In this study, the number and contents of notices and posters on the walls in and around classrooms were surveyed for 6 junior high schools with different class systems and types of school buildings. It was found that (1) the number of notices and posters in schools adopting the departmental system is greater than that in schools adopting the conventional fixed-classroom system. (2) The number of notices and posters related to school life in schools adopting the departmental system is slightly lower than that in schools adopting the fixed-classroom system, whereas the number of notices and posters related to each subject is greater.
This paper aims to verify the actual condition on the use of the rooms or spaces in “Community Schools” (CSs) in Japan which have been developed spatially in order to activate the community support to children's learning in a school, and to encourage the communitybased development with a school. Based on the analyses on nationwide trends regarding CSs, six samples were selected and analyzed in terms of the relations between the developed rooms or spaces and actual use condition of them by communities. It can be found that there are some gaps between the spatial policy at the stage of planning and the actual use in six samples respectively. In order to resolve these problems, it can be suggested that the trial to use in an existing school building according to an assumed programs before renovation can become an effective measure as well as to fully comprehend the characteristics of spaces that are needed to realize the goals of CSs.
This study is targeted for elderly persons, we investigated individual the distance between people and robot. Individual distance was the distance the subjects felt "I do not want any more approached". The robot moved toward upright or chair-sitting subjects at constant velocities from a distance 5m apart. Research factor is 5 angle and 2 speed. The following three results were obtained by the study: 1. Individual distance of upright subjects was shorter than chair-sitting subjects. 2. The robot's angle and speed did not have great influence on the distance. However, in the upright is speed, chair-sitting is angle slight influence. 3. Individual distance of elderly persons was shorter than adult persons.
Modern period is age of diversification about building construction method, spatial composition, function and so on, because of added various value on modern architecture. Previous study on renovation method for use modern architecture prevail in internal and external case. But when we adapt renovation method to existent buildings, the method plays different role. The role caused "added value". This study use flowchart for analyze relationship between existent part and new part on renovation. As a result, we defined 2 factors caused by progressing the modern renovation method; the context concerning with the purpose of renovation exists or not, and the diversity about view of existent part.
The aim of this study is to clarify the spatial composition of common part in contemporary houses lived by three generations. The problematic were analyzed through three aspects. Firstly, connection diagrams of circulation path are created from the entrance of the building to the bedroom of each generation, and organized according to their positions. Secondly, relations of the parent and the children parts and common part are examined through the diagram of the division of volume of the whole construction. Finally, comparison of the spatial composition of common part leads to extract several typologies.
Although many bar alleys found in the commercial districts of Tokyo might seem crowded and dark, their small scale and intimate atmosphere facilitate informal public life. This paper identifies first a particular type of bar cluster as a morphological unit, coined here as “yokocho bar area”, characterized by the exclusive use of its buildings as bars and eateries, and the extreme smallness of its alleys and buildings. Secondly, it identifies the location patterns of these areas within the commercial districts. Finally, this study conducts a morphological taxonomy of 49 cases in Tokyo, based on the urban linkage to the surroundings and the internal street configuration. As a result eight main types were obtained, from simple linear cases linked to main streets, to networks of alleys hidden inside urban blocks.
The purpose of this study is to describe the features of the clusters of Knowledge Intensive Business Services (KIBS) within the Tokyo metropolitan area, and investigate the determinants of KIBS location. Using municipal scale database, significance of potential determinants of KIBS were investigated through path analysis, and that was followed by a more detailed survey in the form of a questionnaire for KIBS companies. As a result, following conclusions were obtained: (1) Several strongly concentrated KIBS clusters were observed in central Tokyo and some of the innner-suburban business districts. By calculating Ellison-Glaeser index, it was confirmed that KIBS has a stronger tendency of geographic concentration when it was compared to other service industries. (2) Most influential determinants of KIBS location are economies of agglomeration, food amenity, nightlife amenity and urbanized regional image. This means that social common capital that is specific to large cities attracts KIBS in direct and indirect manner, which results in a predominant agglomeration of KIBS in highly urbanized areas.
