For the purpose of knowing acoustic characteristics of a stage floor in a concert hall, vibration measurements of the floors in piano playing was carried out and the sound radiation from the stage floor was examined using the discrete calculation method. The following are revealed after the investigation on the stage floor. Distribution of the vibration in a low frequency range has a directional quality according to the direction of the boarding of stage floor. The sound radiation coefficient of the stage floor has a depression at about 125 Hz. Sound radiation power from the stage floor is greater than the sound power from the piano in the frequency range below about 125 Hz and is smaller over 20 dB in the other frequency range. Sound characteristic of the stage floor is therefore significant on a hearing sense in the low frequency range.
We have been studied that the correspondence between the noisiness in the sense of hearing and the light weight floor impact sound. As a result, it is shown that the trend of auditory sensation varies greatly depending on whether the high sound range is large or small in spite of same L value. And we can show that the noisiness in auditory sensation is able to rate with A-weighted sound pressure level L_<Aeq> about heavy weight and light weight floor impact sound.
According to the development of structural design, the varieties of large span slab are increasing. In this paper, the effects and the prediction method are investigated to floor impact sound of the elimination of beams that makes aspect ratio of slab area more than 2 to 6. The high aspect ratio slabs are effective for the heavy-weight floor impact sound because of high mode density around the first natural frequency was shown. And from the view of prediction, putting the average of the transfer impedance of slab derived from FEM vibration analysis into the impedance method agreed fairly well to the measured values.
Point impedance of a finite plate makes up with two factors, namely a resonance of the plate vibration and a restraining effect by plate ends. In previous papers of the works, it is revealed that the point impedance can be easily evaluated by the diffuse index of plate vibration. In the present paper, a calculation method of the heavy-weight floor impact sound level based on the diffuse index is shown and the accuracy of this method is confirmed via comparisons with measured values. In addition, this method includes the evaluation of the difference in vibrational velocity levels between the value at the excitation point and mean value on the slab, and sound radiation coefficient for the corresponding room area. These values are calculated based on the diffuse index, too. This method applies to the floor slabs of various conditions (the large span slabs and the ordinary slabs) without any restrictions and can be simply calculated. Thus, this method newly developed in this work is very useful for the evaluation of floor impact sound.
Recently, such problems have been reported that habitability is impaired by traffic-induced slight vibrations in light-weight buildings of small scales built along arterial roads. Damages on buildings have also been reported. However, fewer studies have been made on the effect of dynamic interaction on light-weight buildings that is the subject of the present paper. The authors studied the vibration of light-weight buildings (steel-frame structure with external walls made of ALC panels) of small scales built along arterial roads from the view point of habitability. Through the measurements of vibrations induced by the traffic in small (2 to 5 stories with floor area of 50 to 100m^2) and light-weight buildings (ALC-walled steel frame) and the analysis of coupled vibration system, we presented a conventional method for preventing vibration problem.
The results of numerical simulation on the effects of solar chimney system combined with underground coolth for ventilation and cooling in a four storied new school building in Kitakyushu are described. The inside surface temperatures of four walls of solar chimney were estimated using the outside temperature and solar radiation in summer. The air velocity and pressure within the solar chimney were estimated by simplified method and CFD calculation and both results agreed quite well. It was found that the air flow rates were highly dependent on the inside wall temperatures and section ratio of solar chimney for a given section area. The results showed the temperature difference of 0.4℃ at the top of the solar chimney, the pressure difference of 0.2-1Pa and the air velocity of 0.05m/s for the solar chimney section area of 4.93m^2. It is expected that the natural ventilation by the 8m high solar chimney with 4.93m^2 of section area could provide about 5900m^3/h of ventilation on sunny summer days from the results of CFD simulation.
In an air-conditioned office building, the ventilation air is normally mixed with the return air from the room within an air-handling unit. In this system, the fresh air is distributed also into the non-breathing zone. If only the fresh air is supplied into the breathing zone directly, the indoor air quality in the breathing zone will be improved and the requirement of the fresh air will be reduced in comparison with conventional air-conditioning systems. The CFD simulation for isothermal conditions was carried out to compare the age of air and the concentration of contaminant between two types of ventilation systems mentioned earlier. (1) The age of air at the breathing point (5cm ahead from the mouth of the occupant, 0.6m from the fresh air outlet, FL+1.1m) of the ventilation system by supplying the fresh air directly to the breathing zone is shorter than that of the conventional one to about 55-65%. (2) The concentration of contaminant at the breathing point of the ventilation system by supplying the fresh air directly to the breathing zone is smaller than that of the conventional one about to 60%.
