Mechanistic analyses by thc free-association method and semantic analyses by the KJ method relating to the sound environment in multi-family dwellings were conducted based on freely-offered opinions recorded in a space provided at the bottom of a questionnaire survey carried out at thirteen multi-family public housing estates. As a result, we were able to gain a comprehension of key words and key items relating to the sound environment of multifamily dwelling in daily use by the occupants and obtained an important key to understanding the overall conceptual structure of occupant consciousness. Furthermore, it also became possible gain an understanding by consolidating the conceptual structure of resident awareness and linking it to the relationship between thc evervdav life of the occupants and the properties of the dwelling unit.
The appearance of objects that comprise a landscape are greatly affected by luminous environment. Because the individual objects generally have different luminous environments, the appearance of each color differs from the object color. First, we measured the colors seen when viewing a landscape - which we refer to as landscape constituent colors - and compared them with the object colors. The result revealed that landscape constituent colors have unstable values because of the considerable difference between a landscape's overall luminous environment and the luminous environments of individual objects. Next, whether the relationship among individual objects' landscape constituent colors differs from the relationship among individual objects' object color, it was found that a considerable difference does exist, and that this difference is effected by such factors as an object's orientation relative to the light source, the object's threedimensional configuration, its reflective characteristics and so on.
Indoor of a membrane structure, there is natural brightness through the polytetra fluorine ethylene membrane. However, in winter season it is difficult to keep it in a snow cold area. Then snow removal is necessary for it and in order to security the reduction of snow load should be practiced usually. In this paper, we studied about a control method of real time snow melting operation by using the test membrane structure, in Iiyama city of Nagano Pref., which is a special heavy snowfall area in Japan. We obtained the following results. (1) The method of cluster analysis of snowfall data was effective towards the patternization of snowfall. And the characteristics of snowfall in Iiyama were obtained clearly. (2) We analyzed the heat quantities for melting the snow over the top in snowing, and proposed the control method of real time snow melting operation. (3) We applied control by using fuzzy regression analysis as prediction control system, and showed that fuzzy prediction control based on the possibility presumption model of snowfall was useful to real time snow melting operation.
Steady state mean concentrations of a tracer gas were measured in a 300:1 scale model of an idealized city with variable geometry placed within a wind tunnel at various orientations to the same mean flow (free stream velocity of 1.5 m/s). The tracer gas, ethane, was released from two or four paralle line sources to simulate traffic at an urban intersection to quantify the pollution at street level. It was shown that 1) Surface concentrations are greatest for ambient winds parallel to the street (0=0°) and lowest for the wind direction 0=45°. 2) Large buildings may cause low concentrations in their immediate vicinities because of the intensification of winds they generate. Such large buildings may cause relatively high concentrations in the surrounding areas because of stagnation which occurs uo-wind and down-wind of them.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of indoor planting on CO_2 concentration. As a first step of the study, CO_2 mass balance was calculated by the model including photosynthesis and respiration of indoor plants. Through the analysis of variance, leaf index was found out to be the most important factor affecting on the CO_2 concentration. Then CO_2 concentrations were measured in 2 types of ariums, and the effects of indoor plantings were comfirmed.
This paper describes the characteristics of energy consumption on 7 types of buildings (office, shopping store, school, hospital, hotel, community center, sports facility) in Fukuoka and Kitakyushu, based on the data which were obtained by means of questioinnaires conducted from 1992 through 1994. First, fundamental informations of buildings and HVAC systems on 833 existing buildings were analyzed for general aspects of each building type. Next, the data of annual primary energy consumption per floor area on 105 buildings were classified into some groups according to the factors which characterized the buildings and their HVAC systems, to analyze the correlations between the energy consumption and the general aspects of the buildings and the HVAC systems. Finally, the annual variation of monthly energy consumption were examined for each building type. By comparing the analytic results in Fukuoka and Kitakyushu with those in other districts such as Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya, it was known that there were the significant differences between Fukuoka- Kitakyushu district and metropolises about the general aspects of buildings and their HVAC systems and the characteristics of energy consumption.
