Falls and femoral fractures are one of the most serious problems for an elderly daily life, these causes the possibility to become bedridden or forced to move to an elderly facility from their home. However, ways of falling and continuing to dwell in own houses by changing the architectural environment for the elderly people were unknown. The whole study revealed the measures of fall prevention by architectural ways at home and the purpose of this part was to clarify the architectural factors which related to falls and femoral fractures in their houses from the viewpoint of fall prevention.
This study had two steps. First, interview in hospital was conducted when elderly patients went into the University of Tokyo Hospital after they experienced falls and femoral fractures. In this interviews, basic information of patients and situation of falls were collected also by using clinical information. Second, tracking investigation by home-visit interview or interview in hospital was conducted after they went back home and it included measurement of fall places.
The average age of 43 patients was 80.9 (SD 8.3) years old, the number of female was 34 (the average age was 80.6, SD 7.8) and that of male was 9 (the average age was 81.8, SD 10.4). First interviews showed that falls which caused femoral fracture happened all over places but the number of falls at home was biggest, 17 cases in 43 cases. In the houses, the number of falls at bedroom was 6 cases, at the corridor was 4 cases and at the living room was 3 cases. All 6 falls at the night time occurred going to or going back from toilet at home. In six types of falls, the number of falling by internal forces was biggest and next was falling by external forces. Fall cases at home had four types of falls. By analysis of each fall case in the house, architectural factors which caused falls and the effective architectural measures against falls were revealed. In addition, falls at home related to toilet had high risk for falls in spite of fall types and these results indicated that it was important to consider the routes and behaviors when falls happened. The home-visit interview revealed that these routes and behaviors related to housing plan such as the locations of bed and types or directions of doors. The actual routes at falls were showed on housing plane figure, how people rotated in the architectural spaces before they fell was revealed. From these second investigation, the ways of renovation which will prevents next fall at home was clarified.
This research showed the ways of falls which caused femoral fractures for the elderly in their houses and the possibility for the ways of architectural fall preventions by multidisciplinary specialists including architecture, medicine, nursing and physical therapy. In the next step, how people renovated their houses after they went back home in long-term care insurance system and who were involved with these renovation will be researched.
In this research, authors will clarify the transformation process and the present condition of the historical block of Beijing Outer Castle as a series of researches on urban fabric. The objective of this article is to evaluate living environment of Xuanxibei district, focusing on the space formation of da-za-yuan based on field studies. Xuanxibei district is designated for ‘Cordination Area of Historic Landscape’, but also for ‘Peng-hu-qu, Area’ to be improved. The district still maintains the traditional house type called si-he-yuan, but most of them is occupied by several families.
The major points which this article clarifies are the following.
1. There are many historical cultural heritages in Beijing Outer Castle where five “Historical Cultural Reserve Areas” and three “Historical Appearance Cooperative Areas” are designated. On the other hand, most of large-scale traditional courtyard house sìhéyuàn were occupided by many families and “Peng-hu-qu” which is consisted of many ‘peng-hu-fang’(small dwelling unit) was formed. Targeted study area Xuanxibei is a district designated both as a “Historical Cultural Reserve Areas” and a “Peng-hu-qu”’, and is a district that requires immediate living environment improvement.
2. In Xuanxibei district, the street network is not as neat as the inner castle at the stage of Qianlong Jingcheng Quantu（1750）and there are many vacant lands. Since the end of the 18th century, halls and the sìhéyuàn were gradually built, forming a curved street network. As of 1955, the entire district was almost completely built, and the same street network as the present was established. The street is divided into 3 levels. a street where stalls and stalls selling vegetables and fruits come and go, a street for residents to pass through, and a street leading to each dwelling house.
3. As shown in Fig. 5. The whole area is densely populated, and many of the daily activities like the public trash cans, public toilets and private storage etc. are carried out in the streets and community facilities. It is necessary to consider improvement of the living environment besides clearance type redevelopment.
4. Since the establishment of the People's Republic of China, many people flow into Xuanxibei district. As of 1955, the form of sìhéyuàn was maintained, but it gradually became a "large miscellaneous house" in which several families coexist. "Peng-hu-fang" has been rapidly increasing since the early 1960s. When moving in, it is a one-room residence or two-room residence, and then a kitchen, bathroom, warehouse, etc. are added between the courtyard and the adjacent house.
5. The district government and developers are promoting a redevelopment project, but have not progressed as planned. The forced evictions of the residents and the demolition of their homes were the main causes of the people's backlash. In addition, the number of 2287 units requested to move make it difficult to form a consensus.
It would be unrealistic to inflate all the residents and redevelop the entire district, as it would be costly to compensate. Due to the building restrictions, the volume can not be increased, and there is little benefit for developers. In order to revitalize the district, a new method of improving the living environment at the on-site may be necessary. Further investigation is needed as to what will happen to Xuanxibei district.
This research is based on the questionnaire survey of residents in remodeled detached houses that were built after 1981. Analyzing satisfaction and implementation details in terms of two aspects – different cost ranges of remodeling, and whether the remodeling projects had been carried out with / without enhanced thermal insulation – we found the following points.