The interzonal airflow rates in an actual-sized test house were measured by using the multiple tracer gas technique. Cylinders were installed within the walls of the test house so that the volume of infiltrated and exfiltrated air-leakage could be varied. 1. The values obtained by the multiple tracer gas technique had errors of 20% to 30%, but the degrees of accuracy in the case of 4-zone model and 5-zone model were similar to those for a 2-zone model and 3-zone shown in previous reports. 2. When the degree of airtightness was low (e.g., 5 cm^2/m^2), the calculated airflows were less than those in other tests. 3. The calculated results are almost equal between 4-zone model and 5-zone model even if the volume of the interconnected space, such as stairs, is not considered in the calculation of airflow rates between zones.
In order to reduce ammonia gas emissions from concrete, we investigated experimentally the mechanism of ammonia gas emission and the methods of reducing the gas emission rate from concrete. As a result, it was observed that the ammonia-causative materials in concrete were blast furnace slag, lime stone and fly ash, (which are additives used in cement), gypsum (used for setting time control of cement) and nitrogen compounds on the surface of aggregates. The use of high-early-strength Portland cement, which contains little blast furnace slag, lime stone and fly ash, and aggregates which have had nitrogen compounds removed from their surfaces enables ammonia gas emission to decrease to about 1/10.
The convective heat transfer coefficient was measured with an experimental rig, and found to follow Jurges's equation when the airflow velocity exceeds 2 m/s. For lower airflow velocities, another equation was derived from the measurement results. Heat flows were measured around the air plenum of a full-scale experimental rig of underfloor air distribution system. Two newly proposed models, a "1-dimensional model" for a transition and a "Developed 1-dimensional model" for a horizontal distribution in a steady state, were shown to yield heat flows and temperatures almost equal to the measured values, using the above convective heat transfer coefficient equations.
By using the method of multi-variable analysis, 66 District Heating and Cooling (DHC) systems in Japan have been evaluated in the aspects of business profits, energy-saving and environmental protection, amenity and safety. We get the result that the business profits are affected by the following factors: the plant area/heat demand area, heat price, operation rate, total district pipe length/heat demand, heat demand density, and the maximum of heat demand/the average heat demand. In the one-variable analysis, about 3% DHC systems have low business profits. COP is the most important factor in the energy saving and environmental evaluation, and about 24% have good performance in this aspect. 27% have good performance in amenity and safety evaluation. In the multi-variable analysis evaluation, Type-86 has best business profits among these 7 types, Type-87 has best energy saving and environmental protection performance, and Type-85 has best amenity and safety. According to the order of evaluation index presented in this article, we can find the problems of existing DHC systems and their solutions.
Prediction of thermal loads was recently recognized to be important to optimize operation of a thermal storage system. The practical evaluation of load prediction method, however, has not sufficiently been carried out. We evaluated four prediction algorithms for daily thermal loads against data from a medium-sized office building. We then did several simulations of the air-conditioning operations using five-month-long predicted loads to estimate the seasonal electric consumption and the seasonal electric charge. This involved substituting design parameters such as the thermal storage tank capacity and the energy loss rate from the tanks. There was a difference in the seasonal electric consumption and the seasonal electric charge according to the accuracy of the thermal load prediction, 5% and 30% at the maximum, respectively.
In recent years, the interest of the regional residents to the air pollution problem such as NOx, SOx by the automobile and incineration plants etc. is high. It is predicted that the influence evaluation to the atmospheric environment associated with the increase of the automobile, the construction of road and incineration plant etc. become more importance in future. With the consideration of the characteristic of the area such as land use and artificial heat release by using thermal/atmospheric environment dispersion simulation model, this study analyzed the influence factor based on the comparison of the influence degree to the atmospheric environment by the fixation occurrence resource and movement occurrence resource in the area of Tokyo.