There is a need for diagnostic technology to accurately note symptoms before turbo chillers lead to an equipment failure. This report models the relationship between the failure states and the causes of faults for quantitatively detecting symptoms in turbo chillers, and compares the differences in the operational dynamic characteristics of turbo chillers. It was found that the presence or absence of preventive maintenance brings about a significant difference in the temperature efficiency of condenser tube and the difference between the calculated condensing temperature using ASHIZAWA's Eq. and the actual condensing temperature. Therefore, their dynamic characteristics are important as diagnostic knowledge.
Two kinds of experiment were carried out for analysis of river landscapes. At the first experiment, the 240 color slides were presented to the subjects in order to evaluate the river landscapes. These slides were classified into 11 types by the cluster analysis. Also, the general images of a river landscape were evaluated by the Semantic Differential Method, and 3 factors of the images were selected by the factor analysis. At the second experiment, the reperesentative 6 types selected from the 11 types were analyzed for getting the detailed evaluation by the method of paired comparison. After comparison of these results, the relationships between the evaluation and the elements composing the landscapes were clarified.
There are 2 types of exercise course that each student works at his lesson corresponding with a personal computer and usual type lesson in an ordinary lecture room. Students experienced these both lessons, recognize that they understand the explanations in an ordinary lecture room better than another. But they still hope to attend the 'using computer' course. This fact is very suggestive in designing lessons and making up computer programs. Here, the author will state the response of the students and add further the importance of considering 'Knowledge of Results' in this kind of lessons.
The English living room came into existence in proposals of the cottages for farm labourers at the end of the eighteenth century. The cottage drew their attention from two standpoints, of social reformism and picturesque. The main point of the former was that the cottager should establish the minimum order of their domestic life by the separation of the function for sleeping from one-room dwelling. The main point of the latter in connection with a living room was criticism of conventional formalism. H. Repton insisted on the conversion of the communication space from a parlour to a living room from this viewpoint even in the upper class houses.
This study is concernedwith the environmental transition that accompanies due to a natural disaster. In the restoration house, adaptation gaps were identified as having to do with the impact of the disaster and the degreeof self-house recovery. Elderly people were especially vulnerable. The trauma of the disaster and "loss of community" rendered them incapable arranging their residential space well. The effects of the relocation increase with severity and duration of exposure to traumatic events and the lack of control over their environment. Successful relocation not only depends on the physical reconstruction of the house, but more importantly, on the victims' active participation in the process of rebuilding their homes.
The aim of this paper is to consider the problems faced by a multi-purpose public hall that arranges it's own activities. In the case of Nagoya City Arts Center, activity management itself must be well appreciated. But because the resources of the hall are limited, this positive attitude to cope with various needs brings up another dilemma. In order to elucidate it's role and to elaborate the effective operational strategies, it is necessary to conduct more detailed studies focused on the open network of creative activities in the region.
We defined the unit called "the Research Organization Unit" as basic unit consisting of staffs and students for research in the faculty of engineering. This study is analyses of the area of rooms, the formation of members and the evaluation of the area of the research organization units. The results are as follows; 1) 0ne third of the research organization units prossess the rooms for common use with other units. 2) The staffs of 80% research organization units are dissatisfied with the area of their rooms. 3) In case of the area per person is under 16 m^2, the rate of the research organization units whose staffs are disssatisfied with the area is over 50%. It is necessary that the area of research organization units are claimed based on a number of menbers.
There exist many ideas and real cases of movable building constructions in these days. For example. movable domed roof, movable partition and so on. These movable building constructions aim at corresponding to the change of demand for buildings. But there are only a few studies on movable building constructions in the general. In this study, we apply the theory on buiIding construction system, which we have been studying, to movable building constructions. We analyzed from several viewpoints and classified movable building constructions systematically.