First, from the analysis of difference according the cost ranges, three points become clear: 1) regardless of the cost ranges, many respondents carried out remodeling triggered by “turning point of repairing” or “aged deterioration or breakdown of facilities”, on the other hand, the percentage of people who triggered by “changes in family structure and life stage” grows in higher cost ranges; 2) remodeling contents are not often added to the initial considerations, but the final cost often exceeds the initial budget, especially for high-priced remodeling; 3) the group that carried out high-priced remodeling had been dissatisfied with the housing performance before the remodeling, and the importance at remodeling was high for many items of housing performance. Furthermore, after remodeling, the degree of satisfaction was increased. It is considered that they are realizing the improvement effect by remodeling.
Second, from the analysis of remodeling with / without enhanced thermal insulation, the three points become clear: 1) About 20% of the group that carried out enhanced thermal insulation added “enhancing heat insulation of windows or frames” to the initial considerations, based on their own requests during the process or on proposal from their contractor. The amount of cost increase compared to initial budget is also larger than the group that didn’t carry out enhanced thermal insulation; 2) the group that carried out enhanced thermal insulation had been dissatisfied with the thermal / energy performance before the remodeling, and the importance at remodeling was high. After remodeling, the degree of satisfaction was increased, especially in “warmth in winter”. It is considered that they are realizing the improvement of thermal environment by remodeling; 3) more than 20% of the group that didn’t carry out enhanced thermal insulation is eager to carry out “enhancing heat insulation of windows or frames” in the future. In addition, after remodeling, there are a certain number of respondents who are dissatisfied with thermal environment in winter, and we have concluded that their motivation of thermal insulation remodeling can be improved by appropriate suggestions.
In order to promote the implementation of thermal insulation remodeling in the future, an information provision method that encourages proactive proposals by contractors is necessary.
The space, function, and equipment levels required for day care facilities for the elderly are being upgraded because various elderly people use these facilities, including those requiring a high degree of care. Hence, the subject is the reorganization of service functions and the space composition of the facilities. However, under the present circumstances, the functional training room and the dining room, where the floor spaces are large, serve as the saucer. Therefore, it is necessary to regulate the actual utilization of the functional training room and dining room.
This paper aims to explain the features of room usage for leases and juxtaposition day care facilities for the elderly by regulating the plan composition and corner arrangement pattern of the main room, considering the function of the room. The results are as follows:
1) The plan compositions of the main room were classified into the MW type, in which the flooring space and the Japanese-style space form one room, the Mw type, which has a straw-matted floor with no partition in the main room, and the M type, which lacks space for a straw mat. Small-scale facilities are generally of the MW type. It has the advantage of dividing one room into two spheres. The Mw type has only a main room, with straw-matted floor spaces indoors, and the tatami space is considered the place for the elderly to talk, relax, and nap. The M/S type plan has a main room with flooring and a separate sub-room. The main room is used for free time, functional training, and meals, but there is only one separate sub-room, so correspondence is required in case places for naps are insufficient.
2) The corners provided in the main room were regulated as follows. Free time, functional training, meals, and naps were selected as the fundamental corner, and the places for training, office work, table setting, preparation, and relaxation were situated at the corners. Since most facilities provided a nap corner, reserving a nap space is considered important. Relaxation space, used for rehabilitation or for users to spend free time, is also secured aside from the appointed seat. The institution rates of office and table setting corners are high, and the diversity of functionality of the main room, including management, is highlighted.
3) Based on the relationship between the function and the place, the arrangement of the corner was set to either the LT affiliation, where the same sphere was used for meals and functional training, or the L+T affiliation, where the two spheres were divided. LT affiliation facilities are the main type, accounting for 70% or more. Additionally, there is much plan composition, especially of the MW type, in small-scale facilities. The FTN+N type of corner arrangement is used. Although there are few facilities of the L+T affiliation, corner arrangements of the FL+FTN or FL+FT+N type, where spheres were differentiated for meals and functional training, and the selection branch of the place for free time was collateralized exist. Additionally, users who relaxed at both corners during bathing and leisure time or naptime were seen. If a suitable arrangement of the nap corner where privacy were secured is possible, it will become the effective corner setting method of the main room.
Peter Hall wrote, in the history of the green belt idea in Britain there have been several possible objectives of green belt policy: “one is pure containment: the idea of stopping towns growing any larger”(o1, hereafter); “another is to give adequate access to the countryside for recreation of townspeople”(o2, hereafter); and “a third is …to preserve agriculture and a rural way of life”(o3, hereafter), while there are also several different forms of green belt: “at one extreme, a narrow green belt”(f1, hereafter), and “at the other extreme, the countryside can be preserved in toto, with urban development allowed at intervals against a green background” (f2, hereafter).
In July 1924, the International Federation for Town and Country Planning and Garden Cities held an international town planning conference in Amsterdam and passed seven resolutions, the third of which said “it is desirable for the built-up parts of cities to be enclosed by green belts intended for, and to remain set apart for agriculture and horticulture, cattle breeding, etc. in order to prevent the formation of endless seas of houses”.
