but inside one. A form exposed from it and kept in step with the times, thus he did not attach importance to an old form. Magara's criticisms, however, were very severe and based on a Marxist point of view. In the 1920s, Marxism rapidly spread among the students in higher schools of the old system and imperial universities as the socialist movement became more popular and some books about Marxism based upon historical materialism were published. Then the architectural histories and theories based on historical materialism was published. The controversy over Makino's theory reflected the intellects and students class spirit during the Taisho era.
There was a "legend" that Daikiti TAKI was involved in the construction of the Ryounkaku, which was founded in 1890. Regarding this "legend", I thought that TAKI was concerned with the Ryounkaku with respect to the design of research and repair for the Ryounkaku after the Meiji Tokyo earthquake that occurred on June 20, 1894, not against the beginning. By the way, "Ryounkaku-heimenzu" -the plan of the Ryounkaku- was posted in the first volume “Wayo-kairyo Dai-kentikugaku” published by Siro MITUHASI in February 1904, in this book, when the Ryounkaku encountered the earthquake and was damaged, it was stated that MITUHASI was also in charge of repairing, there is a question of how to interpret this point. Considering the contents of “Wayo-kairyo Dai-kentikugaku”, since this is different from repair against the Meiji-Tokyo Earthquake of June, 1894 by TAKI, the repair described in “Wayo-kairyo Dai-kentikugaku” can be judged as repair for earthquake damage other than the Meiji-Tokyo earthquake. According to the newspaper report, the Ryounkaku was damaged by the later earthquake that occurred on January 18, 1895, this tower suffered the cracking disaster. However, during this period, TAKI was dispatched to Korea and it was absent, so it can be thought that investigation and repair was entrusted to MITUHASI who was the subordinate of TAKI at the Army Ministry. After the earthquake in January 1895, the repair of the Ryounkaku, based on the first volume of “Wayo-kairyo Dai-kentikugaku”, placed the steel band behind the wall, set up the wooden pillar slightly away from the wall.
Hisao Nakaza was one of a handful of architects who contributed to building activities in Okinawa before, during, and after the Second World War. He engaged in the post-war recovery construction in the forefront immediately after the war, and later served as the first president of the Okinawa Society of Architects & Building Engineers (O.S.A.B.E.). Nakaza was a pioneer who represented Okinawan architectural society in the early post-war period. This study defines the period before 1960 as the dawn of concrete house popularization in Okinawa and aims to clarify the aspects of the development of architecture in Okinawa during this period, examining the architectural activity of Hisao Nakaza, who played a leading role in laying the foundation for the spread of concrete buildings. Results obtained from each section are as follows: 1) Nakaza was engaged in the public construction work in Okinawa before the war. That experience correlated to his active involvement of public work of American Army immediately after the war and he obtained advanced technologies. He employed masonry construction methods, utilizing local materials from 1950 to 1953 when material procurement and factory equipment were incomplete for the Reinforced-Concrete (RC) building. After 1954, he made the most of the properties of RC building, which made free form possible and also designs were changed. He was also devoted to designing activities and writing activities for magazines and newspapers and enlightened people on the dissemination of non-wooden buildings. 2) During his tenure as the President of the O.S.A.B.E., Nakaza organized discussion meetings of engineers and competitions of farm house design. Discussion meetings promoted the common consciousness of the dissemination of concrete housing among the engineers. Competitions nurtured young architects and at the same time offered the opportunities to make people known a new image of farmers' housing. Furthermore, interactions between Japanese and American engineers staying in Okinawa through meeting led to the publication of booklets about rural houses. In addition, requirements for concrete housing suitable for the land and climate were presented. Furthermore, financing facilities and tax system revisions for the establishment of concrete buildings were requested to government. 3) In the development of housing design, starting from 1949, masonry construction was performed for two years. After stone building and brick building were examined, non-wooden building was fulfilled. Concrete block (CB) building was introduced to build plumbing water parts of wooden houses around 1955, which improves durability, sanitation and handiness. CB building was frequently employed between 1952 and the beginning of 1955, which were designed by taking into consideration the climate features of the region from the beginning of the first introduction. The farmer house model of CB building was opened to the public and earned a great response. Finally, RC building entered the mainstream in 1956. At the same time, screen blocks were created and frequently utilized. The shape of screen blocks was contrived where both usability and exquisite design were found for the subtropical climate of Okinawa. As stated above, Hisao Nakaza was dedicated to the activities of the dissemination of concrete housing in diversified fields such as technical aspect (design), publicity (writing to enlighten people) finance (request for the support of financial policies) and education (cultivate architect at O.S.A.B.E). This study examined the process of Okinawan architecture after the war and revealed that the history of modernization was based on not only the unilateral receiving of advanced technology under military occupation but also the initiative struggle of the local architect, Nakaza, with roots in the region of Okinawa.