This paper examines nursery school children's walking behavior and related street space. The research methods used include a questionnaire administered to childcare workers, a study of walking routes, and an observation and analysis to understand the relationship between children's walking behavior and the street environment. What elements in street space are they related to, where are these elements found, and how are they related? Focusing on their relations to physical and social environments, this paper tries to understand children's walking behavior, related problems, and characteristics of the street environment where active behavior is observed. The paper could provide ways to evaluate the street environment.
This paper aims to clarify the relationship between simplicity and attractiveness in urban scenery based on Pragnanz law of Gestalt psychology. Authors analyzed the written comments and sketches of urban sceneries drawn by 18 subjects, in which they showed the ranges of simplicity and attractiveness as a direct method of extracting an area image. The results showed that simplicity and attractiveness exist simultaneously in many cases. This study helped in understanding the importance of adjusting the contrast between simplicity and attractiveness in the making of attractive urban scenery.
My research aims to elucidate the circumstances and significance of the reconstruction of castle towers in the period preceding the Second World War. This paper covers reconstructed castle towers built as temporary structures on the sites of early-modern castles in Kofu and Tsuyama. Both were built as privately funded projects for exhibitions at the castle sites to commemorate the opening of railway lines. Both exhibitions drew many visitors and the towers were illuminated at night. Intended as temporary structures, the reconstructed towers were popular and spurred requests from local citizens that they would remain in use after the exhibitions ended.
The aim of this study is to investigate environmental situation surrounding terraced houses with greenery patterns, and to accumulate objective data and features in the new developed residential area in Malaysia. A computer microclimate simulation technique is applied by combining stored digital spatial data on GIS as main tools. As a results, i) There is almost no temperature changes between the current building shape and after changing the building aspect ratio without additional greening. However after green space added, some contributions for reducing surrounding temperature can be observed. ii) The relatively higher cooling effects of greenery in the surrounding building and block can be observed in the afternoon and evening. iii) Increasing approximately 11% green coverage ratio make effects of reducing about 0.5°C above the green spaces and about 0.3°C on the surrounding area.
1. In this research, we focused on the business structure of shared-taxi. We chose as the study subject "Edamitsu Yamasaka Jumbo Taxi" which is one of local shared- taxi in Kitakyushu-city and analyzed its relation between taxi route and economical characteristics of the shared-taxi program. 2. Newly established transportation policy from the year 2000 to 2007 in Japan made local governments to abolish the public transportations in the red and somewhat maintained the regional transportation system by remained profitable traffic business structure. On the other hand, deterioration of public transportation system of population decreasing area causes serious problems on living convenience of both elderly and school-age population who can't drive by themselves. But there are few researches on successful cases of the cooperation between urban planning and local transportation planning. 3. This research shows a successful example of shared-taxi program which introduced several communal activities and contributes to the promotion of compact city development of rural aging societies in Japan.
This paper aims at analysing the traditional industries and spatial configuration in Akakina, Amami City, Kagoshima Prefecture, which is under official assessment for selection of important cultural landscapes, and suggesting which industry-related landscapes should be conserved. As a result of this research, it was found that in Akakina, while rice paddies and fields were formed in the Paleozoic area suitable for crop production , residential grounds were developed in the alluvial plain of sandy soil where well water could be obtained. Although the maritime industry, the shipping industry, the sugar industry, and agriculture have grown in Akakina, at the present time, institutions from the early modern times such as schools, government offices, roads and the zoning system coexist with the agricultural land supplying materials to the sugar industry established in the same period. Considering the condition of the traditional industries and spatial configuration, it can be argued that agricultural and residential landscapes should be conserved.