In 1938, the Urban Planning Tokyo Local Committee proposed a plan of a narrow circular greenbelt of two kilometers wide (f1) around the City of Tokyo “for the prevention of over-grown city” (o1).
After World War Two, some speculated that the prototype of the Tokyo Circular Green Belt was the third resolution of the Amsterdam conference. Thereafter, this view has been widely accepted in Japan. However, among the Japanese planners being involved in plan-making process of the Tokyo Circular Green Belt plan, only few people including Toitsu Takahashi at the Urban Planning Tokyo Local Committee, and Kouma Matsumura, the Planning Director of the Interior Ministry, referred to the third resolution. Saburo Kimura, who studied the history of London Green Belt Plan and was also involved in the Tokyo Circular Green Belt Plan, did not mention the third resolution at all. And the planner Kazumi Iinuma, who introduced the Amsterdam resolutions into Japan and repeatedly referred to them, did not present the third resolution as the prototype. The fundamental problem of this hypothesis is the lack of verification: it has not yet analyzed the background of the third resolution through the Amsterdam conference minutes.
This paper refutes the prevailing view by analyzing the green belt ideas of Howard, Purdom, the conference resolutions, Unwin’s Greater London Regional Planning Committee’s report as well as those of the Japanese planners from the 1920s to the 1940s, and reaches the following conclusions:
(1) The third resolution proposed not “a ring-like narrow green belt (f1) to contain a large city (o1)”, but the continuous agricultural areas against which garden cities would constantly multiply (f2, o3).
(2) In the Greater London Regional Planning Committee’s Second Report in 1933, Unwin introduced a green girdle, or a narrow green belt (f1) for containment (o3) as well as the recreational use (o2).
(3) The Tokyo Circular Green Belt Plan was made with reference to Raymond Unwin’s Greater London Regional Planning Committee’s reports. Hence, the prototype was not the third resolution but Unwin’s report 1933.
(4) Hajime Seki and Kazumi Iinuma, reading the conference minutes, got interested in preserving agricultural land as well as recreational space. They proposed the preservation of both lands by establishing a new zoning system.
After world war II, many housing complexes consist of industrialised and mass-produced apartment housings were built around the world. At present, several decades after its initial development, due to its physical ageing and changing residents’ needs, the living environment has been required to be regenerated. This study clarifies the regeneration process of open space, focusing on the relationship between the municipality and the residents in Jizni Mesto, one of the largest housing estates in Prague, Czech Republic.
In this research, firstly it is clarified that the current regeneration policy initiated by Prague 11 municipality and specific cases of the regeneration project by an interview with the officers of Prague 11 municipality and field survey. Next, the present situation of participation of residents using the Internet voting system for open space regeneration is clarified.
The following findings were obtained as a result of the survey. Regarding the development of large-scale open space, it was necessary to coordinate with multiple stakeholders, such as the city administration and various landowners, and the regeneration is planned as a long-term project.
About small-scale open space regeneration projects, each target site is considered for a short period and individually, taking into account the relationship between the target site usage, the needs of neighbouring residents, and surrounding buildings. There are differences in the handling of open space components. Ageing utilities such as bench and wastebasket are planned to replace to new ones, but artwork such as sculpture and trees that have grown over time have inherited their existing context through preservation and regeneration. Besides, the accumulation of daily life that has been formed in the neighbourhood until today, which was not originally planned, such as desire path, was also incorporated into the regeneration design. In addition, the implementation of regeneration projects reﬂected not only the use of residents but also public involvement efforts such as gathering opinions directly on the target areas and incorporating local student designs.
The regeneration project by the Internet citizen participation system can be seen as a tool which residents can actively participate in the regeneration process of open spaces where the municipality have not paid attention by making proposals for regeneration.
From these results, the relationship between the municipality’s regeneration policies and the residents can be summarised as follows. It can be said that residents have various access ways to open space regeneration. At the same time, as a means of participation in the regeneration of open space, there are options with variations in the density of the way of involvement. These projects are on the way, and the management method has not been completely established, but including the improvement process, residents can enhance the literacy of public involvement. If it is possible, even if the management of the open spaces is in an unstable situation, such as a change in the administrative structure in short period, there is a potential that the residents will keep playing an important role in future regeneration. However, at the same time, when opportunities for public involvement are used for private benefit, it may be necessary to consider the possibility that profits are provided only to some areas where inﬂuential residents live.
In recent years, a large number of new office buildings are continuously being constructed in the central business district (CBD) of Tokyo, stimulated by the latest deregulation policies. Conversely, office centers that are relatively far from the city center face a tough market environment: many facilities are over 30 years old, and reinvestment is needed. However, there are many cases where large-scale reinvestment cannot be expected in office centers that are outside of the city center, because the convenience of railways is inferior to that of the CBD.