In Korea, it is almost certain that the ancient Baekje buildings used Odaruki. In the Joseon era, Guengnakjeon of Hwaamsa is known as the only building that uses Odaruki in Korea. As for the Goryeo era, mainly relics and paintings are being studied, but the excavated sites has not been studied. Based on research results of studies on the Odaruki of relics and paintings, this paper studies on the Odaruki of the buildings in the Goryeo era by examining also including the excavated sites. From the Odaruki seen in the relics and paintings of the Goryeo era, it is believed that the Odaruki corresponding to the same period of China was also used during the Goryeo era in Korea. And it seems that the technique of the Odaruki of ancient times also took over until the Goryeo era. The Odaruki since ancient times is seen in Gilt-bronze Offering Pagoda (Fig. 1) and Mirror with Figures and Pavilion in a Landscape (Fig. 2) . And, the Odaruki of the newly brought Dapo architecture is seen in Gilt-bronze Miniature Buddhist Triad Hall (Fig. 3). In addition, the Odaruki used in Liao and Jin buildings was found in the nine-storied pagoda that was engraved in a Bodhisattva Image Mirror (Fig. 4). Also the possibility that there was the Odaruki brought from Southern Song is shown in the buildings drawn in the Ajipdo Daeryeon (Fig. 5). Also from the excavated sites, it is supposed that the Odaruki were using during the Goryeo era. First of all, there is a possibility that the technique of ancient Odaruki was transmitted until the Goryeo era. Some of major temple of Baekje continued to exist until the Goryeo era. It seems that Odaruki was used in Geumdang in the West Courtyard of Mireuksa during the Baekje era, and then deep eaves were also made in the Goryeo era (Fig. 6). In other words, there is a high possibility that Odaruki were continued to be used even during the Goryeo era. In addition, during the Goryeo era, it was found that Geumdang of Jeonglimsa was rebuilt, and Geumdang and wooden pagoda of Wangheungsa were also rebuilt. These temples are famous temple in Baekje, and there is a high possibility that the Odaruki was used. Next, in Goryeo era there is a possibility that technique of the Odaruki has been newly introduced from China. In the Goryeo royal palace, Hoigyeongjeon (Fig. 7) had deep eaves and it seems that Odaruki was used in this building. This building was built before the invasion of Yuan. Therefore the Odaruki of this building is considered to be Odaruki introduced from Northern Song, Liao, and Jin. On the other hand, the buildings of the West area such as Gyeongnyeongjeon had not deep eaves and it seems that Odaruki was not used. These Western area buildings are built after the Yuan architecture introduced into Goryeo. These buildings that Odaruki was used were mainly built in the early period of the Goryeo era. Then it seems that they were disappeared by the end of the Goryeo era. It is believed that the technique of the Odaruki was almost lost as a result of the destruction by the invasion of Yuan in the late Goryeo era and the great influence of Yuan architecture in the period of Yuan rule.