Finland, one of the Scandinavian countries, faces aging society that has come rapidly as a case in Japan, and the care for people dementia is crucial issue. Group living (GL) has spread and taken root as a main care and physical solution for them over the countries not only for people with dementia but for non-dementia -physically frail elderly. This paper makes clear the characteristics of space utilization of demented people in GLs through a comparison with that for without dementia. The comparative study was possible by the five GLs that each has both GL for demented people and for non-demented people in the same physical conditions. The main results of the study are abstracted as follows; 1) People with dementia base on their daily lives at public spaces than people without dementia. 2) As dementia advanced, public spaces are used with high frequency. 3) Demented people have tendency to move and transfer their position and space frequently compared with non-demented people. 4) Private room is also used often by demented people, although the average one of stay is shorter than non-demented people. 5) People with dementia who live in the non-dementia unit with non-demented people seem being affected their way of lives more or less by non-demented people who can spend daily life independently.
In Senri New Town and Semboku New Town, community facilities which are not included in their master plans have naturally developed in residential areas. The aim of this paper is to clarify the actual condition and distribution patterns of such facilities. The results of this research show that the generation rate of facilities in detached housing areas are about six times as high as that in apartment areas. And three dominant factors of the appearance and distribution of such facilities were educed: 1) Inhabitants' opinions about community facilities; 2) The difference of master plan and block plan between Senri New Town and Semboku New Town; 3) Sufficiency of planned community facilities.
In this study, we aim to improve the spaces around the stage and dressing room in multi-purpose hall, and to get the standard for it's planning better. Particularly, we want to suggest the purchase plan of stage equipments and the way of storage by investigations in halls. In this paper, we try to investigate the way of storage in 3 halls. In all these halls, the square measure of area in which equipments are stored is larger than that of the hall's warehouse. At the result, 100〜230m^2 area around the stage is used for storage of stage equipments.
This study's aim is to clarify the spatial composition of Japanese contemporary houses in terms of relationship between outside volumes and inside rooms. Outside form are analyzed in three levels of composition; size, topological relationship and roof shape of each volume. Spatial arrangement is analyzed in two levels of composition; topological relationship of rooms, and characteristics of circulation path of these rooms. Comparing the types of composition, rhetoric of composition are found; entirety by the size and circulation path of main room, ambiguity in size between interior and exterior and fragmentation of main room.
Many kinds of components, materials and building systems are turning according to the changes of building systems. However, the changes of ordinary components are rarely recorded in detail. In this study, we grasped the outline of development of washstands. At the Meiji era washbowls started to be made in Japan. It required a lot of time and labor to fix them to the wall. In 1966, Japan Housing Corporation standardized to use washstands that had a washbowl on a wooden cabinet and it was set on the floor directly, for simplification of building construction. After then, washstands spread to ordinary houses. According to changes of lifestyle and social conditions, washstands have been changing variously.
In this paper, the concept of the image structure was made clearer, and the research on the poetic-image structure was executed. The research technique and the procedure were also established through investigating. In addition, the validity of the idea concerning the characteristic of poetic-image structure was verified. As a result, eight types of the poetic image structure were found. The type of the poetic image structure was named 'poetry pattern of the image'. The hypothesis concerning a poetic image structure was verified though not quite satisfactorily.
This study researched characteristics of the transition in the number of refugees in shelters and the behavior of choosing shelters in the Earthquake Disaster. Results are follows. (i) The number of refugees in shelters exponentially decreases. The number of refugees in The Niigata Earthquake and The Northridge Earthquake is well represented by a simple exponential model. And a sum of two simple exponential model well represent them in some part of Kobe under The Great Hanshin - Awaji Earthquake Disaster. (ii) The degree of the damage to buildings and the velocity of the restoration may influence the transition in the number of refugees in shelters. (iii) The Huff model can express the refugees behavior of choosing shelters in certain areas of Kobe in The Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Disaster.
The purpose of this study is a proposal for the planning of the facilities for leisure for the elderly. We ask 153 privately managed housings for the elderly to send us the data about activity of them, from July to November 1997. The available answers number are 47. In Part 1, we clarify the real state of the activities of the residents and the usage of the facilities. As a result, there are 7.2 activity rooms on the average in those housings. The residents do many activities there. But activity rooms are not used so long hours in a week.