In such a context, this study analyzes the renewal cases of business districts led by private companies in Tennoz, Shinagawa city, Tokyo Metropolis. In Tennoz, the value of the area has increased through the continual small-scale incremental reinvestment by private companies without relying on large-scale reinvestment (hereinafter referred to as “small-scale continuous upgrading”). We examine the effect of small-scale continuous upgrading on the reconstruction of area value from the three aspects of “tenant industry”, “average rent”, and “area image”. The findings obtained are as follows:
1) Tennoz can be divided into two areas: “Bond Street Area” where small-scale continuous upgrading efforts has been concentrated and “Large Office Area” where it has not. In “Large Office Area”, reinvestment has been mostly limited to those related to the hardware performance of office buildings. On the other hand, reinvestment in the “Bond Street Area” has actively promoted maintenance that is not directly related to business functions, such as beautification of facades and pavements, enhancement of planting and art, and attraction of commercial facilities.
2) We compared tenant industry changes and rent changes between the two areas. In the “Large Office Area”, the main tenant industry has changed from manufacturing to wholesale and retail. Although the rent was high at the beginning of development, rents have been sluggish since then, as large companies representing the region moved out. On the other hand, in the “Bond Street Area”, rents were low at the beginning of development, but recently creative businesses such as advertising design firms have flowed in, so rents have risen.
3) Tennoz was recognized as a modern and high-quality office area until the late 1990s. In the 2000s, key tenants flowed out of the area, and the image of a declining office area became prevalent. In the 2010s however, upgrading activities at Bond Street were widely recognized, and the local image as an artistic quarter spread and became established.
From the above results, it was confirmed that the small-scale continuous upgrading process in Tennoz improved the regional value in all aspects of “tenant industry”, “rent” and “area image”.
This paper focuses on Japanese version of compact city plan, Richi-Tekiseika-Keikaku in Japanese, which aims at making more compact urban area than existing one by implementing limited residential area, Kyoju-Yudou-Kuiki, and urban activity area, Toshi-Kinou-Yudou-Kuiki. The limited residential area is one that a citizen can build her house outside of the area but must resister only when she would build more than three houses together or one thousand square meters. So, the area is not strict enough to control urban expansion due to unwillingness of public sector to handle private property right. The urban activity area is one that make various urban activities concentrated into the area, expecting citizens to relocate themselves near there. Therefore, with this two concepts, compact city would be realized systematically and logically. However, we think that it would be necessary to try to make the limited residential area compact by making existing urban activities within the area, not being naive to think that encouraging urban activities to be relocated into urban activity area can lead people to near there and ultimately compact urban area would be realized. We tried to identify which activity could lure citizens to move when the activity would decide to be relocated near or into the urban activity area. We collected population and urban activity data and formatted them into 500m meshes. With these data, we calculated Coefficient of Variation (CV) and did statistical analysis to find out how much each municipality feasibly set numerical goals for compact urban area. It would be unrealistic to pursue making resident area more compact with only one single urban activity’s relocation and need combining several urban activities’ relocations. We proposed PDCA cycle management, Plan – Do – Check – Action, to reach at compact city goal.
In the USA, central cities once became hollow and suburban sprawl expanded since 1960’s, and large decrease and decay had experienced during 70’s and 80’s. While housing and urban policies has developed, the system of community initiative organization or Community Development Corporation (CDC), was one by one structured and it had made great achievement after the latter half of 80’s. And now there are more than 4, 600 CDCs throughout the states. CDCs are grass roots organizations and within the declining aspect, which is any private investors or public institutes may withdraw, they can revitalize buildings or areas with its legal, tax, and financial advantages.
South Bronx is the target in this research, which is situated in the south of Borough of the Bronx, NYC. There is no other city in the states that a city once extremely devastated and then dramatically regenerated. Within the worst adversity, residents rose up, governments, administrations, politicians, journalists, and bankers or specialists on finances were joined, and South Bronx became a social experimental site that produced many new and advanced systems and organization structures.
In this research, it focuses on the organizing process of CDCs in South Bronx. It also aims to clarify the system how it can be effective in the declining phase. This researches were mainly done with the investigations on related documents and the field surveys at South Bronx.
In the second chapter, the organizing process is arranged into five periods in reference to social background and the housing policy changes, and this organizing process are disclosed. The grassroots residential activities rather invented the local revitalizing process and these small ‘neighborhood’ activities had gradually become effective. In the third chapter, through interview surveys done with CDCs in South Bronx, the roles of organizations such as CDCs, supporting organizations and networks are described. Four types of organizations are listed and organized as follows: 1. Predecessor organizations of CDC, 2. Supporting organizations CDC’s development, 3. CDCs towed South Bronx regeneration and 4. Supporting organizations of CDC’s projects. The forth chapter works out CDC’s system and project scheme for affordable housings.
As it was described in this research, the major characteristics of CDC’s advantage is that indirect and incentive ingenuities such as rental support of Section 8, tax credit of Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) and Red-lining prohibition. These become a system inviting private investment and giving the financial stabilities to CDC’s affordable housing schemes, and that can make urban revitalization possible even in the difficult and declining phase of cities.
This study aims to clarify the features of poor conditioned houses and the residents' consciousness about house conditions and cleaning management of houses, and propose the method to improve the house conditions based on these features. We studied a new town in far suburban area because these areas face a rapid population declining and increasing vacant houses. We selected Hatoyama New Town in Saitama Prefecture, which is located approx. 50 km from Tokyo station. Hatoyama New Town was constructed from 1973 to 1996, and is divided into three areas according to development periods.