In this study, through sandplay experiments realized with Japanese and Brazilian children, we will discuss when, from the developmental point of view, the cultural difference appears and their significance. In previous researches, sandplay works showed several archetypical spatial images. The image named as male spatial singularity has a center axis that integrates all the elements in the sandplay box. It has a vertical axis passing through the center and is usually symmetrical. This type of image often occurred in the works of male subjects with a continental origin, with Western or Eastern cultural background. The image named as spatial plurality shows an asymmetric and a horizontal spread of the toys in the box, and appeared in the works of Japanese male subjects. The image named female spatial singularity has the whole spatial organization centered around a determined space. Inclusion, enclosure, and intimacy are the main characteristic of this type of spatial structure, which appeared in the works of female subjects in general, independent of their nationality or cultural background. In this experiment, we compared the sandplay works of Japanese and Brazilian kindergarten children. We analyzed the works according to the direction, the position, and the order the children placed the toys in the box, and how long the children played. Japanese children took longer (average play time 36min) and eagerly enjoyed playing with the sandbox and toys than the Brazilian children (average play time 20min). All children's works showed a scale from chaotic, enumeration, partially structured arrangement, to a structured arrangement in the way the children placed the toys in the box. The structured works had archetypical spatial images: male spatial singularity and spatial plurality in boys' works and female spatial singularity in girls' works. Most Japanese children started placing the toys from the left side (inner world) and spread the toys gradually to the right side (outer world). In contrast, Brazilian children from the early age of 5 years placed the toys from the center of the box to the outside (boys) and from top to bottom (girls). Brazilian children showed domination of the space in the box in whole, proactively, aggressively expressed their ego, and showed a strong force pushing to the outer world. Brazilian children's works presented a higher level of aggressivity in the placement of the toys. Also, compared with Japanese children a more significant number of Brazilian boys' sandplay works showed the typical characteristics of male spatial singularity, which express male aggressiveness. Japanese children sandplay works revealed a sense of unity with the surrounding world in contrast to Brazilian children that from an early age separate themselves from the world and had an autonomous tendency. In resume, Brazilian boys from an early age showed in their sandplay works the male spatial singularity, archetypical spatial image of male adults with a continental cultural background. Brazilian girls also showed the archetypical female spatial singularity, but there were aggressiveness traits on the way of placing the toys. Japanese children sandplay works indicate a sense of unity with the outside world in contrast to the autonomy of Brazilian children, which were raised in a more hostile environment. The appearance of archetypical spatial images at an earlier age in Brazilian children's sandplay works confirms that the relationship with the outside world has an impact on individuals from the early childhood.
In 1931, Pier Luigi Nervi (1891-1979) published the article “Scienza o Arte dell’ Ingegnere?” on the magazine of “L'Ingegnere”. Why did he give importance to art not science? This paper therefore focuses on a process how Nervi led to such design philosophy and then examines architectural works of the construction company which Nervi and Nebbiosi established in 1923 (hereinafter called “N&N”).
This first chapter clarifies Italy's social background around 1930s after the first world war (hereinafter called “WWI”). In a trend between statically determinate and indeterminate around Italy, it was shown that statically determinate was preferred to statically indeterminate during WWI and Autarky. The reason for architects and contractors to be afraid of indeterminate structure was because of its incomplete calculation at that time.
In chapter two, the roofs of two theaters are examined. Nervi was involved in each work from halfway through their projects. Neither in Prato nor Naples, the roof construct didn't realize without Nervi. Also, it was shown that their structure needs rigidity in each joint to support a heavy equipment to open and close its skylight and roof's structure, that results in a statically indeterminate structure.
In chapter three, its roof with cantilever beam and the stands in Berta Stadium was investigated. Nervi mentioned that it is important to put a center of gravity of its structure among two pillars to support the stands, to avoid an excessive reinforcement of its foundation. According to the analysis, it was shown that there are rigid joints between roof and stand or between stand and foundation.
In chapter four, the points at issue of his article on the magazine are checked briefly with criticism of it. The editor of “L'Ingegnere“ criticized that Nervi's opinion leads other engineers to empiricism. On the other hand, at first of the article Nervi doubted absoluteness of science. Also, he had a critical opinion for a trend and movement decide that an art is a rational architecture without personality.
In chapter five, his process and design philosophy were discussed with upper chapters. The reason why Nervi required an experience is because of his preference for a statically indeterminate structure with rigid joints of reinforced concrete in a roof construction of N&N, following the bridge of Pescia in SACC. Its calculation become so complicated. The usual solution at that time, was to increase the dimension and amount of material, based solely a calculation with safety factor. Yet Nervi, with his own experience, aspired to find the thin and minimum dimension. Yet it was so difficult to get to the correct and real answer. Furthermore, Nervi asserted that he designs not only with his experience but also with formulas based on calculation in a design process.
As a conclusion, Nervi considered a calculation as one of the factual basis for the decision and he showed a choice of an experience of construction as “Arte” instead of an absolute trust for a calculation as “Science”. He aimed at their compatibility in his design process.
