In this research, we carried out psychological scale measurements of "ease of hearing" in reverberant sound fields with differing echo-diagram response properties, such as changes in the reverberation time and the presence of discreet echoes in the reverberation attenuation process, as well as STI measurements and tri-syllable articulation tests varying speech rates between four patterns and conducted comparative examinations of the effect of echoes and reverberation on speech intelligibility from the correspondence relationships of the outcome of these tests. As a result, in regard to the evaluation of tri-syllable articulation with varying speech rates, we recognized a trend in which the effect on the length of reverberation, the presence of discreet echoes or other changes in the time structure could be evaluated as the differences in the test results. Meanwhile, in regard to STI, we confirmed that, in some cases, differences in "ease of hearing" cannot be reflected as evaluation results in sound fields with long reverberation time or in sound fields affected by directional discreet echoes.
The purpose of this research is to evaluate residential floors focusing on the walking feeling and to clarify the relationship with floor impact sound insulation and other physical properties. We conducted walking sensation evaluation tests on typical floor covering structures currently being used as residential floors and, calculating the psychological scale component values for floor hardness, walking ease, sensation of flexure, sensation of weight, preferability as a floor and other evaluation items, clarified changes in the values of the walking feeling of the subjects by age group due to changes in the floor covering structure. Furthermore, we developed a walking impact apparatus capable of accurately reproducing impact force properties of walking and examined the correspondence between the dynamic physical values of the floor obtained by using the apparatus and the psychological values obtained through the sensation evaluation tests. We thereupon identified the dynamic displacement values and dynamic spring constant values of the floor that provided the most favorable evaluation in terms of walking feeling.
We have studied thermal environment in real-scale atrium. The heat budget of the room air and each surface of the indoor walls are examined from the measured temperature and so on. The room temperature is analyzed with the macro model. The following conclusion are obtained. (1) The error of total heat budged was about 5 percent of the total solar incident, so that the data obtained here are very effective to verify the mathematical analysis. (2) The heat gain from the structural frames is a very important factor for designing the atrium's indoor environment.
Ventilation method in ventilated 30° pitched-roofs are examined to prevent icicle and ice dams forming on the inclined roof of insulated and airtight house. Simulation code that can be approximated measurement temperatures of the experimental house were developed, and was analyzed temperature of ventilating roofs with different insulation thickness and different ventilation method, under the several house location. From the simulation results, the effectiveness of the ridge opening is obvious, and the high insulation thickness can reduce ventilation rate. It also made clear that the ventilation rate of ventilating attic space is rather small for preventing icing at eaves, it especially means normalized opening at eaves or ridge on top should be made bigger anyhow from the architectural point of view.
This paper describes a simple method to determine a window size and the shape of a room space for daylighting. To develop the method, we first derived a formula that relates the average daylight illuminance on the work plane to total interior surface area and the window area. In that course, the coefficient of daylight utilization (CDU), which corresponds to the coefficient of utilization appeared in the Lumen Method for electric lighting, was derived. The value of CDU was tabulated for easy use at planning stage. Using the diagram that we made, annual daylight illuminance near a window can be estimated. A couple of case studies was performed using the proposed method. The results were reasonable so that the determination of a window size and the shape of a room space for daylighting by the proposed method is applicable to architectural environmental planning.
This paper describes a method to calculate "natural exergies" associated with solar radiation, effective radiation, evaporation of water and underground warm and cool storage. We first examined the variable types of so-called natural energy, which is a technical term widely used in the field of building environmental science, and then showed that they can be defined by the concept of exergy. We call this "natural exergy". The values of any natural exergies are positive. For example, stored exergy under the ground as a quantity of state is positive without exception. We calculated the annual amounts of natural exergies in Tokyo, and we tabulated the results as a chart that can be used to evaluate the regional climatic situation from the view point of exergy.