First development area is the oldest area which is constructed from 1973 to 1976, and third area is the newest which is constructed from 1981 to 1996. We conducted field survey of all houses conditions, and distributed questionnaire survey to all 3185 households. First, we checked conditions of all houses based on the check list of poor-conditioned conditions, and it was found from the result that the percentage of poor-conditioned houses is only 4.3% in Hatoyama New Town. Therefore, the house environments of Hatoyama New Town are not so bad at the moment. The most common poor conditioned places of houses are gardens, and those are overgrown weeds and branches. We found the ratio of poor conditioned houses are different according to the periods of the development, the distance from the center area of the New town, and degree of inclination of sloping land. The result shows most poor-conditioned houses exist in first development area, especially in both distance and sloping places.
Secondly, we conducted questionnaire survey and analyzed the residents' consciousness about house conditions, cleaning activities, sense of difficulties of house cleaning and management. It was found from the result that the ratio of residents who clean rooms less than once a month is 8.2%, and the ratio of residents who feel difficulties at house cleaning and maintenance is 61.2%. More than half of the residents feel that it is difficult to keep the gardens in good conditions. We also grasped residents’ ages, household numbers, site area and number of rooms of each house. We found that residents who clean rooms at low frequency are under 60 years old or over 85 years old, or live alone. Besides, the residents both who feel difficulties of cleaning and maintenance of houses and who evaluate their own house cleaning and maintenance activities lower are also under 60 years old or over 85 years old, or live alone. Those residents feel difficulties especially for weeds and trees management in gardens. More than eighty percent of residents have awareness of house conditions problem and vacant problem. Therefore, it is necessary to make support system of cleaning and maintenance of houses.
We mentioned the abilities of residential environmental management and the people who are under 60 years old or over 85 years old, or live alone have low abilities of the management. On the other hands, more than seventy percent of residents who are over 60 to 84 years old have support will for other houses and gardens cleaning and keeping. So we propose area support system of residential environmental area management. The residents who have willingness to support other residents support the residents who has difficulties about gardens cleaning and control, and convey the enjoyment of working in gardens.
Eight and a half years have passed since the explosion of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Two years and two months have passed since the cancellation of the evacuation order in Odaka Ward of Minami-Soma City. In rural area of this region, a unit of a district, whose origin dates back to the Middle Ages, has been a base for the ordinary life including the collaboration for agriculture, clean-up of roads and some community facilities, a festival, common cemetery and so on. Each district has a mayor of their own and collects some money from each family, who share how to utilize and manage their lands in the district. In Odaka ward, there are thirty-nine districts.
By focusing on Urajiri District, this case study clarified the influences of the explosion by following the transformation from the old times, just after the evacuation until now. There were about one hundred households and half of them left. Because Urajiri District locates along the seashore and on the platform, the lowlands were flooded by Tsunami and zoned as disaster hazard area meaning that people cannot live anymore. All houses are gone and a huge public occupation including a seawall, windbreak tree plantings and temporary storages for Tsunami rubble garbage are set in lowlands. Rice-fields still wait for recovery construction from Tsunami. On the other hand, some houses without residents are left on the platform. Some agricultural fields are not in use because the drastic decrease and ageing of residents.
The most important thing is that the district tried to recover by themselves and they succeeded with some supports from external specialists. They, centered on the mayors at each time, started the process of discussion, intention survey of all residents, share the results and the contents of discussion. At last, they decided to establish a new organization by residents for management of their lands. They understand they have to change the previous way and update to fit the current situations even if the new way should be changed again before long.
This case study is very unique as a disaster area of nuclear power plant explosion, but shows us very universal knowledge that a traditional unit has autonomous power.
In South Korea, the “Sungmi-san Village Community” has been attracting attention because of its self-generating and diverse activities by various stakeholders. However, in recent years some organizations have been suspended due to gentrification, and new ideas are needed for sustainable activities. Therefore, this study concentrates on their network. When we consider that Sungmi-san Community does not have any organization to supervise or manage whole community, it is very important to understand and use network built for more than 20 years. And it might be an important clue to solve the problem.
The purpose of this study is to give insight for the overall picture of the current Sungmi-san community network. To achieve the above-mentioned purposes, the following objectives are set: First, summarizing the overall development of the "Sungmi-san Village" activities, and clarifying the changes of activity contents and meaning in every period. Second, identifying the organizational method to associate with other existing-organizations in establishing process. and considering the role and function of derivation method for each organization. Third, revealing that the entire network has evolved by methods to involve existing organizations in the establishment process of new organizations.
In this study, 60 organizations were surveyed. And organizational derivation method is classified into 6 patterns and 5 patterns is considered.
From the number of organizations and activities, each community development stage can be identified as follows: Development of educational institutions from 1994 to 1999. Deeper connection with the community from 2000 to 2003. Expansion of fields from 2004 to 2010. Development of community support organizations from 2018 to the present. Among them, 2007~2009 was a distinctive period when many organizations were established.