This paper aims to acquire the basic data for the design technique of the collective housing, which can lead a more environmentally conscious life style. For this purpose two environmentally symbiotic housing with different characters were surveyed as to the consciousness of residents. The results are as follows. 1) It is effective to explain the facilities and the techniques of the environmentally symbiotic housing to the residents before occupation. 2) It is necessary to plan the whole project based on management by the residents.
In this study we made clear the spatial composition of street villages in the Tonami Plain by a case study of "Masuyama." We got to know that the plan of the house and the arrangement of buildings in the homesteads were totally different from those of a dispersed village. We also clarified that the direction of watercourse was a primary regulating factor relating from the house plan to the village composition in both villages. All the elements in street villages were more strictly regulated by watercourses than in a dispersed village. We considered the difference derived from that the watercourse was the only source of water supply in street villages.
This thesis examines the commitment of the city of Yokkaichi to the urban restructuring projects of the 1960s to the early 1970s, which were intended to separate residential areas from petrochemical complexes, in terms of master planning. The city had made concrete implementation plans prior to the master plan. Although the validity of the master plan was questioned by the mayor himself, the city did not engage in the revision. Still, the city carried out some restructuring projects inconsistent with the master plan. There was naive thinking about the planned administration behind those antimaster planning attitudes.
We analysed the process of formation of the common walls (murs mitoyens) as element of connection of apartment houses composing the traditional urban fabric of Paris, referring to the notarial deeds, and we conclude as follows. He who acquires first a lot to build a house constructs a common wall, in such a way that either it strides a limit between adjoining houses or it does not cross that limit, and then the neighbour acquires the common ownership of the wall. In general, the former method of construction of the wall is taken when the continuity of the axes of the walls is necessary and a correspondence of the land-use of adjoining lots is assured or probable, while the latter one in contrary cases. These alternative methods reveal a positive attitude as well as a system of adjustment of interests concerning the common walls.
This study attempts to examine specific urban features of the Old Town blocks by maps analysis and house/garden typology. Next it examines their transformations as intended by residents and planners. We found that: -Although partial, the fortification wall1 remains affected significantly the urban features and town street pattern. The urban blocks once enclosed by wall retain a suburban character, compared to the periphery blocks' urbanity. -Heritage planners' intentions aim to preserve the blocks' urban character, while residents prefer a suburban character. The similarities of both viewpoints stress the importance of the house facade bay-windows, protruded toward the street and the house/garden proportion (the garden-patio as an extension of the house' living room for summer use), considered as sustainable urban patterns for Plovdiv.
Principal component analysis(PCA) has been used in Architectural Planning and Urban Planning. However, PCA can not always project the feature of samples onto low dimensional space. Therefore another mapping technic should be desired in the field. In this article, non-linear mapping (NLM) is employed to make an image map of a novel, 'Industrial Complex with Time Slip,' written by Yoriko SHOUNO. PCA is also employed tocompare the maps each other. Meaning of the city is read by chasing the locus of scenes in the NLM map. Then it can be said that the NLM map is an image map of the city.
The purpose of this study is clear up the condition of the induction effect of building renovation by townscape improvement. In this study we analyze of townscape improvement in Otaru city, Hokkaido. At first, we grasp the actual condition of a design control of building, change of utilization, and a use of building. Second, we interview with residents and enterprise, analyze the induction effect of building renovation by townscape improvement. Then, we analyze the promotion's primary factor of induction effect, and raise several points. Finally, we propose some technique for way of townscape improvement.
Consensus building is a factor that is essential in establishing a program to improve townscape, such as a by-law or an ordinance. This is particularly true when a zoning with some strong regulations are accompanied. On the other hand, effective enforcement of such a program cannot be expected without residents' understanding of, and co-operation to, the program. Here, an effective and proper system of participation to the planning process by citizens and residents is proposed and examined through a case study. This system is composed of process design, program design and form design. As a result it is concluded that this participation system led to a positive, creative and realistic plan with a consensus and satisfaction of a majority of participants.
