This paper discusses formation and transformation of Kaifeng city in Henan(China), which is known as the capital city of Bei Son dynasty. Authors selected the old castle district of the central part of Kaifeng, which is called Wen shu si & Xue yuan men she qu at present, as an intensive field study and clarified thetransformation process of spatial formation. The spatial formation of Keifeng at Bei Song dynasty is identified on the present map based on the newest archeological findings. However Kaifeng at that time is buried several meters under the present ground level by many floods. The urban tissues we see now, is formed after flood in 1841. This paper clarified the transformation of Kaifeng inner castle since mid-19th century through the old map and especially the changes among decade 2000-2010 as for the targeted area. re exist three types. The form of si he yuan is disappearing although only one is left in the area. Most of shou-jin-liao were divided and shared. The central area of old castle was still occupied by low rise houses and shop houses until the end of 20th century, but was drastically changed by redevelopment program introducing high rise apartment houses.
This study aims to develop the roles of metaphors in architectural designs. We chose 210 architectural works of art containing metaphors in “SHlNKENCHIKU" magazines, then construct the database for metaphors based on structure mapping theory. We analyze the types and the metaphorical structures of these architectural designs and try to describe how these metaphors work. The results are as follows; 1) Various metaphors are generated from the experience of natural and artificial objects. 2) There are three levels of metaphors; “attributive”, “relative” and “semantic” metaphors. 3) We can describe the mechanism of creative architectural design process based on the metaphors.
Studies on architectural design process have been strongly influenced by epistemologies. Rationalism and empiricism originated a view of design as a rational problem-solving. The defect of this view of design has its roots in a foundationalistic tendency of these epistemologies. C. S. Peirce's pragmatism provides an alternative, fallibilistic epistemology. This paper aims at constructing a model of design process based on Peirce's theory of inquiry. His theory of inquiry is reinterpreted in terms of his category theory. Design process is modeled as an inquiry consisting of abduction, deduction, and induction. Cases of design process are analyzed by this model.
This study attempts to clarify the differences between residents' awareness of the values of their homes in suburban residential areas and the status quotation of existing-home circulation. Two surveys were conducted for this study, those are Web search of existing detached house resale market and questionnaires to residents assess the value perception of their homes. As results 1) As regards factors for residents when buying a home, clean air, the amount of greenery, state of repair, etc. were all deemed important, although the information provided for home resale market seldom refers to such criteria; 2) residents within local district development schemes thought the environment surrounding their homes would influence their value3) the towns/streets that showed a higher ratio of home resale were categorized as ones that hosted so-called average hot-selling line homes, ones with low price homes, or ones included in local district development schemes.
Senior users of elder care facilities are assumed not to evacuate to outside shelters, since the facilities are generally considered as evacuation centers. In case of a devastating earthquake, however, they might have to evacuate to outside shelters, since big fires are presumed to break out at the same time in different places. In this paper, we construct a simulation model, which describes evacuation behavior of senior users as well as urban fires following a major earthquake. We take into account that senior users with difficulties in walking need special support in evacuation process, and that the assistance of people around the facilities can reduce the human casualties. Using the proposed model, we quantitatively evaluate wide-area evacuation behavior of senior users, and demonstrate some significant factors affecting the availability of evacuation.
The purpose of this paper is to find out the legal problem confronted by the design process of comprehensive renovation with seismic retrofitting, and to make clear that the way of correspondence to building codes. Main conclusions are the followings: 1. It is necessary to be required over short term procedures by reason of applying the mitigation system and avoiding the supplication for building confirmation. 2. The most disincentive factor in comprehensive renovation is the “retroactive application”. 3. It is important to value improve the holistic legal value and performance value, while aware of time axis.
In this paper, the architectural space of Machiya will be described using semantic dimensions instead of syntactic dimensions of conventional tridimensional space. Semantic dimensions (formality, privacy, brightness and naturalness) are collected for different activities using a questionnaire and arranged in a data base. With such data it is possible to differentiate Machiya from other typologies and to find similarities between the typical layout of Machiya and its semantic description. But as well we found a discrepancy between the semantic space of existing Machiya and the type of dwelling preferred by those who say that they would like to live in Machiya, showing that even if inhabitants can recognize semantic space of Machiya they might not necessarily be aware of the implications of it. Therefore new ways of continuation of Machiya in the contemporary context are being explored.