The five organizational derivation patterns analyzed had the following purposes or roles in each organizational activity: (i) The independence of an attached organization or project from an existing organization was the result of the development in the new fields of activity and the growth and stabilization of the business. (ii) An existing organization leads establishment process of a new organization and other organizations assist it. It can be considered as the development and practice of issues or result of discussions about problem within the organization. (iii) Three or more existing organizations cooperates equally to establish a new organization in order to solve the problems from outside of organization, develop new fields, and get synergy effect in between similar organizations.
Combining the above result with the development process of community, the following findings were found. (i)The network was developed by repeating of derivation pattern in which independence of an attached organization or project from an existing organization and cooperation of three or more organizations. (ii)Organization was promoted especially in the problem situation. In particular, many external organizations are involved in cooperation pattern of three or more organizations. By this the community tried to find new supporters and players to solve the problems.
In short, many organizations, including external organizations, collaborate to try to correct their internal organizational trajectory or solve problems of external elements, meanwhile supporting the establishment and independence of attached organizations and projects to extend community fields. It was also very clear that Sungmi Mt. protection movement which were done twice and the gentrification issue, promoted establishment of new organizations.
In the field of urban policy, creativity and creative industries have recently been attracting much attention as new driving forces for urban growth. However, previous studies have not analyzed much about the mechanism of endogenous development of creative industries in specific districts within cities.
Within such a context, we focused on small-scale apparel industries in the Uraharajuku area of Shibuya-ku, Tokyo. And we clarified the formation process of knowledge exchange "places" through the analysis of the relationship between creative workers’ activities and urban spaces. Then, the endogenous development mechanism of the creative industries was clarified by district scale analysis. And we examined the urban environment that promotes knowledge exchange and supports creative activities. The main results obtained are as follows:
1) "Places" of knowledge exchange are classified into five categories. Among them, [Place of Activities] and [Place of Idea Associations] are located inside the district, [Place of Inspirations] and [Place of Fabrications] are outside the district, and [Place of Communications] are located both inside and outside.
2) “Places” where formal exchanges directly related to product transactions, such as manufacturing, public relations, and sales, are generated outside the district. Conversely, there are many places within the district where informal knowledge exchange with consumers and businesses take place. Many of these places are not only in-house spaces such as stores and rental rooms, but also outdoor spaces in cities such as stores and streets.
3) Creative workers receive a lot of intellectual stimulation from consumers and businesses in the urban space of Uraharajuku. As a result, accidental knowledge exchanges occur and impromptu “knowledge creation places” are generated.
The main reasons that the creative industries are forming a district scale cluster in Uraharajuku are the geographical concentration of “creative people”, regardless of consumers or businesses, and the existence of rich intellectual stimulations filling the urban space.
In recent times, the design of three-dimensional (3D) complex shape architectures has become much easier since the advent of 3D-CAD or BIM software. However, the roles of designers, contractors or sub-contractors have become uncertain. For example, in the construction of an architectural project, it is necessary for the associated sub-contractors to possess the prerequisite knowledge of the design processes to avoid discordance of roles or prevent irrelevant design alterations. Additionally, in the application of 3D modeling for designs, the method of transferring design information from designers to contractors is difficult.
This research elucidates the construction process of formworks of different 3D complex shape reinforced concrete RC architectures. In particular, this research focused on transferring design information from designers to contractors or sub-contractors. Further, the research analyzed the different options involved in the transfer and clarifies the advantages or disadvantages of each option. The results are outlined below.
First, from the investigation of two architectural magazines, “Shinkenchiku” and “Kenchiku–Gijutsu” from January 2000 to July 2019, the authors collected 265 3D complex shape RC architectures and clarified their trends. From these architectures, the authors selected four 3D complex shape RC architectures recently constructed for case studies, each of which had different production system.
Second, in the case studies, the authors interviewed the designers, the contractors, and the sub-contractors of the four projects and collected the plans or 3D models. From the data collected, the projects were classified according to the viewpoint of who took the initiative for deciding the construction details or information: the designer (project A), the contractor (project B), the sub-contractor (project C), or the contractor and the sub-contractor (project D). The problems associated with each project are outlined below.
1) Project A: There were no major design alterations or occurrence of discordance because the project designers adhered to the given coordinate values with high precision. However, the task assigned to the designer was too large compared with general cases such as making detailed 3D models.
2) Project B: The BIM manager of the contractors developed the BIM model and pioneered the consensus with the owners and designers. However, the sub-contractors were unable to directly apply the BIM model; therefore, the sub-contractors had to develop their own 3D model for the formwork.
3) Project C: The sub-contractors managed the 3D model unitarily, and design alterations made were reflected on the model quickly; this enabled the NC data for production of the formwork to be directly made from the 3D model.
4) Project D: The contractor and the sub-contractor examined the details of the design or construction method together. They joined design processes and shared the 3D model. Thus, no major design alterations or other problems occurred.
Under recent circumstances, deciding who should develop 3D models or other necessary information for construction is difficult because the requisite skills or experiences are dependent on the companies involved. However, noticeable trials were present in project C; the sub-contractor managed the information and realized the smooth transfer of information.