The purpose of the study is to discuss the feasibility of a passive stack ventilation system using the beam space of a house as an air distribution chamber. The results of the calculation and the measured air flow rates in a test house are as follows 1) The proposed system requires less airtigthness than a direct air supply system using wall inlets. Designing stacks is easy in the proposed system because the height of the neutral zone is not influenced by the degree of airtightness. 2) In airtight houses, the distribution of fresh air and the ventilation routes can be well-designed using the beam space. The ventilation rate increased with the difference between the indoor temperature and the outdoor temperature. 3) In houses using a space heating system, the passive stack ventilation system fulfills the ventilation requirement during 90% of the heating season. And the ratio of the total ventilation volume to the ventilation requirement is 70%.
Turbulent flow around a surface-mounted cube was analyzed by DSM (Differential Stress Model). This paper reports on the results of seven cases of DSM computations, using four different models for Φ_<ij>, two different models for Φ^ω_<ij> and two different models for D_<ij>. The accuracy of these computations was examined by comparing them with the results of wind tunnel experiment and LES. The following matters are clarified. The Craft and Launder (CL) model for Φ^ω_<ij(2)> improves the accuracy for predicting the k value in the area near the upwind corner of cube in comparison with the case in which Φ^ω_<ij(2)> is not included. The Mellor-Herring (MH) model for D_<ij> reproduces anisotropy of <u_i'u_j'> better than does the Daly-Harlow (DH) model.
For the economical operations of the Latent floor-heating storage system using off-peak electricity in a school building, the authors analyzed the prediction control system of the required thermal energy in a classroom by using fuzzy inference. And, the authors carried out study of Neural network by using result that was obtained by simulation. Then the authors obtained the following results. (1) The next day's indoor mean temperature was approximately estimated by fuzzy set of required thermal energy of storage material. (2) The authors constructed the fuzzy-neural network model corresponding to outdoor mean temperature for the floor heating system using latent heat storage material. And the authors predict the required thermal energy by this model. Then the comfortable indoor temperature for students was evaluated.
In this paper the authors investigated the fundamental data which were necessary for estimation of the optimum number of the fixtures in a lavatory of the single-purpose soccer stadium. The sanitary fixture usage of the audience of a pro-soccer game at a stadium-K were surveyed actually by means of the electric methods. The results are as follows. The number of men was same to female in audience. The waiting line of lavatory during the intermission had been left after the second half of the game had started, therefore some of audience had been disturbed to watch the game. Lack of the sanitary fixture in the female lavatory had caused waiting line during this investigation period. But the occupated period on each fixture was similar to the result of the previous investigation.
Significant air temperature rising in urban areas is well recognized as so-called Heat Island phenomenon in a global scale. It is qualitatively grasped that increase of anthropologic heat and alternation of land usage are regarded as its main reasons. To analyze quantitatively on factors of the significant air temperature rising, a predicting methodology combined with simultaneous solution for Architecture-Urban-Soil system was proposed. In the presented procedure, authors proposed simplified numerical calculation method for evaporation rate from soil was considered with building air conditioning load calculation and 1-dimensional heat balance model for an urban atmosphere. Using realistic input data assumed a typical urban area during summer season, a fundamental solution was obtained and an effectiveness of the proposed method was confirmed.
In Japan, intermittent air-conditioning systems predominate, and it is thought that while designs need to take into account the thermal storage load for heating, the thermal storage load for cooling can be ignored because the effect is small. In this study, simulations were conducted on thermal storage load for cooling, taking into account the thermal sensation distribution. It was clearly established that a simulation can be used to evaluate the relationship between thermal comfort and thermal storage load for cooling, and that six times more energy was required at the start-up time on Monday than for continuous air-conditioning.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the principles of space formation of Madurese houses, house compounds and villages. In Indonesia, many settlements of Proto-Malay tribes like Batak, Toraja are formed as parallel disposition pattern. Madurese settlements also follow the same pattern. Compared to the settlements of other tribes, Madurese settlements are significant as a prototype because they realize that pattern in the smallest scale. It is also pointed out that Javanese and Balinese settlements in pre-Hindu period followed the same pattern. The analysis on Madurese settlements might reveal the basic rules of space formation of the settlements in Indonesia. This paper firstly tries to grasp the settlement patterns in rural regions in Madura Island. After looking at all the regions in Madura Island, Sanggra Agung is chosen to be surveyed more specifically. Judging from the result of the survey, it is concluded that Islamic influence has played an important role to keep indigenous space formation system of Madurese settlements particularly in western Madura.