In streetscape, shapes of buildings are important to decide impressions of streets. We often align wall lines and height of buildings to give a sense of unity. At the streetscape overly unified, however, we feel to be monotone and lacking lively, so it's important to understand the relation between shapes of buildings and impressions of streetscapes. We reproduce various shapes of façades using CG technology. Through the experiment and analysis of it, we reveal the relation between the structure of evaluation and characteristics of desirable shapes of façade. We also reproduce various impression facades and simulate the evaluation of landscape.
The purpose of this study is to grasp the intention of self-help, community-help and public-help by inhabitants of Komoro city through Safe Community activities. This research was performed by questionnaires survey on evaluation and intention to community safety and it become clear on following 4 aspects. 1. To grasp the proportion of high risk group in community was important for consideration of community safety. 2. Self-help for safety was launched by themselves, considering individual and household situations. 3. Many of them seeked correspondence for community based problems as community-help, for example traffic safety and safety for the elderly people. 4. Public-help for safety was grasped as policy or public services and as complement for community-help.
Sustainable urban form as a reflection of social functions of a city and the relationship between the physical form and social functions is discussed in this paper. Measures of urban density are formulated to quantitatively express the physical, social and spatial layers of urban form. The role of planners as the facilitators of urban social functions through planned physical interventions is supported by devising measures of human security to assess the effects of development on urban residents. These measures are tested on Mumbai to identify its social areas. Furthermore the relationships between density and human security are analyzed.
The aim of this research is to clarify how vacant spaces in Tomo district are distributed and how they have been utilized through accumulated changes. Those vacant spaces can be classified into nine types in terms of location, process, and users. Some vacant spaces are richly utilized by the surrounding neighbors without any relations of their owners. Such a common use is only found at the historical urban area, not at the landfill zone, and is likely to happen where residents have known each other before it becomes vacant.
This study aims to explore visual complexity in streetscape composition using a new method of measurement based on RMS contrast information. The dataset was composed of 74 streetscape images, taken in Algeria and Japan in daytime and nighttime. The evaluation and analysis covered two phases: (1) the subjective quantification of visual complexity using factor analysis and ranking method. (2) The visual complexity measurement based on RMS contrast statistics of streetscape images. The results showed a positive correlation between the subjective ranking of complexity in streetscape images and the proposed measure of visual complexity “α”. This correlation was high in daytime streetscapes and moderate in nighttime streetscapes. The sensitivity to complexity was higher in Algerian participants compared to Japanese participants.
This is the third article on conservation of the traditional houses in Weipo village (Laojie) near Luoyang, China. In Weipo village most of the residents have built new houses and moved out. At the present time only 14 families (35 persons) remain in the 10 Siheyuan houses. However, the new houses which have a court in the center, seemed to be similar to the traditional Siheyuan houses. If so, the traditional Siheyuan houses planning is not the sole reason that residents have moved out. In this paper we researched the new houses closely and inquired the residents about of the traditional houses (including the pepole who moved out). In the interview the residents pointed out some disadvantages such as inconvenient doorways, space shortages, complicated neighborly relations, dust, difficulties to agree for repairing the common wall, poor ventilation etc. but also some advantages such as warm in winter and cool in summer, calmness, nice traditional atmosphere, feeling at home, etc. From the building survey we make sure the house plans of the new houses are quite similar to the traditional Siheyuan houses. The principle difference is the new house is composed of one detached unit. Based on these observations we discussed the possibilities that the traditional Siheyuan houses can be improved and livable as modern houses.
This is a study on the measures taken for vineyard landscape conservation in France. Its importance was recognized by the inscription of the jurisdiction of Saint-Emilion as an Unesco's world heritage in title of cultural landscape in 1999 and the promotion of wine tourism almost at the same time. For that, not only cultural properties protection measures or urban plannnig but also the controlled designation of origin system (AOC) are used. This application leads the National AOC Institute (INAO) or local wine syndicates to aid the surveillance architects of historic monuments (ABF) for appropriate heritage management.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the transition and prospect of planning reviews by perspective of municipal merger. The peer-reviewed papers analyzed are 40 planning reviews which have already published since 2000. The main results of analysis are as follows: (1) planning reviews have argued some of 8 category keywords, (2) planning reviews can be evaluated by axis of 4 perspectives (regional policy, city planning, facility restructuring, area reorganization), (3) transition and prospect of planning reviews can be organized from the 8 category keywords and axis of 4 perspective.