As a result, this research clarified the gray areas in the production process: how to transfer information, such as coordinate values; two-dimensional (2D) drawings; surface models; solid models; software, information sharing system, when the aforementioned information is decided, and whether construction drawings are directly made from 3D models.
In this research, we targeted the defect of rebar manufacturing at rebar manufacturing factory, and consider how to ensure quality in rebar manufacturing by analyzing the relevance of manufacturing process and manufacturing information. The result of this consideration will be the basic data for realizing the use of ICT and BIM that contribute not only to ensuring quality but also to improving productivity by building a system that can consistently manage digitized manufacturing information.
At the rebar manufacturing factory, “manufacturing instruction” is created. Manufacturing instruction was created using computer software. There are 16 items of production information described in the “manufacturing instruction” used at the manufacturing factory investigated, 9 items are used only at the manufacturing site, 6 items are common with the construction site, and 1item was used only at the construction site. QR codes are printed on the “manufacturing instruction”, and manufacturing information is automatically set by reading it into a manufacturing machine that supports QR codes.
The largest number of defects in the rebar manufacturing factory were 33.3% of "manufacturing shape", followed by 27.1% of "number of manufacturing" and "loading". These three items account for 87.5% of all defects. There was a 5.2% error in creating the “manufacturing instruction”. The place where the defect was discovered was that the construction sites shipped from the rebar manufacturing factory accounted for 61.5%.
The mistake in the “number of manufacturing” in the A line occurred during the precision cutting process. This work was all handled manually by the workers, but all defects could be dealt with before shipping the manufacturing factory. All the rebar cutting machines are compatible with QR code reading, and the worker did not need to set the cutting dimensions and number of cuts. In the bending process, which is the next process of the cutting process, workers themselves input the manufacturing shape and number of manufacturing into the machine. All of the defects of the "manufacturing shape" in the C line occurred during bending. In this line, there is a machine that can read the QR code and performs cutting and bending with one unit, but it can only handle flat bending, and the three-dimensional shape was manually bent by the worker. In the loading yard of the C line, a bundle of rebar with “manufacturing instruction” lined up side by side, and it was confirmed that the driver in charge of carrying into the construction site looked for the manufacturing instructions.
Depending on the manufacturing machine, by linking with the QR code, the procedure did not depend on confirmation by workers, but all work was not linked with digitized manufacturing information, so it was partially optimized, and defects at the manufacturing site caused by the confirmation by workers. In the future, by clarifying the relationship between the manufacturing information handled in the manufacturing process at the manufacturing site and the production information used at the construction site, and digitizing manufacturing information and studying the possibility of managing it consistently, we think that it will be possible to build a workflow for rebar manufacturing and assembly using ICT which not only to ensures quality but also to improves productivity.
This study seeks to examine, through the analysis of historical materials, the reconstruction process of the SHIGA-IN temple built during the Meiji period, after being burned down in 1877. This study used historical materials from the Eizanbunko Library.
The paper is organized as follows:
1. “A restoration figure” that sheds light on the precincts’ composition in the Meiji-period, modern era.
2. It was followed by the temple’s functions and precincts’ composition in Edo-period, early modern era.
3. According to the outline of the reconstruction process, “Nikai-syoin” was relocated from SEIKAN-IN temple, “Oku-noma” from GOKURAKUBO temple, “Omote-noma” from HOUMAN-IN temple, “Daidokoro” from KEISOKU-IN temple, and “Butsuden” from ZIGENDO temple.
4. All of the historical buildings are arranged skillfully, especially considering the fact that the difference of altitude in the precincts is marked by “Ishigaki, ” that is, stone high wall. The others include change of direction and three-dimensional arrangement of the historical buildings in a small precinct.
5. The historical buildings in the Meiji-period still exist.
6. A new function for the utilization of the minimum remodeling process was added.
The Teikoku-Kogyo-kaisya was approved with capital of 1 million yen in September 1887, and was founded at the General Assembly in March 1888. In the early days of modern industry, the company was requested as an organization responsible for socially large-scale civil engineering and construction work. Regarding the company's history, I have already clarified that the company was dissolved in November 1890 due to the revision of the Commercial Code. By the way, about this company, conventionally, it is supposed that the problem that the inside of the company was divided by chance happened, but the verification is not done. Therefore, this article shows the people who have been involved in the operation of the company since preparation for establishment. And it aims to show how people were involved in this company and to clarify the process of transformation of company management. This article examined the person involved and the transformation of a company for the Teikoku-Kougyo-Kaisya established in the middle of the Meiji era, and the following points became clear.
At the time of filing in July 1887, the founder of the Teikoku-Kougyo-Kaisya was a middle-class asset holder among emerging forces. The company re-elected the board as early as February 1888. In this re-election, along with those who have a certain influence on the government such as Maezima Hisoka, a large number of talented people who were deeply involved in the management of the bank and who were good at managing and managing funds were selected. The trouble of the Teikoku-Kougyo-Kaisya in January 1888, based on a detailed process, was to remove the Iwaya Matuhei faction who was appointed as the general manager in terms of personnel matters. The company initially advocated private-sector activity, but by the beginning of 1888 the limits of management were exposed. For this reason, this personnel reform has led to a renewal of management.