In this study, the correspondence between people's behaviors and their utilization of the spaces in the dwelling are discussed through examining their time allocations. This paper presents the process of examinations of connections between each type and attributes, and between types. (These types have obtained by classifying the people's behaviors and spaces through the feature of time allocation.) For examinations, the correspondence analyses of cross-classified tables and multiway contingency tables was used. The result was, as for correspondences of the behavior's types with the space's, that the peculiar types were identified from the common types, and that the attributes as background of the correspondences made clear.
The purpose of this study is to introduce a new "degree of openness" concept as a comprehensive index for evaluation of space of a nursery school environment, so that the environmental space of a nursery school most conducive to the development of mind and body of children may be more fully comprehended. Firstly, a survey, undertaken at nursery schools in the cities of Nagasaki and Fukuoka, is summarized regarding the behavior of children when they try to have access from a classroom to a garden. The results of the survey indicate the importance of, among others, the size of a garden, which enables children to play as freely as possible, and the windows and exits of a classroom that may entice children from a classroom to a garden. It is to be shown, then, that the graduated degrees of "openness of access" from a classroom to a corridor and then to a garden has an important bearing on the development of exploratory behavior of children. It is finally shown that an analysis made by the regression analysis method of the principal components will certify the effectiveness of the "degree of openness" concept.
This study is to extract "landschaft", and to grasp and type their characters with the approach of landscape ecology. The objective area is the western part of Saitama prefecture. We set up the three dimensional indicator used land-use and relative height in national land-use digital information and classified the areas of the homogeneous landscape. Furthermore, we make clear the relation between the indicators about population, socio-economy and space, and "landschaft". As a result, it is grouped into 7 types of "landschaft". These "landschaft" cover the rural communities as micro planning units. On the other hand, they divide municipalities as comprehensive planning units. Moreover, "landschaft" is formed by the spatial character of country side, and the problems of planning for each "landschaft" should arise from these characters.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the space organization of dwellings of Black THAI in Vietnam. This paper is based on field research carried out in 1993 and 1994. This study clarified as follows: 1) The space organization of dwellings is greatly influenced by the cross-generation of residents. 2) The space of dwellings is broken down into parts of Men and Women by the gender. 3) This dwelling has an order of Men-Women and way of sleeping.
The purposes here are to conclude our researches about urbanizing process of privately owned land in readjusted area of Tsukuba New Town for these 22 years, and to consider the contributing factors of this trend. The movement of the urbanization there has been quite stable. They may be divided into three stages: 1) The first is stable urbanizing process before EXPO '85; 2) The second is rapid urbanization in the period of EXPO '85 and stagnation after that; 3) The third is ascending period with the actualization of urban potential after 1990. The growth and the completion of the city center was the main factor of these trends. EXPO '85 contributed to the maturity of the city center, and facilitated the urbanizing process later on.
The Purpose of this paper is to review the townscapes-control system by municipal government's ordinance on the basis of urban aesthetic considerations. For that, this study is intuoduced on the "Amenity Ordinance of Toshima-ward" and "Townscape Ordinance of Shinjuku-ward" as a case study. Expecially, we concerned on the townscapes-control process between administrator and designer or inter-administrator. The conclusions are as followings: (1)The new design-control system based on ordinance is introduced and meaningful to overcome the limitions of existing architectural code, (2)But the guildlines based on ordinances are still not clear to show how/what exactly want to control and to pursuit for, (3)In terms of design-review process, "the pre-survey system" is very desirable method for designer to underatand surrounding conditions in early stages, (4)Establishment of the special-department which is charge of the ordinance is extremely inportant to deal with it.