Most of the color standards currently used in Japan are based on Munsell color system. Our categorization of existing color guidelines in landscape planning revealed that the guidelines which recommend specific symbolic colors can be employed not only for architectural purposes but also for other purposes such as Products and “Communication Branding”. Some guidelines suggest accent colors to reflect the characteristics of regions and therefore those colors act on the integration of various regional images. We concluded that recommendation of symbolic colors has potential to promote Place Branding.
This study aims to understand the regional disparities of assistance for domestic violence provided by Non-Profit Organization in Japan. After the establishment act on the prevention violence and the protection victims the partnership between the public sector and non-profit organization has been created. However many Non-Profit organizations protect survivors for free, and support survivors' housing problems by themselves. In conclusion measure of assistance provided by Non-profit Organization is different depend on an administrative district and the gap has been gradually wider. Moreover the assistance measure is effected by the relationship between Non-Profit Organization and local government.
"Tameshi" is a specific word seen in the historical material of ancient Japan, recognized as an exemplar or normative model. This study aims to clarify the practical function and influence of the Tameshi manufactured by Todai-ji monk Jitchu, in the architectural construction process of the miniature pagoda halls at Nara period. In this paper it is revealed that the halls of relevant temples were not same style, therefore the temples did not apply the Jitchu's Tameshi entirely on the construction. This shows that the regulation of Tameshi was not strict, while it was dedicated to the Empress Shotoku.
The present paper aims to analyze the building technique of the Stoas of the Asklepieion at Messene, which were built in the beginning of the 2nd century B.C., and to understand a part of the Hellenistic building techniques of this region. The optical refinement of the crepidoma of the Stoa and some other unknown techniques which were employed in the Messenian Stoa confirm us that continuous endeavors of technical renovation were taken place by the Hellenistic craftsmen, following the tradition of the building techniques of Greek architecture that date back to the 4th century B.C.
Batavia was the port city founded by the Dutch United East India Company in the Ciliwung River Delta of Java located in the Asian monsoon tectonic zone. Construction of the urban area and land reclamation of the environs were conducted under the water management based on waterways having multi functions such as self-defense, transportation, drainage, water storage and irrigation. This paper explains changes of the water management and the space structure in the 17th and 18th centuries according to maps, official ordinances and travel records. Structure and features of the channel network are discussed in relation to geomorphology and hydrological conditions of Java.
This study uses historical maps and data to research the Buddhist temple area in Nishi-Asakusa. The temple and graveyard areas of the Edo, Meiji periods and the present day are layered on a map, and the overlapping images are analyzed. As a result of the analysis, the following findings are observed: 1. According to the Gofunai-Jisha-Bikou, 90 temples existed in this area in the early 18th century. 2. A comparison between the Kanei-Edo and the Meireki-Edo maps, indicates that the temple area in Nishi-Asakusa greatly expanded after the Great Fire of Meireki. 3. Almost all temples were moved from Edo's central area during the Edo Castle expansion and the reconstruction following the Great Fire of Meireki. 4. In the Meiji and Taisho periods, each temple area had six types of resistered holders: (a). the temple's precincts, (b). government precincts, (c). personal precincts, (d). the temple's graveyard, (e). government graveyards, and (f). personal graveyards. 5. Of 90 temples, 47 were still existent in this area in 2010.
In Taiwan the townscape of shop houses with the arcade (Din-a-ka) is called Lao-jie. Recently, a preservation project for the townscape of Lao-jie has become active. Notably mentioned, the projects developed not in the cultural properties protection system but in the program of Community Based Development Project which began in 1994 aiming in habitant participation. Accordingly, it has appeared more that the aspect of local development in Lao-jie conservation projects. Furthermore, as a result of the work inspection of the concrete content of the preservation projects in five Lao-jie, we understood that the content of the projects shared several characteristics. In all cases, not only buildings and Din-a-ka, the core nucleus element of the townscapes of Lao-jie, are restored, but also the subsidiary facilities such as sideboard and sidewalk are maintained at the same time.
To facilitate the workshop as a place for cooperative learning is a technique to support dialogues among participants of the workshop. The results of research and analysis on participants' intrinsic motivation are as follows. 1. Participants' intrinsic motivations are grown and their consciousness and ability to act are changed by supporting their dialogues with emphasis on their competency and autonomy. 2. Nine learning activities are developed with respect to each of three layers in the learning steps. The more participants achieve learning activities, the more they grow and change in their consciousness and activities.