The objective of this paper is to consider the community organization and the function of the religious facilities called Jibyou and Sindam in the East-gate area of Taipei city, Taiwan, which was formerlly the Japanese quater in the period of Japanese occupancy. It is generally pointed out that the Jibyous and Sindams in the rural area still function as one of the community facilities, but those in urban area are losing the close relation with local community. But this paper clarifies the fact that some of the Jibyous and Sindams are still playing a role as a community facility in urban area. This paper classifies the facilities in East-gate area that has no Jibyou before World War II into 4 types, some of which function as a traditional Jibyou.
In the previous paper, it is summarized that the Main Street Program of the National Trust of Historic Preservation (hereinafter NTHP) focuses on economic revitalization in the context of historic preservation. As the result of this, it became clear that the main purpose of the Main Street Program is "Historic Preservation" and "Economic Revitalization" to revitalization downtown communities. This paper, since most of state has the State Program, is about the state level activities, at the state level. The advantage of Statewide program is that the Statute, which control general budget of State, can allocates for the budget of Main Street Program directly. Even thought, some statewide activities are carried out by Non Profit Organizations, most of state programs are carried by the government. As for the understanding the circumstances of state level, I select the Main Street Iowa, which must to be said the "test pilots" planted by the NTHP.
This paper presents a theoretical method to estimate the effects of a volume based collection fee implemented by municipal governments on reducing household waste. Most households try to avoid excess purchasing of food products, as this practice is a cause of waste and is also uneconomical. Due to a lack of planning, however, household purchasing practices tend to be ambiguous. The introductiion of a waste collection fee would change the approach of households to such purchasing practices. An entropy model, based on information theory, is applied to describe this situation.
This study aimed to examine the development and disappearance of Raft house in Bangkok, Thailand, which had not introduced very much, by some accounts of foreign visitors in correspondence with Thai ordinances and official documents. In this study, it is argued that (l) at the inception of Capital City Bangkok, there were no major places for land habitation, but on the water and water side. (2) In the middle of 19th century, the peculiar landscape of the Bangkok was formed by crowds of raft houses and markets on the water. (3) After the middle 19th century, number of land habitation gradually increase, because of the progress of the land development by canal construction and the fact that ordinary people was permitted to live on land. (4) Raft house had disappeared, with the prohibition of mooring in 1940s and evacuation in World War II.
This study aims to clarify the state of samurai house in the castle town Ueda at the end of Edo period, by researching historical materials, such as the plans, the regulations, the records, etc. The results of the research are as follows: 1. Nine standard types of houses were assigned to retainers according to their class. But in actuality, almost all of the floor spaces were larger than standard size. Never the less, the floor spaces were suited to their class. There is a possibility that extension scale was decided after consideration the class of retainers. 2. The higher middle class samurai's house had over two zashiki rooms. One zashiki room protruded from the main part of house, and it was situated to the front The others were situated in the main part of the house. It is regarded as the difference purpose on use in two types of zashiki. 3. After the year 1862, many retainers who had been staying in Edo, returned to Ueda They lacked houses in the town, so they took measures to divide up a house for use of plural families.
This paper deals with a graduation thesis by Goichi TAKEDA. I focus on three areas in this paper. One is to understand about the influence on his style. Another is to consider modernism. The other is as a historical document of Cha-no-Yu and Sukiya architecture in the modern era. In conclusion, 1) his thesis was admired for Rikyu; 2) his negative attitude to Cha-no-Yu seemed to be triggered by artistic accomplishments; 3) he insisted on design of modernism by publishing it; 4) the reason why he didn't design tea-ceremony rooms is that he wasn't able to overcome Rikyu's influence.
The suggestion that the logic and details of the Doric order was copied from earlier wooden construction is open to question because some scholars reject it as invalid hypothesises. Thus, this paper tries to interpret the meaning of the Doric elements from the mythological or philosophical point of view and confirms that the symbolism of the Parthenon is implied in the correspondence between the forms and their colours. A restored model (scale: 1/10) of the north-west corner of the Parthenon was manufactured as an effective method to understand such reality of the polychromy.
