This paper discusses house types and their transformation of Kaifeng city in Henan (China), which is known as the capital city of Bei Son dynasty. Authors selected a she qu(Community) of former walled city in the central district of Kaifeng, which is called Xue yuan men shequ atpresent, as an intensive field study and clarified the types of dwelling units and the transformation process. The spatial formation of Keifeng at Bei Song dynasty is identified on the present map based on the newest archeological findings. However Kaifeng at that time is buried several meters under the present ground level by many floods. The urban tissues we see now, is formed after flood in 1841. The central area of old castle was still occupied by low rise houses and shop houses until the end of 20th century, but was drastically changed by redevelopment program introducing high rise apartment houses. This paper clarified the changes among decade 2000-2010 as for the targeted area. There existed old traditional form of siheyuan (Chinese quadrangle dwellings), siheyuan like Liu family residence which is only one example left in the area. Most of siheyuan had been destroyed or is shared by several families. This paper classified 103 dwelling units we measured into five groups according to number of rooms and discusses the extension process of living space.
This paper aims to clarify the regional demands of elderly welfare facility converted from closed primary school by grasping the management form and use characteristics. The utilization rate is stable at 80% in day service part, and the group home was reached to the capacity at the opening time, so the development effect is significant. About the evaluation of space utilization, day service part has living and training room so the daily life of users is carried out smoothly, and the group home converted the fan shaped classrooms so the wide vision for users and staffs is secured.
In order to carry out the management of sports leagues stable, the stadium business is focused on. Customer satisfaction of the stadium has been described by the quality of service in the prior paper. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between customer satisfaction and seating arrangement. I went the analysis of the following three. 1. Survey for watching and satisfaction seat arrangement according to questionnaire in professional baseball stadium. 2. Correlation analysis of the seating arrangement and satisfaction in each of the "seating arrangement area of default" and "seating arrangement group of satisfaction". 3. Multiple regression analysis of satisfaction as the dependent variable seating arrangements at each of the "seating arrangement area of default" and "seating arrangement group of satisfaction". The results of the analysis, there is a correlation seating arrangement and customer satisfaction. It is necessary to examine more about the structure of customer satisfaction.
This study intends to examine architectural design for the juvenile correctional facilities in order to achieve effective treatment of the juveniles. Juvenile training schools, in principle, accommodate juveniles who have been referred there by family courts as a protective measure and provide juveniles correctional education. Experiments using a mock-up of a typical private room of juvenile training schools are conducted to know preferable design details around the window. In the experiments, pictures of outside scenes are projected on a screen behind the window. The variables of the experiments are the directions and placement of iron bars on the window, and outside scenes. The participants are asked to imagine being a juvenile inmate and to describe their impressions and preferences relating to the simulated room for each of the conditions by answering questionnaires and giving interviews. Through the factor analysis and analyses on the tendencies on preferences and participants' comments, several points to be especially considered are proposed, for layout planning and guidelines on the design around windows for private rooms of juvenile training schools.
This article is a study about Wooden Temporary Housing built for the victim who suffered serious damage in Fukushima by Tohoku Earthquake disaster and the later nuclear plant accident. As study content, it is arranged it about for 26-type Wooden Temporary Housing Specifications and Reuse characteristics. At the same time, it is inspected about actual situation from Reuse Model Planning to the present and future versatility and reuse after finished the use as temporary housing and aimed at it becoming an effective document for the future disaster.
This paper addresses the significance of the table top shape for the communication. The investigation into the effects of the table top shape on students in PBL demonstrates that the difference in the shape has influenced the easiness of their concentration. And the experiment concerned with a psychological territory shows it has been generated on the surface of the table top and has been affected by the shape. These facts point out that the difference in the easiness of the concentration is caused by the discrepancy in a psychological territory which can be traceable to the difference in the table top shape.
The purpose of this study is to focus on contemporary museum which have free appreciation route, and to clarify the relationship between the route selection and spatial cognition of the viewers. As a result, by analyzing the appreciation route of all subjects first, it was possible to classify the appreciation route for each museum. Next, by analyzing of the characteristics of the spatial composition in each museum, both elements to encourage and to hinder route selection revealed. At the end, by analyzing of words and pictures drawn on the sketch map by using an index called "degree of spatial understanding", the relationship between spatial cognition and words in each museum revealed.
This paper discusses compatibility of security and the quality of life in detached housing area. City of Irvine, California was said to be one of the safest city in US because of good spatial design and governance in communities. Qualitative interviews with the city officials, the police and homeowners were conducted to know the keys of the safest city. Concerning the design features, those of early villages and those of new urbanism have grown into one and promote activities which enhance natural surveillance. These design features are checked by the police at the planning stage. With regard to the community governance, homeowners associations (HOAs) provide good management and maintenance and various activities to include the youth in communities so as not to let them become delinquents. “Activity” and “Identity” are found to be the keys for the compatibility of security and the quality of life, which reduce crime by increasing regional vitality, social contact and community spirit and are not included in the principles of Japanese CPTED.