The purpose of this study is to present an expected value of the minimum length of the network connectivity among cities. We study two patterns. One is the minimum spanning tree on the n-points scattered on a rectangle. The expected value of the length is between 0.578√<n> and 0.707√<n>. The measured value is about 0.68√<n> by using computer. Another topic is the hierarchical tree on the n-points scattered on the p-areas divided rectangle. When the relation is p^3=(n/2)^2, the length of the hierarchical tree can be minimized.
The purpose of this study is to show the urban transition of Tokyo from the point of view of the property ownership system of 1912. An early study done by Yoshojiro Takeuchi entitled "The Large-scale Landlord in Tokyo" which appeared in the Heimin Newspaper in 1907 analyses the property ownership system of Tokyo. The present study uses Takeuchi's first study as a guideline for research and comparison purposes. The aim here is to clarify the divisions of real estate in Tokyo and, by studying the impact of various property ownership systems, present guidelines for future urban development strategies. In this study, the author divided property ownership types into five categories. These categories are based on the ratio of the ownership of one's own residence to the ownership of other(s) properties, then divided into the different social classes. The discovery is that the former feudal lords of the Meiji Era still had huge land holdings, yet there was no concept of urban structure or city planning, thereby creating a congested city form.
As an architecture which could be called an accumulation or reflection of aspects of cultural interchange and multi-layered economic activities, this paper, introduces Malaysian shophouses in the light of architectural economy - a systematic view, with the mutual relations of municipal, land-owner and developer under the laws, development systems and policies. As the results, we make clear the shophouses planning process, included the discretion of quantity of shophouses in housing schemes, the system of subdivision, the difference between shophouses and shop-apartment, and attempt to re-classify the types of shophouses.
This paper presents the collaborative creating and sharing system of detail design data in the shop drawings to improve the inconsistency among shop drawings made by varied contractors. We propose and begin to utilize follows. 1, The 2-dimension CAD layer system of the construction data base that consists of specialist contractors' shop drawing layers, that system is a useful tool not only to find inconsistency and interference between some particular shop drawing's cad data but also to share the data mutually. 2, The system to find inconsistency and interference among some particular shop drawings made by varied contractors and parts manufacturers of such areas as structural, electrical, HVAC, and plumbing.
In this paper, we propose a new method to get optimal solutions of problems of labour resource allocation in terms of labour cost. In the new method, we use genetic algorithm with variables of manpower and days by which jobs are delayed to start from the earliest start times. Example problems are solved to show that the method is effective and efficient for non-repetitive construction works as well as repetitive ones.
In this paper the building arrangiment of Parmanent Imperial Palace and the upper class aristocratic residences is analyzed through the documents of the completion celebrating ceremony, to make clear the difference between them in Heian era. In Parmanent Imperial Palace, Jijuden located at the north side of Sisinden(main buildimg) was used as the main space in the completion celebrating ceremony. But in most of the temporary Imperial Palaces as well as the upper class aristocratic residences Sinden(main buildimg) was used as main spase. This shows the particularity of Parmanent Imperial Palace on the building arrangiment.
In this paper, it is identified that the town planning for the tradesman class areas in the era of the japanese civil war had been operated by the geometrical and alzebraical method. The principal planning method for the south-east avenues in Echizen Ohno castle town was characterized by the techniques which divided the critical rectilinears into the 8 equal parts. "8" means lucky number. And, it is proved by the alzebraical method in this paper that the town planning in those days had been operated by the geometrical method and the precise surveying.