Following the Great East Japan Earthquake, the housing lease program for disaster victims supplied over 60,000 private rental houses that serve as temporary housing. The number of houses has exceeded the number of newly constructed units of prefabricated temporary housing. To examine actual situations of this program, a questionnaire survey was conducted with residents who live in leased houses in Sendai City. The following results were obtained: (1) Residents applied to this program because they had immediate needs for conveniently located housing. (2) The majority of residents were able to acquire adequate housing. However, some large families, residents who applied during the early stages, and residents who originally lived in remote areas received inadequate housing. (3) Many residents would prefer to remain in their current housing, but many may be unable to pay the current rental costs.
The shikinen sengu continued in Katori-jingu till the beginning of the 14th century. A document that is the order for woods about the asamedono built in 1270 has been remained. The purpose of this study is to clarify the style of the asamedono by using it. This analysis revealed that the asamedono had some humble features. It was that the height of a floor was low and that the nageshi was attached only to the outside of the building. Furthermore we consider that the asamedono was changed into the style which put in the element of the shoshinden in 1424.
This paper reports how Construction Organization built or repaired buildings at Kamowakeikazuchi Shrine. “Syurikata” was known as Construction Organization at Kamowakeikazuchi Shrine. But details were unclear. It was not yet reported what process was used in building or repairing buildings at Kamowakeikazuchi Shrine. Based on old diaries kept at Kamowakeikazuchi Shrine, Syurikata acted to build or repair buildings in the following three processes: 1. Syurikata received a request from Kamowakeikazuchi Shrine 2. Syurikata acted 3. Syurikata reported a result to Kamowakeikazuchi Shrine These processes applied to both inspection and construction at Kamowakeikazuchi Shrine.
This paper examines roles of welfare facilities and urban infrastructures in modern day Muroran which developed by The Japan Steel Works and Nippon Steel Corporation. Each facility had given to inhabitants who had lived in company housing convenient as urban residents in local city. But general public could not get convenience of not necessarily by those facilities. Because each facility limited users by class in each company. Hospital and theater have been released to general public, but purchase and clubhouse were isolated from general. There was a difference in a spatial spread as corporate town and use actual condition. It is important when such difference examines formation of corporate town.
This paper examines the writings of Riemon UNO and his association, Kogyokyoikukai, focusing on workers' housing especially dormitories. It can be read how the third party grasped the matters relating to workers' dormitories. They introduced the "model" dormitories from the point of view of the sound development of industries in Japan. On the assumption that the primordial matters behind of the dormitory system cannot immediately be solved, "model" dormitories were as cases that should be referred to for a problem how improve them while making use of an advantage in protection and the management of the workers.
This paper is the third part of the historical study on the houses for employees of Japanese National Railways (JNR). In this paper, especially, the history about the employees' houses from 1906 to 1916 is clarified. The result can be summarized as follows : 1.JNR's first standardization of the houses for employees was enacted in 1916. That is able to understand as is inevitable result of the establishment of "Railway Nationalization Act" (1906) and the reorganization of the organization following that law. 2.In that standardization of the houses, the floor plannings of 26 divided into 8 grades were defined. And when those floor plannings are analyzed from a viewpoint of a grade, the undividable and precise relation between a job grade and a floor planning of houses is clarified. 3.On the other hand, two or more types of floor planning were defined in the same grade in that standardization. That is able to be understood as characteristics against houses for government employees who work in other government offices. However, when the differences in each floor planning in the same grade are analyzed, it is clarified that the meanings of those differences are not necessarily clear. 4.As a result, JNR's first standardization of the houses for employees is regarded as the early stage to completion of that.
The present paper aims to clarify the morphological characteristics of the external niches on medieval Armenian churches, through comparative analyses on the position in the monument, the form, the stone composition and decorative elements with them. As a result, the function of the external niches as a simplified method for avoiding complicated external roofs and wall construction is newly discovered. Additionally, the chronological changes on the above-mentioned four dimensions are totally interpreted that the several initial functions played by the external niches in the seventh century gradually receded and their function converged with decorative composition on external wall.
