The survey on the visual environment in the lecture room was carried out to clarify the actual state and the problem in the use of the visual apparatuses such as slide projector and overhead projector. This paper shows the result about the actual state of the elements related to visibility of pictures projected by visual apparatuses. The surveyed elements are selected, that compose the visual factors, namely, visual angle, background luminance and luminance contrast of the visual target. These elements are the rooms, the luminaires, the equipment to reduce daylight, the apparatuses to project the picture as a visual target, the original pictures that are projected on a screen by overhead projector and so on.
This study aims at the development of a measuring method of distribution of heat transfer coefficients on the wall surface using a radiant energy thermometer and the clarification of natural convective heat transfer coefficient characteristics of indoor corners using the method, to obtain fundamental data for the proposition of a heat transfer coefficient which is useful for the calculation of the thermal load. In our previous report, the measuring apparatus and method for the heat transfer coefficient using a radiant energy thermometer were mainly described, and the method was used to obtain natural convective heat transfer coefficient characteristics of the center of the wall joint in a corner of an air conditioned room (ceiling height:2m) configured by four equal temperature surfaces (two walls, ceiling, and floor). In this study, discussion is made to the convective and radial heat flux density, convective heat transfer characteristcs and other characteristics of the equal temperature wall joint, floor-to-wall joint and ceiling-to-wall joint obtained by the method described in the previous report.
As a basis to grasp passive cooling effect of rooftop lawn-planting of real buildings, the thermal effect of lawn-planting on a thin layer of soil on a wooden roof was investigated by measurement and numerical analysis. The measurement showed the passive cooling effect of planted wooden roof from late summer forward. Furthermore, numerical simulation was performed to compare the thermal effect of planted wooden roof with other structures, e.g. concrete roof with thermal insulation. Result showed its characteristics that ceiling temperature remains closer to indoor temperature due to low heat capacity and removal of solar heat by evapotranspiration.
Passive Cooling Walls (PCWs) were built with water-permeable perforated bricks and the micro-climate was investigated in semi-outdoor structures incorporating the PCW. To investigate spatial distribution of the climate, a new position-identifying system was developed. By this system, spatial characteristics of the climate, e.g. constantly lower temperature inside the corner formed by the PCW, was obtained. Furthermore, fluctuations of air temperature, humidity and velocity at the points downwind of the PCW were investigated. Consequently, intermittent drops of temperature and increase of humidity and velocity were observed.
This paper describes a method to estimate the shading effect of a single tree. We measured solar radiation in the shade of a tree to understand how much of solar radiation reaches there. We developed a method to estimate solar radiation in the shade of a tree based on the measured results. We proposed a chart that enables one to estimate simply the shading effect of a tree. The chart is formulated so that one can estimate the shading effect of a tree at one point on a wall provided that the geometry concerning the point and the tree is given.
The air cleaning ability of a unidirectional flow cleanroom system is examined experimentally in regard to various air-supply velocities, the size of the vent of the ceiling and of the floor and the relations between them. The change of particle concentration is referred to as the 'decay of particle concentration' judged from the point when the system begins operation. The pattern and the time of this decay indicates the system's air cleaning ability. The experiment shows that although the configuration of the cleanroom is a unidirectional flow, the property of controlling contamination is in three degrees, namely, unidirectional flow, 'perfect diffusion', and 'imperfect discharge' according to the velocity. The latter two are referred to as non-unidirectional. Clean-up time is calculated using two kind of equations. The lower limit of the vent's size is obtained. For the ceiling inlet, 50% of the size ratio constitutes the lower limit necessary to maintain the cleanliness class 5 in JIS B 9920, to the contrary to the limit of 14% for the floor outlet.
This paper discribed the new heat transfer mathematical model created to represent the convective heat transfer of solar radiation from a sunlit window with Venetian room blinds. For the calculation of convective conponent of solar heat gain from a sunlit window, stack effect was introduced to the heat transfer mathematical model. This model was experimentally verified using acutual values measured with the test apparatus. As a result, convective component and shading coefficients that were measured agreed with calculated one and the effectivenes of the model was shown. The relationships between shading coefficients and slat reflectance, incident solar radiation and incident angle were shown by this model.