This paper picks up Brummel house (1928) designed by Adolf Loos. Brummel house was designed just before Villa Muller (1930) which was completion of the Raumplan. Loos had never used the word “Raumplan”. It was introduced in the first monograph of Loos (1931) by Heinrich Kulka. According to Kulka, Raumplan had the following characteristic "It was stopped to be divided a building horizontally every hierarchy such as the first, second floor and so on. It combines several rooms of various heights together and each room related mutually. And those rooms harmonize the total space which there was no waste of space." Ratifying his opinion, the studies of Raumplan has focused on the projects included various heights. That's why Brummel house with same height have been removed from the object of the study of Raumplan. The purpose of this paper is to analyze Brummel house from the point of view of Raumplan. At this time, I use the clue of a special characteristic in Villa Muller. It clarifies to investigate how the special characteristic (= the spatial gymnastics) in Villa Muller is developed in Brummel house. I refer to the paper of Tomonari, K.: ON THE FORMATION OF THE RAUMPLAN FROM ADOLF LOOS'S MIDDLE TO LATE PERIOD. He discussed Raumplan after arranging previous studies carefully. According to him, many previous studies focused on various heights in Raumplan. On the other hand, he valued two studies from the different point of view such as Van de Beek, Leslie Van Duzer and Kent Kleinman. I focus on Duzer and Kleinman in Villa Muller, AWork of Adolf Loos, Princeton Architectural Press, 1994. Especially I pick up their idea “the spatial gymnastics”. They tried to analyze interior space through physical and visual gymnastics depends on architectural promenade by Le Corbusier. They pointed out that Villa Muller had had the subjects of stationary and mobile. Interior space had stationary situation basically and mobile situation was in it. Such ambiguity situation is characteristic in Villa Muller, they said. For example, in the dining room, it is assumed that the stationary situation had collapsed and mobile situation appears by removing one corner of the square plan to serve as an entrance and exit. I thought three elements are important for the spatial gymnastics such as the direction of plan, the symmetry by an axis and the joint of each room. I analyzed Brummel house by these three elements. All rooms have a rectangular plan and it has the direction for a long side from the beginning. At the same time, the axis of symmetry was on the opposite direction. The mixture of these two directions canceled each direction. And furniture makes human places in each room. That is that each room had a stationary situation basically. On the other hand, an opening and doors aligned in a line and the symmetry axis centered on the door penetrated each room. It meant that the traffic line penetrating through the four rooms appeared when doors in a line were opened. In other words, the stationary situation of each room collapsed and the mobile situation was generated by opening doors. In conclusion, it clarified that the harmony between the stationary and mobile situation were in Brummel house by the match of the symmetry axis and traffic line. Villa Muller had it by the mismatch of the symmetry axis and traffic line. Beyond this difference, Brummel house had the common special characteristic of Raumplan in Villa Muller. The meaning of this paper is that I can confirm the special characteristic of Raumplan in Brummel house.
In this paper, “urban” formation manifested in Mekelle, the “palace city” developed since the late 19th century, is analyzed in relation to the traditional settlement techniques of the targeted region spanning from Tigray (northern Ethiopian region) to adjacent Eritrean highland. Through the analysis, it became clear that topography was the essential factor for settlement site selection, and that there was a preferable layout for these settlements in the targeted region. While Mekelle also basically applied similar techniques, several distinctions, such as existence of a strategic network of hillside and flatland settlements and formation of street concept, can be also found.