This paper deals with Gottried Semper's search toward the "beginnings(Anfange)" of architecture in his theoretical development of the 1840s. In his 1843 letter to the Braunschweig publisher E. Vieweg, he proposed a comprehensive theoretical work based on his lectures. A book contract was drawn up in 1844. In Semper's 1843 letter, it seems he used the concept of "original models (ursprungliche Gebilde)" in almost the same unhistorical way as Goethe. But by around the end of the 1840s he had come to search toward the "beginnings" of architecture in histories of various nations, to grasp at the "original models" as concrete, that is, historically existing beings. In this way he set up his "historical method" to describe "The Four Elements of Architecture".
Two of the earliest botanical gardens in the history of western gardens were established at Pisa (1543) and Firenze (1545) by Cosimo I de Medici(1519-74). Dominican friar Agostino del Riccio (1541-98), who served at Medici court, not only recorded the original state of these two scientific gardens, but also used Firenze botanical garden as the model of his ideal pleasure-garden project for a sovereign in his agricultural thesis. By comparing Riccio's record about realized botanical gardens and his ideal garden project, this study argues that early Italian botanical gardens intended for the study of the botanical science also had emblematic and aesthetic aspects.
This paper is intended as a reading of Deleuse & Guattari's "1837 - De la ritoumello" in Mills Plateaux. To read their essay as theory of experienced space, a comparison with Bollnow's theory on some spaces in Mensch und Return may be helpful. Deleuse & Guattari consider three concepts, "environment", "territory" and "cosmos". "Environment" and "territory" correspond to Bollnow's concepts, "intentional space" and "house". Deleuze & Guattari's "cosmos" and Bollnow's "whole space" meanthe outside world. However, we find a great difference between the two concepts. "Whole space" is the outside that becomes the inside, on the other hand "cosmos" is the inside that becomes the outside.
This paper attempts to clarify spatial characteristics of "Closure" of traditional settlements in Japan. The findings are as follows: 1) The settlements are enclosed by greens such as forests and mountains. 2) The settlements which have usually linear forms along a penetrating road have magical stone gods at both entrances of the areas to protect the inside from the outside world. 3) The center of a settlement, that is the sacred area of Shinto shrine, is located at the outskirts of the settlement in the "Green Closure" 4) These characteristics of "Green Closure" are able to be observed in every level of the traditional settlements in Japan.
This paper analyzes design of corridors by Sanpai-jiku(axis of visit a shrine) .The way was used an index construction of Shaden (a Shintoism shrine) and a lay of the land as well as construction's approach to a shrine at Sanpai-jiku. The result,the design of corridor's opening direction was shown this trend by Honden's sense of arrangement distance. 1. The design of corridors placed in near Honden(a Shintoism main shrine) are 「Soto-muki (corridor's opening direction is an approach to a shrine side)」「Ryo-muki (corridor's opening direction is an approach to a shrine side and Honden side)」 and 「Uti-muki (corridor's opening direction is Honden side)」. 2. The design of corridors placed in middle of precincts are 「Ryo-muki」 and 「Ryo-toji (an approach to a shrine side and Honden side of corridor are closed)」. 3. The design of corridors placed in far from Honden is 「Uti-muki」. Floor finishing of condors are, 1 and 2 were flooring and 3 was an earth floor.
In this paper, some studies are done on the activities of architect's office of Akatsuki, the first architecture office in Hiroshima after the war, and the roles in the reconstruction of Hiroshima city, with observing the experiences of the architects, in the establishment and development of the office mainly. As a result, architect's office of Akatsuki was the pioneer of Hiroshima architects, where Mr. T. Murata, Mr. Y. Kouchi and Mr. S. Ohhata were main members. Although it did not influence the main development of the modern architecture history of Japan remarkably, it indeed played a very important role in the formation and organization of the architecture offices in Hiroshima, and also in the revitalization of Hiroshima.
It is said that the excellence of 860-880 Lake Shore Drive lies in the sensitive proportions of the facade. But little is known about them. The close analysis of the dimensions in the drawings derived that first there was a doublesquare in common in the three kinds of grids in the facade, made by columns, spandrels, mullions, and casings of windows, second there was Golden Proportion in the relationship of width to height in the windows. Taking account of the similarity between the three grids, and the close geometrical relationship between a doublesquare and a Golden Rectangle and so on, we can conclude that Mies used doublesquares and Golden Proportion to decide the sensitive proportions.