In this paper the authors investigated the water usage in a house. It is difficult to install the flowmeters at every branch in order to measure the used quantities of water in a residence, because of technical difficulty and economical burden. The authors constructed the neural network model predicting water usage in each purpose at selected 5 residences. The authors calculated the statistical quantities in all water usage, and could predict the total amount of water usage in each purpose.
This study shows an experimental method to investigate the drainage capacity of drain from washing machines in the drainage system of apartment houses, and verifies its effectiveness. In this experiment, drain from washing machines using a detergent sold in the market and clear water drain are applied to a single stack system installed to a high rise tower with 10 stories above the ground (approximately 30m high) respectively. Taking the pressure and airflow fluctuation thus obtained as an index, the characteristics of both drain are introduced, and a possible risk to be given to the drainage system of drain from washing machines in verified. For a reference in judging the result of the experiment on drain from washing machines, the relationship between the detergent foam height and the pressure inside the pipe is explained.
In this paper, by the measuring of evaporation rate from the filter paper pasted on building model surfaces, the convective mass transfer coefficients (k) on outside surface were examined by wind tunnel experiments. The merit of this technique is that it is easy to restrict the flux within an arbitrary surface in question. Firstly, the effects of wind direction on surface-averaged k in a cubic model were revealed by measurements in every 7.5 degrees direction from windward to leeward. The value (k) of leeward surface is about 2/3 of windward one. As for the roof surface, its variation is small less than about 6%. Secondly, in order to clarify the change of k in urban street canyons due to its aspect ratio, the k on three kinds of surfaces (windward, leeward, and roof) were compared in various kinds of 2-dimensional urban street canyon models. In the range between L/H=1 and 2.5, the value (k) of windward is decreased while that of leeward is increased. These values of windward and leeward decrease rapidly in the range of L/H<1, then converge same value in the end. On the contrary, the value (k) of roof surface is almost constant within the limit of this experiment.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mechanism of air temperature distribution around complicated topographical hillside. We conducted a traversing field survey in model area (City of Kawanishi, Hyogo Pref.). The results are as follows. Air temperature distribution is affected by complicated topography in addition to land use. Therefore the subjective area has a wide range of temperature compared with a large-scale park in urban area. In the daytime, the characteristic factor that affects upon air temperature distribution is the difference in solar radiation by change of topographical element. In the nighttime, that is nocturnal cold air drainage.
To estimate the piping corrosion depth is important for the diagnosis of the building equipment degradetion. For this purpose, the Gumbel distribution function of the corrosion depth data of the samples cut off from the piping is used. The purpose of this paper is to present the method to estimate the Gumbel distribution using supersonic measurement data instead of actual depth data. On the basis of the actual corrosion depth data and the supersonic measurement data, the expressions to estimate the Gumbel distribution function's parameters are formulated by the multiple regression analysis.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the methods of home modifications for the elderly with dementia. The information home modifications was generated by interview to family members of 31 home bound elderly people with dementia. Seventy three modifications were classified 6 groups by its main objective. And 38 methods were clarified. 1) For locomotion, 4 methods such as marking on door. 2) For activity of daily living, 5 methods such as changing furniture to familiar ones or furnishing the direction of attention. 3) For safety, 4 methods such as addition of safety system. 4) On continuity of habits, 11 methods such as arranging reminiscence goods. 5) On social relations, 9 methods such as keeping the common space opening. 6) For care, 5 methods such as using utensils for care. These results would helpful of varying professions to support home modifications for the elderly with dementia.
When taking the spatial composition of the single route -type town in village, the viewpoint from the direction of the depth is important. Moreover, the spread to the direction of the depth needs to consider the modification in addition to the characteristic at town establishment first because it corresponds to the social side. The purpose of the study is the one which analyzes a housing site characteristic of form and the modification mainly about the direction of the depth for Uchiko town and makes the characteristic of the spatial composition of the single route -type town in village clear. As for the method of studying, first, it fixes the depth length of the housing site in Edo period from the site figure and the land possession in the early stages of Meiji. Next, it makes the characteristic of the change of the housing site from Edo period to the early stages of Meiji clear and it analyzes from the relation with the shape, the land possession situation, the town house and the tax on the land about the factor. Moreover, in the characteristic of doing the Meiji since then becoming of the residential land, it considers by the relation with the wax industry and difference in doing the becoming of the residential land which accompanies the difference of the block form.