We surveyed the roof construction of western-style buildings during the Meiji period at Nagasaki, especially the process of modernization about the trussed roof construction imported as western technique. On this paper we report the results of survey about roof construction of eleven western-style buildings. Dealing with shape, size and surface of roof trusses and the details of joints, it revealed that the use of western trusses is fluctuated according to the architects and the knowledge of carpenters.
This study is to examine structural dimensions from the viewpoint of interpersonal distance. Two experiments were executed in order to understand a scale of the psychological territory in a horizontal plane. Two kinds of scale were used at the experiments. 0ne is about personal space (comfortable scale), the other is about a distance having a conversation (conversation scale). The results of the experiments were summarized as follows : 1) If the floor space of the experimental room became smaller, the size of the psychological territory also became smaller. 2) If the height of ceiling of the experimental room became lower, the size of the psychological territory tend large. 3) The men's psychological territories against their own sex are larger than the women's. 4) The right distance between subjects having a conversation is 1.5m. 5) If the personal distance is more than 1.5m, less than 50% subjects wanted to apart from the other person.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the relation between the form and the sensuous volume of the space between two buildings. We made experiments using a space simulator which enables us to observe scale models from eye level. In case of keeping the capacity of the space between two buildings, The sensuous volume is influenced by following factors: 1) The ratio of the distance between buildings and the length of the building, and the slant of the wall on the external point. 2) The height of the bulling, the distance and the angle between the buildings on the internal point.
Composition of elements gives us a sense of direction in architectural space. This is one of the most important aspects in architectural design. This research starts from finding an interesting relationship between the usage of Japanese word "MAE (in front of )" and the sense of direction. That is, the place assigned by expression "in front of the object" is located between observer and the object if the object has not an ability producing a sense of direction, and the assigned place by the expression is determined only by direction of the object if the object has the ability. We call this ability producing a sense of direction "directionability". Using the relationship we can check the dirctionability of various objects. After the confirmation of this relationship through psychological experiment, using this relationship, we checked the ability of some objects including interior furnitures. As results of experiment, we found that there are some types of factors of directionabilty.
This paper examines the influence of demographic change on hospital beds allocation. First, we employ a cohort components method of population projection for each municipality. A morbidity model converts these population estimates into demand for hospitalization. Second, we estimate a multinominal logit model of hospital choice. Third, we carry out an optimal hospital bed allocation under maximizing social welfare defined by utility function of logit model. The policy implication of our findings given the changing structure of the population, is the need to re-allocate available hospital beds.
This paper studies dwellings of weaving craftsmen in Nishijin and the way their typical "weaving style" (ORIYA-DATE) houses could be improved, adapting to the changing needs of stages in family life. Though more than half of the usually small 0RIYA-DATE house is used as a work space, inhabitants try to enlarge their room for living. But, many problems still remain. The present paper examines further improvement ideas. Drastic measures such as completely changing the position of toilet and kitchen or rebuilding the roof, presented opportunities for a more effective use of dinning room for relaxed eating and bed room for more privacy.
Ocha-ya was a lodging used by feudal lords in Shonai-han in Edo era. Kiyokawa was located at the eastern edge of Shonai-han and there was a Ocha-ya in Kiyokawa. The main part of Kiyokawa Ocha-ya was composed of Bansho, Goima and cookroom. On the way from Tsuruoka (the capital of Shonai-han) to Edo,the lord of Shonai-han lodged at this Ocha-ya and changed overland way for waterway. The main Kate of Kiyokawa Ocha-ya faced Mogami river and the back Rate faced Kiyokawa town.