Compound piers with nook shafts in Lombard Romanesque churches receive transverse arches always by pilasters and not by round shafts. The composition differs essentially from that of compound piers with nook shafts in Ile-de-France. Detailed measurements of the supports in eleven Lombard churches indicate the following. 1) Nook shafts in Lombard compound piers penetrate the re-entrant corner of ressauts to the extent that about half of the circular profile is hidden. This feature means that Lombard compound piers have low linearity compared to that of Ile-de-France compound piers in which nook shafts touch both the surfaces of the re-entrant corner tangentially. 2) However, the nook shaft in Lombardy has "diagonality" because it penetrates each of the two surfaces of the re-entrant corner to the same extent. Accordingly, the theory of "diagonality," by which Paul Frankl asserts this to be a key characteristic of Gothic architecture, fails as far as Lombard architecture is concerned.
Cases of Borrowed Scenery Garden are collected, and space composition is analyzed, aiming at the explanation to the intrinsic idea. 32 typical gardens are gathered and the relationship between the initiative of Borrowed Scenery and the spatial character of garden's environment is emphasized. 10 gardens are selected which were planned back to the neighboring hillside, and the objective scenery is analyzed. It is concluded that, the initiative of Borrowed Scenery within gardens is planned in relation with the scale of the objective. Finally the intrinsic idea of “Syo-cyu-kendai”, viewing landscape in large scale through a small space, is summarized.
During the period of the Min Dynasty, more than 1,300 walled cities other than the capital cities of Nanjing and Beijing were spread all over China. The City of the Prince, which was the epitome of the political aspect of the Min Dynasty, is a very significant subject to be studied closely. The City of the Prince was the emperors' territory. The emperors had divided their territories and given them to their own sons. Their sons built the walled capitals there. The Cities of the Prince had been governed by two systems; one was a centralized bureaucracy which was controlled by local bureaucrats sent by the central government, and the other was a feudalistic political system controlled by the princes, whom the emperors had given titles to. This study compares a close examination over each internal structure of the 39 Cities of the Prince is to be attempted by using diagrams of restored buildings with an analytical viewpoint of the relationship between the former urban shape and military function of the Cities of the Prince.
The regional image is practically envisaged in one's consciousness through interchange of disputation between addresser and addressee. This paper, through disputation between the the municipal office and inhabitants in the lawsuits that took place at the development actions in the Osaka city, clarifies semasiologically the formation process of the regional images around the Osaka station in the early Showa era. In interchange of the statements, the inhabitants had confirmed an advent of privileged and alienated locations within its district whereas the municipal office envisaged the homogeneous urban space that would be brought forth by means of its development.
Not only facial expressions but also body gestures and postures play an important role in non-verbal communication. Facial expressions are based on two factors: arousal and pleasant emotions, while it is not clear that body gestures and postures have the same structure as the facial expressions have. We indicate that (1) the sitting postures have the same emotion structure as facial expressions and (2) can be measured by pressure sensors on a chair and accelerometers on the body, which predict the emotion factors. We find the sitting postures have three semantic factors: "arousal", "pleasantness", and "dominance", so emotion expressions of the sitting postures are similar to those of the facial expressions. Their difference is "dominance" expressed by not the main body but the body parts such as arms and legs. We conclude that (1) the three factors can be measured with the proposed sensors and (2) the body trunk and the body parts: neck, arms, and legs are important.
Two types of regressive models that consider spatial auto-regression, which is spatial autoregressive model and spatial autoregressive disturbance model respectively, were discussed for predicting schemes of land use changes in Japanese urban and suburban areas. The results were compared with ones of normal linear regression models, and are proved to be more accurate than ones of the regressive model, based on AIC. Adopting these models result in success of capturing the local diversity and similarity in land use change, which is one of typical phenomena in Japanese cities under maturing society.