This research is based on analysis of body movement during certain activities. Video images were to analyze location, posture, action and were numerical data and then analyzed. In this study we used as an example the body movements during cooking and measured 3 body movements during cooking. Results of Experiment: 1. The posture of the body differs depending on actions taken. The height of the kitchen furnishings influence the body postures. 2. The order in how the preparation is done and where such work is done in the kitchen affects he cooking efficiency. Conclusions: Point sampling is effective in measuring activities related to daily living such as body movements during cooking which are combinations of detail movements.
In "Tekkohkan", built in Osaka World's Fair 1970, a magnificent sound control system with more than one thousand speakers was installed in order to realize the idea of "spatialization of music" proposed by Toru Takemitsu, a contemporary Japanese composer (1930-96). The original concept was realized here by an interdisciplinary collaboration between a musician, a sound engineer and an architect. The purpose of this paper is to examine the technological features of the sound control system in "Tekkohkan" and to evaluate the possibility of the concept of "spatialization of music".
The purpose of this study is to clarify the relation between actualities of facilities scale in national universities and the Area Standard applied by Ministry of Education. This paper is composed of following 4 analyses. 1. Transition of the scale in national universities and the calculatetion scale by Area Standard. 2. Comparison of each departmental scales in national universities and the calculation scale by Area Standard. 3. Comparison of organization scale in department and the Area Standard by example of Graduate School of Engineering at N.University. 4. Relationship between the calculation method of Area Standard and the difference in the scale.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the diversity of the classroom and unit-pain of elementary schools in the US. We investigated thirteen elementary schools in detail by the field survey. The results are summarized as follows ; 1) Unit-plan of classrooms may be divided into two types, close-planed and open-planed type. 2) The close-planed type can be classified into the unit with common space and without it. The open-planed type can be classified into the loose-divided and non-divided type. 3)The investigated classrooms are 3.3-5.0m^2/pupil in area. They have various shapes, triangle, square, pentagon, hexagon and L-shaped. They face not only south but also various directions.
J.P. Wickersham, an educational adminiatrator in the State of Pennsylvania, published School Economy in 1864. In order for the Japanese government to diffuse modern public education, Wickersham's School Economy was translated into Japanese with the titile of Gakkou Tsuuron by Mitsukuri Rinsho in 1873 and published by the Ministry of Education in 1874. The present study examines how School Economy had influenced architectural planning on elementary school buildings in Japan in the early Meiji period. Our study reveals that Wickershams School Economy affected the School Building Codes that were established by seventeen prefectures respectively from 1875 to 1885.
Inconsistency in urban planning produces confused cities. It is necessary to ask the validity of planning. However, a fundamental frame of discussing the validity of planning is not established. We discuss on fundamental requirements for asking a validity of planning. We formulate concepts of planning as a set of propositions including modal expressions Rp; the planner undertakes p, and Cp; the planner judges p is compatible with others. . Through observation on the actual cases, we find out logical criteria on a consistent set of planning states. We propose a method to demonstrate the validity of planning using the above criteria.
A concept of cylindrical deployable space structures is proposed in this paper. Two types of cylindrical deployable space structures which can deploy both axial and radius directions simultaneously are investigated. One is the mirror symmetric type, and the other is the rotationally symmetric one. The basic formulas for the geometry are derived to examine the deployment and packaging characteristics. Non-dimensional width (W/R_0), packaged radius (R/R_0), and angle of apex (θ) are expressed in terms of the geometrical parameters. The feasibility for some applications with the cylindrical deployable "space structures is examined for space development. Finally, this study has shown that the concept is available for the requirements of deployable space structures.