There were some building and repairs sections such as Osakujidokoro, Jishashurikata and Hasondokoro in Matsuehan. Among others, Osakujidokoro mainly built the buildings and the bridges or repaired the temples and the shrines in Matsuehan. The writer will try to make the works of Osakujidokoro clear in this study. First of all, the writer will tell the features of the old materials, "Osakujidokoro-Oyakunincho". This materials is important to know how they built buldings in Matsuehan. The writer will refer to the Organization, works and changes of Osakujidokoro.
We can findout 26 Yashiki-hinagata (sourceebooks of Japanese mansion design in architectural reference books), which give descriptions of NO-stage design. In this paper, we introduced bibliography of the 26, analysed their theoretical and historical characteristics. As a result, we recognized that time of completion of design theory for NO-stage is about Kannei 15 (1638). Related with the historic backgrounds of perfection of NO at Shikisyou-suki-onari, design theory of NO-stage was dealt as an orthodoxy of house design and needed. Moreover, publication of "Shinpen-buke-hinagata" in Meireki 1 (1655), the design theory of NO-stage showed repercussions on Yashiki-hinagata after the middle Edo era.
The purpose of this report is to clarify the characters of urban space which take a view from a architectural function in the Ginza as it appeared in the city map entitled "Tokyo-shi Kyobashi-ku Ginza hukin kobetsu ichiranzu," printed in 1902. The Ginza is a famous downtown area in Tokyo. A summary will be given as follows: 1. The shops in the Ginza had the two characters, the one was for local people and the other for visitors. 2. The shops which sold modem articles, not daily necessities, were situated on the main street. 3. The bustle of city life in the Ginza extended along Chuo-dori which was the most developed main street in the area.
Through twenty two of the poems in "The collection of Myoue's poems", we interpret the meaning of Myoue's dwelling place for buddhistic practices in Kozanji-temple. "Kekuden (Myoue's pavilion where he sat for religious meditation)" was the most important place in his dwelling. The meaning of the place was made clear by naming or by making poems on the mood/atmosphere (Stimmung) of the place. In this place Myoue could see "the truth on two kinds of emptiness", and realize how one should think about one's dwelling place in the true meaning.
It has often been pointed out that the quality of houses in Japan is inferior to that in Europe and America; however, houses are a reflection of culture, and the evaluations of houses vary according to the curture. This paper examines the reasons why the very simply built, dilapidated mountain huts lived in by hermits in medieval times in Japan were evaluated as ideal houses in classical Japanese poetry.
Mies's swan song, the New National Gallery(1962-67)is so simple as if to symbolize his architecture. But the proportions of the New National Gallery are copied from the privileged set of proportions of his earlier Bacardi Office Building project(1957-6O). The privileged set of proportions is derived from the four factors : the accident that the Bacardi was designed earlier, the rational modular system, Mies's own sense of proportion, and the agreement with Golden Ratio and Dynamic Rectangle. It is very interesting that Golden Ratio and Dynamic Rectangle are found in the proportion of the elevation of Mies's swan song.
This research is a trial to make the concept of the 'contextualism', which has been pursued widely in America during the last three decades, clear. This paper reexamines the transition of the concept of 'context' in the American architectural thought from 1960 to early 1970's. Until the mid-1960's, the word 'context' became used at the level of physical environment. At that time, the concept of the 'contextualism' arose out of seeing cities as both buildings and spaces; it was conceived as a set of strat-egies for building in cities and it proposed the continuity between adjacent buildings. Although after the mid-1960's, when many critical writings about modernism were published, the word 'context' became used at the level of semantics of environment gradually.
This study was disclosed by the behavior of visitors at waterfront parks. The behavior of visitors was understood by non-participant observation. This was investigated at different four areas ; Kasai Seaside Park, Rinkoh Park, Yamashita Park, and Takeshiba Marine Park. The result of investigation, it could obtain 954 samples at four areas. It analyze principally the locus of walk and behavior range. The result of analysis, the visitors behave along the edge of water. This was proved the behavior range of 350 meters along the seaside, 50 meters off the shoreline. Therefore the waterfront park is more necessary the improvement of the long and narrow form than the size.