In this paper, I studied about plans of a house and their functions such as teacher's domitory, executive office dormitory, student's self-study room, auditorium and dining room of "Danrin" (schools of priest) called Kansai Matugasaki of Hokke Sect founded in modern ages. Furthermore, as for the arrangement of fundamental Compound of Danrin----an auditorium and Nohke-Ryoh (teacher's domitory) and a dining rocm are arranged at the center of the grounds. And since Bantoh-Ryoh (exective office dormitory) is arranged to the left side and teacher's domitory is arranged to the right side in front of the center of building, I elucidated the reasons for arrangements.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify all of the styles and characteristics of "Kakezukuri" during the Edo period in Japan. The contents of this paper are as follows: Introduction I) "Kakezukuri" built on the mountains. II) From the mountains to the flatland (city) 1) Imitations of the style of The "KIYOMIZU DERA (TEMPLE)" and "BASE DERA (TEMPLE)". 2)"Kakezukuri" built in the garden. Conclusion.
The amusement hall of Ogoe designed by Wajiro Kon is an important instance to suggest new rural amusement of theatergoing. The study of this amusement hall is significant to grasp the activities of Wajiro Kon during the latter years of Taisho-era. The time of the design of the amusement hall was in parallel with the beginnings of his Modernology. The theatrical eye closely related to prewar theatrical movement from Taisho-era to the early Showa-era, caused the chain reaction to architectural activities of prewar Waseda University, such as housing life research, theatrical history research, acostic research and designs of auditoriums.
Three phases are recoenized in the project of Collegio Romano of Jesuit Company. Considering the "Constitution" and the real plans for their "collegio" through Italy, it is not acceptable the idea of existing a particular form followed later projects, in the second project. "Modo nostro" should be meant by Laynez, the Second General, that is sufficient functionally for their activity, and that is realized their will by simple designs. In the second project, it is obvious Ammannati's participation. It should be in regard to the artistic design, and Valeriano took charge of the whole plan in this phase.
By means of the triangulation and the numerical analysis, we have calculated geometrical factors of the circular setting lines found on the 6th century part of the cornice of the main dome of Hagia Sophia. Our results are: 1) the two setting lines, one on the north, the other on the south, can be regarded as arcs of two different circles; 2) these arcs, geometrically accurate as they are, show a very slight undulation with rescect to the perfect arc; 3) the radius of the north setting line is 15.303 (±0.010)m and that of the south 15.307 (±0.005)m; 4) the north and south arcs are not concentric, the distance of their centers being 3.338m; 5) the error assessment about the measurement shows that these values are more reliable than those presented by Van Nice and Mainstone.
In this report we discuss about the meaning of the Boundary Space. This research is based on the novel "KUSAMAKURA" as a literary text and written by Soseki NATSUME. We selected four places as the Boundary Space. 'YAMAMICHI' has the meaning of 間 (ま), where the place can assimilate with the nature and get purified spirit, thus people can visualize or anticipate the proceeding space. 'CHAYA' is the junction where two different worlds get through and at the same time, this is the place where Substantial Space and Insubstantial Space coexist. 'YADO' means 境, where we can get the spirit of 境. This is the place where Substantial Space and Insubstantial Space can be exchanged. 'RIVER' has the meaning of the third space where Insubstantial Space is in the process of being shaped into Substantial Space. In conclusion, it can be noted that the four different types of Boundary Space have different meaning of each representative place. Likewise, although there are several different Boundary Spaces exists in architectural space, this different space has all different meanings.
This study will attempt to clarify the development and changes of types of Plans based on the resultant reconstruction. From these, it is possible to deduce the reasons for changes and trace the development of the PlaNs. Most of the memorial cloisters built in the late modern age, from Bunka [文化] 4 (1807) to Kaei [嘉永] 7 (1854), show the same development of sanctuaries and verandas as those of the mid-modern age (Genroku [元禄] 6 (1693)〜Kansei [寛政] 9 (1797)). For example, the floors of the veranda on three sides of some buildings were changed from wooden boards to tatami (畳) mats, transforming the function of veranda to that of a sayanoma (鞘の間). The employment of 1.5 ken (間) veranda on the left and right sides of the building is also seen. In other cases, the front of the innermost sanctuary of some memorial cloisters were remodeled for placement of the carved statue of the cloister founder. Also in this period, some memorial cloisters had the rear of the sanctuary expanded out.