This research aims to clear the present condition of the rural-urban interchange and the connected construction of institutions in theintermediate and mountain areas. In the intermediate and mountain areas, the rural-urban interchange is promoted by the administrative organization and it brings someeconomic effects and also some burdens on the rural residents. Moreover, from the living environmental viewpoint, it is made clear thatsome institutions are constructed to make the most of the rural cultures and societies. These results will give some clues to study the ways of the rural-urban interchange and its construction.
The aim of this paper is to study urban formation of Barcelona from the llth century to the 19th century. We firstly reconstructed city maps showing land use and road network, then analyzed them quantitatively, and compared it with Madrid, the capital of Spain. The results show the followings; i) Urban areas of Barcelona and Madrid increased in the early modem times and in the mid-19th century, ii) Main use of urban land was changed from the political to the economic activities, iii) Road network introduced in the newly enlarged area was of rectilinear type, and was different from that in the old inner area.
The city of Patan as all other towns of Kathmandu valley, is predominantly inhabited by Newars. The Jyapu community of Newars, who are farmers constituting the major population group of Kathmandu Valley towns is considered to have the earliest connection with the Kirata who ruled and inhabited Nepal during the prehistoric period prior to the 5th century. This paper analyses the physical structure of the settlement quarters of the Jyapu community based on the field study of Dupat role of Patan and shows the distinct features of the settlement with a neighbourhood square as the community centre which is different from the Buddhist monastery quarter analysed in our previous paper. It also posits that the form of the Jyapu community settlements might represent the earliest idea of the urban settlement in the history of Kathmandu Valley.
The study aims at clarifying residents evaluation of living environment with natural-forests and natural geographical features in detached housing area through questionnaire survey to residents and field investigation survey. The following results are take into consideration. 1. The residents who live with natural environment give a higher evaluation against their living environment in particular natural landscape, co-living with animals, and sense of seasons. 2. Those residents tend not to feel less burden to maintain their garden. 3. However, inadequate maintenance of their garden anticipates negative impacts to neighbors. 4. The residents who have their garden at slope give a higher evaluation on good vista, sunshine and ventilation, on the other hand give negative evaluation on useful of garden. 5. Accordingly it would be of importance to formulate a better management role and method of garden, rise of social awareness on necessary of maintenance of trees for maximizing residents' satisfaction on their environment.
The purpose of this study is examine how to develop greens at private spaces at the period of housing supply and manage them to formulate better landscape in a planned detached housing area For this end, the study mainly clarified the following points through questionnaire survey to residents and field investigation survey. 1) By housing supply with hedge, harmonized and totally coordinated landscape are formulated, residents highly satisfy it. 2) A Planting Agreement is an effective tool for continuous maintenance of greens and trees appropriately. 3) The harmonized landscaping with greens and trees, which were provided for the residents, significantly contributes to rise the residents' motivation, and facilitate them maintain landscape well.
This article examines the reconstruction of buildings for business purposes in the Southeast Nada of Kobe, one of disaster areas heavily damaged by the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. It is clarified that the recovery of places for business is still stagnant at the time of our research, nearly four years after the event. Retail stores, eating houses, and small sized commerce buildings combined with living purpose are in the crushing situation, and the new construction of mid- to high-rise buildings including offices has made relatively good progress, resulting in the homogeneity of business and building types in the neighborhood.
This study aims to clarify the area, period and location of the Arable Land Improvement Project Areas in Urbanization Promotion Areas (ALIPA/UPA) of Aichi Prefecture in which infrastructure improvements were most intensively implemented in Japan. Main findings are as follows; (1) The ALIPA/UPA is 7,085ha in whole area of the prefecture. More than seventy percent of UPA in area was developed by ALIP on northwest part of Aichi Prefecture. Most of ALIPA/UPA can be seen in northwest part of Aichi Prefecture, particularly in neighboring local bodies on Nagoya City. Low land spreads on the area. (2) In 1960's before the promulgation of City Planning Law, it had been intensively implemented without subsidy of national government in order to realize free standards of roads as housing lands.