The present paper aims to clarify the possible lifestyles in Important Preservation Districts for Groups of Traditional Buildings (Judenken districts), based on the consideration on numbers and distribution of functions essential to inhabiting. In addition, its discussion and overall tendency of the municipal recognition of the district as living environment from the contrast the above lifestyles in the districts with municipal plans for the districts, to derive problems related in the districts from the analyses. Firstly, the locations of facilities necessary to live within walking distance from the district are identified for every districts, based on the definition of six sorts of the facilities in functions. In the identification, it is revealed that all facilities are located in 61 districts, while there are number of districts in which such facilities are not completed but enough for specific generations. Then, the case in which no facilities exist are recognized in 2 districts. Secondly, presumptive employment opportunities in tertiary industries is examined for every district, regarding Densely Inhabited Districts (DIDs) located within 15km of district as the neighboring area producing employment for the residents. As a result, it is apparent that a DID is located near district in the most of cases. The result shows that the residents living in such districts can work in city area. Oppositely, for the residents of 18 districts, it is hardly to choose the DIDs as their working places, because long distance. Considering the above examinations on location of living facilities and employment opportunities, the concerning districts are categorized into 5 types. As contrasted these typologies with “the general plans” published by municipalities, it is revealed that few municipalities which contain enough facilities and employment opportunities necessary to live in the districts (categorized as Type I) planned to develop their districts as living places, whereas the numbers of the districts which are planned to develop the districts as living places is in low proportion to the whole numbers of them. However, several districts that aren't treated as living places have the potential to provide certain living conditions in them, while preserving the townscapes. Therefore, it is considered that the municipalities which possess such districts have possibility to incubate their plan with viewpoint of the edge condition of the concerning districts. On the other hand, the municipalities lacking the facilities and employment (categorized as Type II, III and IV) have published their plans uniformly mostly similar to in Type I, with little understanding of the actual conditions of the districts, even they also have the potential for living if certain generations such as aged household or younger household with children are focused on as their residents. It signifies that there might be more chances for some municipalities to realize the utilization of the districts for living environment with more careful treatment and grasping proper conditions. According to the above, in conclusion the contradiction between the municipal recognition of the districts and their actual condition which haven't seemed to bring out their potential as living environment for planning of Judenken districts. Based on these discussion, the actions are necessary to utilize the districts and their townscapes with flexibility and broader perspective. If various type of utilization will be recognized through such actions, municipalities will not plan the district as merely cultural assets preserved statically but active living places with historical townscapes under depopulation.
This study considers the relationship between architectural records and the Copyright Act of Japan. There are three types of limitations
and exceptions to copyright: (i) for the “National Archives of Japan, etc.” and “local archives, etc.”; (ii) for “libraries, etc.”; and (iii) for the
consignor. We clarified the following points: (1) materials under the copyright protection period are unusable or unintentionally usable
because the limitations and exceptions differ depending on the archives; and (2) it is difficult for the archives to not only use the materials
but also accept them because the consignee’s copyright is limited to ensure efficient operations.
As a feature of the architectural works attracting attention in the recent media of architecture, the authors can find a concept that attempts to obscure correspondence between function and space, and to induce free activities for building users. In such architectural works, the architectural parts such as walls, openings, pillars, floors, and roofs are arranged skillfully, and the places with different scales and modes are variously produced in spite of being a single continuous space. In other words, it can be said that it is an architectural space in which heterogeneity and unevenness are incorporated. Against architectural space like that, we aim to develop a method to effectively analyze the appearance of the surrounding spatial components which are thought to have an influence on the characters in the architectural space, and to apply it to various kinds of spatial analysis. This time, as a basic research, we developed a tool to calculate and visualize apparent size, visible rate, gaze vectors, etc for each component. In this paper, we report the calculation method, the result of accuracy verification and the case study using the developed tool. The tool proposed in this research is based on three-dimensional geometric calculation by gaze vector to all directions. In this research, we proposed a method of gaze vector array by Fibonacci lattice in order to emit the gaze vector as uniformly as possible to all directions. As the first accuracy verification, we compared the representation accuracy of apparent size based on three kinds of gaze vector array of Fibonacci lattice, latitude longitude lattice, icosahedron based lattice, and clarified that Fibonacci lattice is highly effective. Moreover, as the second accuracy verification, we also checked the accuracy of the apparent size in order to verify that the factors such as the area and aspect ratio of an object, viewing distance, orientation to the viewpoint, etc. influence the accuracy of the apparent size to what extent using only gaze vector array by the Fibonacci lattice. As a result, it was clarified that by increasing the number of gaze vectors, the apparent size of even relatively small objects within a distance of about 20 m can be represented with high accuracy. Based on the above verification, we developed a tool for analyzing geometric appearance feature using gaze vector array by Fibonacci lattice. The developed tool mainly has the following functions. · Function to display apparent size and its colored map on any objects · Function to display pie chart on the rate of apparent size · Function to display visible rate and its colored map on any objects · Function to display gaze vectors and average viewing distance · Function to export and import the calculation result to / from Excel file In order to confirm the effectiveness of each developed function and the calculation time, a case study was conducted on “house N” designed by Sou Fujimoto Architects. As a result, it was possible to confirm in detail how to escape the gaze vectors from various places in the house. In addition, by visualizing the appearance of trees, sky, and surrounding buildings by colored map, we were able to understand more specifically the features and differences of each place in the house. Furthermore, technical problems of the tool and the future tasks became clear.