I confirmed the MIZUYA·MIZUKA in the Arakawa basin in 13 city and district municipalities from Kumagaya-shi, Saitama to Kita-ku, Tokyo. I was distributed over the basin much in the right bank, and they in particular were located on a natural levee formed of an old river. By the configuration of the premises, traditional policies such as forest or dug were seen other than MIZUYA·MIZUKA. In addition, they placed a ground surface of the premises by the section constitution functionally and coped with a flood by establishing level differences and ground. By the transformation of the space constitution in the premises before and after the modern river improvement business, 3 areas were common, and decrease, extinction of MIZUYA·MIZUKA and forest minded, and an inning of dug was seen. In addition, MIZUYA·MIZUKA which existed was converted not a function as a place of refuge and the storage of preservation as a warehouse. I was able to classify the factor roughly into "the internal environment" such as changes of the inhabitants life and a change of "external environment" such as the river repair work.
This study describes a method to develop an integral set of design codes by which small areas of dense wooden structures can be rebuilt to prevent wide spread fire caused by an earthquake and to establish a comfortable living environment and human-friendly townscape. In order to avoid problems of scalability and arbitrariness, we examined a methodology to formulate a design codes system, which places common-use alleys in the starting point, based on a psychological analysis, and focused on the syntactic side of the design code system. Prior experiment and application examples verified the effectiveness of a design code system with more efficient consensus building and use of space.
This study analyses the creation of public spaces in residential land readjustment project located at the west area of Kita-Konosu Station. The analysis clarifies, 1) the significance of site planning, construction of the facilities which contribute to the securing of revenue and development of design guidelines, 2) the establishment of the residents' management organization for public space, and the flexible memberships for that organization and various programs for community. These are major features at the stage of development and usage of public spaces. And these features for improving spatial efficiency are based on a close cooperation with relevant players.
The distribution of greens on boarder zones of architectures and streets in Venice was surveyed in situ and mapped by use of GIS. And its tendency was analyzed from the perspective of spatial characteristics on public spaces, using the logistic regression analysisand the cross tabulation. Important results are discovered through the study. The properties of public spaces like as the width of frontal lanes and the existence of Fondamenta, which are typical spatial forms in Venice, are influential for presence of green around walls. Green on gardens tends to exists beyond the walls of ends of lanes. And it is also concluded that influencing factors for each type of green differ according to their types, while they are also different from each other in different places. For instance, Campo or Campiello are key factors in one district for the presence of window side green, but in the other district they do not play an important role. Furthermore the width of frontal lane influences the emergence of window side green, but as to other types does not so. Many of such differences are able to be understood from the points of view of the history of urban development in Venice.
This research focuses on the “historical routes policy” by the Cultural Affairs Agency in Japan. This paper aims to clarify 1) its philosophy, 2) the policy's influences on local areas and 3) this policy's difficulties. The results are as follows; 1) The policy aims both conservation of the routes in the regional scale and walkable environment. 2) Not only the historical routes but also the heritage along the routes were listed and conserved. 3) Changes of the framework and the character of the historical routes made this policy difficult to succeed.
This paper aims to clarify the component of impression of townscape while walking and to verify the effect of sky factor and the change on the components above-mentioned. The results are; (1) according to the factor analysis, “Calmness”, “Openness”, and “Activity” compose the impression of the city, (2) neither the relation between “Calmness” and sky factor nor change of sky factor are significant, (3) sky factor and change of it define “Openness” of the city significantly, (4) “Activity” of the city appears to be influenced by change of sky factor rather than sky factor itself.
The study aims to look at utilization and management of " privately owned public spaces " and figure out the reality of application system that we focus on the "bustle-generating activities that utilize the public space" and the "the SYAREMACHI ordinance of tokyo, community management organization registration system, Bustle generating activities that utilize the public space" of Tokyo ordinance, introduced advanced in 2003, and a storage of about 10 years. Results of the study, First it is to clarify the reality of application and an overview of the "the SYAREMACHI ordinance of Tokyo. Second, I showed the open space properties that By visualizing and aggregate the organizational operating structure and by number of days, by type of space and by application of the utilization of the open space. Third, it will help utilization and of the management of public space in the future.
The aim of this paper is to reveal the features of spatial resources through comprehension of the places and the cognition and the description as ‘Kamakura's good mark’ by ‘Kamakurasan’ facebook page. First, we classify the filmed pictures, and compare with tour guide book and landscape view. And, we consider the meaning of the process from posting to evaluation as the generation of the place according to the discussion over generation of landscape. The results are as follows: 1) There exist stations and local parks as spatial resources with temples or shrines, and the nature. 2) We classified ‘temporality’ as the character of the cognition and the description of spatial resources according to the evaluation of the pictures which show the transit of time or season. 3) We revealed the process of ‘Kamakurasan’ by strength of the fraction of an instant with weak community of spatial accessibility as possibility of ‘the generation of the place’.