In the Hachiman Conservation District of Traditional Buildings, the case study considered here, the townscape has been well-formed by the repair and reconstruction carried out under the conservation controls in effect. On the other hand, the townscape has been de- stroyed gradually by the renovation and demolition due to an increasing need for cars and changed of life style in traditional districts. Based on a questionnaire distributed to residents of the district, this study analyzes actual conditions of the renovation and residents' intentions for renovation and inheritance dwelling in the future. The study examined the problems of the conservation district and the influence on the transformation of the townscape.
In this study, We considered the process of development of the Osaka Uemachi Area, through analizing the town planning, sewerage system and the block size of the Osaka Uemachi Area from "Osaka Jissoku Zu" map, Old Maps of Osaka, "Chiseki Chizu" and so on. The area which was north of Uchihirano-machi Street was developed with the construction of the Osaka Castle. Its block size was 30ken from south and north on the centers. The streets leading to the bridges were repaired as the excavation of the Higashi-Yokohori Moat. The area which was south of Noninbashi-machi Street was developed on "Machiju-yasikigae". The towns for migrants from Fushimi were developed from Ote Street to Uchiandoji-machi Street after 1619.
Sendai was the capital of Sendai-Han. "Gaijin" means a foreigner and "Gaijin-ya" means a guest house for foreigner. Through the examination of historical mateials, following results are ascertained; (1)Gaijin-ya was built at first in 1632-1641. (2)There were 5 Gaijin-yas in the latter half of 17th century, but 4 of them were disposed in 1694 and only one had existed until the end of Edo-Era. (3)Gaijin-ya was composed of Goza-no-ma(main guest room), Shisha-no-ma(room for messenger), Hiro-ma(entrance room) and cookroom.
In the former research works, the rishoto-pagoda in Sanuki was supposed to be the gojunoto-pagoda of Zentsuji-temple reconstructed by Yuban. But if s not possible because his reconstruction of it was after the completion celemony of the rishoto-pagoda. The real rishoto-pagoda is supposed to be the stone pagoda of Zentsuji-temple called "Ashikagatakauji-rishoto", because it was believed to be the real one in the 18th century, and some documents and pictorical sources suggest that the stone pagoda existed at the same point in the early 14th century.
I investigated the Sanmon in Nansenji-Temple, searching for clues to go on old drawings and making firsthand surveys. The summary of this study is as follows : The existing Sanmon was originally built in 1672 (Kanbun 12) as the gate of Seichiin's grave in Eiheiji-Temple. Seichiin was the wife of Matsudaira Mitsumiti (also known Daian-in), the fourth lord of the Fukui clan. The gate of Seichiin's grave was rebuilt as the gate to Daian-in's and Seichiin's graves about 1674 (Enpou 2). The gate to Daian-in's and Seichiin's graves was transported in sections from Eiheiji-Temple to Nansenji-Temple and rebuilt as its Sanmon in 1780 (An-ei 9). The Sanmon almost retains the original style when it was first constructed for Sheichiin's grave.
The posterity of Zhang Guying built Dangdamen and Xitouan such as an apartment in Zhangguying Village in Ming period. Afterward they built some rural houses and have been living there. When they built these rural houses, there seems to be some living systems. In this study we defined three axes. The main axis crosses the sub axis in the both sides and the sub axis crosses the little sub axis in one side. The settlement of these rural houses is consisted of the main axis, the sub axis and the little sub axis. And the living systems of Dangdamen, Xitouan and Dongtouan are different from that of Wangjiaduan. It became clear by studying variety of plans(type 1, type 2, type3 and type 4).
This paper analyzes the geometrical scheme of the western facade of the Cathedral of Amiens on the photogrammetric elevation made by the "Institut Geographique National" (France). The geometrical scheme is constructed from the geometrical figures of the square and equilateral triangle. These figures are sacred, and their sides and height are measured in the round numbers that have the divisors of the simple integral numbers. The dimensions of the sides and heights of these squares and equilateral triangles relate to the foot (298mm) measurement as a module that is based on the thickness of the western buttresses flanking the central portal. The dimension of this module is quoted from the treatise of Stephen Murray.