Nominated Subcontractor (NSC) has been widely used to select subcontractors for construction project in Singapore. As taking into account Employer's requests, it is an useful subcontracting system. In our previous research, the unilateralism of NSC system among project participants has dealt with comparing standard contract forms. However, most of related researches are not clarified the actual condition of NSC system in Singapore. Thus, it is necessary to clarify the actual condition of NSC system. This paper introduces the actual condition of the NSC system in Singapore. The questionnaire was conducted a survey of 34 Japanese experts and 18 building construction projects, executed by Japanese general contractors. In result, first the responsibility of NSC problem is distributed on all participants, but the distribution of responsibility is different in accordance with participant's roles and contact conditions. Second, the average ratio of NSC selection is calculated at 16.1%, but the actual ratio of each project is much different from average. Third, DSC has many advantages, in terms of management aspects such as quality, cost, time, with comparing NSC.
In common, disputes are caused by participants' mutual differences. For instance, a dispute occurs in a construction project despite of the responsibility of works is defined on the contract between contractors. Then most of them are resolved through compromise and consultation mutually. However, sometimes if project contractors have large different opinions or perspectives, dispute will be to lead to judicial decision and to give serious damage to them, in terms of mutual trust and property. The major cause is the imbalance of responsibility distribution taken from unilateral contract between contractors. In particular, nominated subcontractor (NSC) system is well known as a unilateral contract method as well as cause of disputes. This paper has aim to clarify the reality of disputes between contractors in overseas construction projects based on Singapore's 12 judicial precedents for NSC published from 1989 to 2008. First, 12 judicial precedents are classified as 3 categories such as responsibility of delay and defect, set off budget and payment issues. Second, the consideration of relation among contractors, work and responsibility is performed in order to understand the core of judicial precedents.
Unconcealed in the wellhall space, the roof structure crossed in a pure solid grillwork, without using penetrating-tie-beams, is generally considered as one of the distinctive features of historic townhouses in Takayama. This point of veiw formed since the 1960s while the Yoshijima house (1907) were designated as the Important Cultural Property in 1966. According to this survey investigation into more than 20 existing townhouses built in the 19th century, by the middle of Meiji era, the roof structures were not in a grid framework, omitting several beams and posts, giving evidences that penetrating-tie-beams were used. The characteristic roof structure represented by that of Yoshijima house was not shaped before the age; that was emerged in the mid-Meiji era created by modern carpenters in Takayama, based on their reinterpretation of design intention shown in the Edo townhouses.
From 7 to 10th century, the brick religion monument had been formed actively in Cambodia. The structure dating from same period of the time has been still remained but the succession of technique has been disconnected and this situation led to restore the ruins difficulty. This study focuses on the masonry construction technique among the ancient techniques used on Khmer ruins and determines what kinds of techniques were imposed. Furthermore, this study considers how each technique had been used and changed with the times. The object of investigation is the 36 of Khmer brick the structures were built from 7th to 10th century. According to the survey results, common technique had been used annually and the changed technique had been used by lapse of time. The common technique is called by ‘the grid-masonry technique’ that is the adhesive face would be rubbed each other and stick to construct and to use ‘the completed brick’ that is last member of framework. The other hands, we observed the changed techniques that make a height balance between floors and adapt a grade of wall horizontally with time. Then, we survey the masonry brick pattern and the ended technique with plaster mortar for find out the relationship with the alteration of masonry brick technique.
Da-Hong Wang is a Taiwanese architect who is the leader of the modern architectural movement in Taiwan. The architectural philosophy of Wang shows an idea which originates from Chinese culture. In the aspect of design, Wang's works also show a strong relationship with Chinese residences, especially Suzhou's residences, which he had experience with. This paper is focusing on the experiences in Chinese residences which can be extracted from Wang's discourses and attempts to realize how these came to be, by understanding the structure of Suzhou's residences' space. Also, this paper will discuss the meaning of Wang's aforementioned experiences and intends to clarify Wang's idea of “Chinese” from the aspect of space.
This research analyzes discussions regarding the development of public laundries as a part of social work in Korea under Japanese colonial rule. 48 public laundries were intensively established in the 1920s. Per the public laundry plans, there are similarities and differences between facilities. In sum, construction plans were not standardized. During this period, it was also recommended that traditional white Korean clothes be dyed in colors. Establishing public laundries and introducing incentives for the dyeing of white Korean clothes were supposed to be two measures to solve problems of the laundry concerning traditional white Korean clothes.
The following are the study's four foci of analysis: 1. There is a systematic structure to the learning contents in the field of housing. 2. The structure comprises the concept of housing, the act of residing, rules that control the act (e.g., policies), etc. 3. There are inadequacies in the content on construction and the act of owning that takes into account the social character of housing. 4. Learning contents in the field of housing at the elementary school level are limited and do not possess a systematic structure.