In this study, we reviewed China's architecture ideological trend of the period 1930–1937 by evaluating the words used in Chinese main architectural academic journals issued in the 1930s. The objects of study are as follows."The Chinese Architect" issued by the"Society of Chinese Architects" in November 1931 in Shanghai; the"Bulletin of the Society for Research in Chinese Architecture" published by the "Society for Research in Chinese Architecture" in Beijing since 1930; and "The Builder" issued by the "Shanghai Architectural Association" published from November 1931 until October 1936. We picked 330 articles as research objects which expounded concern or opinion explicitly.
The methods. First, extracted the key sentences from important sections of the papers (e.g., summary and conclusion), and selected the keywords from them. Second, we used the semantics and properties of keywords as the criteria for division and classified them as"category-1" and subdivided into 20 groups. In accordance with the subject or department, the items of category-1 were classified into 7 groups as category-2. Finally, determine how frequently each keyword is used according to the category and summed them up. Following these steps, the statistical results were obtained.
1). Through analyzing the category of wording background, the academic activity in the academy has peaked in 1934 since the Chinese-led architectural journal published in 1930. In this process, "Cultural Theory" and "Architectural Culture Theory" occupied a dominant position until 1932. After that, "Architecture Theory", "Science and Technology" and "Design Methodology" occupied the central position. As a whole, wording began with the cultural attributes of architecture and concentrated on architectural theory.
2). Extract the main categories for each year according to the indicated frequency. First, the "Architectural Culture Theory" focuses on "Architecture/City History" is widely accepted as the epistemology. Second, "Architecture Theory" was placed in the main position, and focus point of it changes from the category of "Form/Style" to "Creation/Expression", it can be seen that the exploration of new forms for buildings is changed to the innovation of the ideas for architects. Third, “Technology/Experience” and “Materials/Equipment” indicated the contents concerned by architectural academics in the field of “Science and Technology”. Fourth, architectural ideas were concentrated on the "Function and Design" in the field of "Design Methodology" which reflected in diverse ideological discourses based on numerous concrete examples. The above four fields composed the backbone of architectural thought.
3). Statistics the extent of indication frequency change for each category every year and the ratio of it is calculated as the correlation coefficient. By analyzing the categories which have a high correlation degree, three types of discourse forms with content continuity were captured. During the entire period, the discourse composition was intricately complicated. In terms of category background, the proportion of discourse forms related to cultural background was low overall, it can be said that the extensibility of the discourse on the architectural side and the social side was clearer.
4). Based on the above analysis, the background of the term reflects the academic environment's emphasis on architecture and its social attributes. Affected by it, the contradiction between the cultural and social attributes of architecture has become prominent. Finally, in 1937, focusing on the "Design Methodology", as a whole, the architectural thought presented as a unifying trend.
The aim of this study is to clarify the network of things around “Biodiversity-Friendly Architecture“ all over the world. Biodiversity-Friendly Architecture (BFA) is defined as the architecture that cares for existence of both animals and human being, and could be seen as a type of architecture which are constructed through network of things. Networks of things is configured as habitat environment and membership (Fig. 1). 40 cases of BFA were collected and these include animal species such as, mammals, birds, insects, and so on (Table1). The size of BFA is defined to S, M, L (Fig. 2) and the membership grade is defined to core-member, participant and observer (Table2).
Firstly, elements of habitat environment is analyzed through its elements to classify a pattern. The elements of habitat environment is classified <physical environment>, <bait>, <obstacle>, <adjunct>, <microcrimate>, and <product>, and the <physical environment> is classified <farm>, <green>, <waterfront>, <urban>, <distant land>, <former habitat> (Table3). The pattern of habitat environment is classified <farm1-4>, <green1-3>, <waterfront>, <urban> (Table4).
Secondly, membership is analyzed from understanding the relationship between type of supporting entities and variety of contribution and the chronological order of their involvement, and the of the project (Table5). Tendency of the relationship between entities and various contribution can be analyzed from matrix of the entities and contribution (Table8). The transformation of membership is classified <B. core-member without participant>, <C. core-member replacing>, <D. core-member growth>, <E. core-member with regular participants>, <F. core-member with participants for construction>, and <G. core-member with participants for construction each time> (Fig. 4).
At last, all samples are investigated with integrating the habitat environment and membership (Table9).
Finally, network of things for “Biodiversity-Friendly Architecture” were clarified as; overlapping habitat environment and membership, renewing the network through animals, construct suitable membership for habitat environment, highlighting animal to extend membership.
The American architect Frank O. Gehry (1929 -) has a very dynamic and organic presentation style. About 50 years ago, his architectural style, such as in the Danziger Studio Residence (1964), was completely different from his style in current works.
A previous paper, “The development of Frank O. Gehry’s architecture through his early works,” traces the evolution of his architectural style from being plain and static to becoming more open and dispersive. There are five concepts in the book Principles of Art History by Heinrich Wölfflin (1864-1945), namely, “from linear to painterly,” “from plane to recession,” “from closed form to open form,” “from multiplicity to unity,” and “from absolute clarity to relative clarity of the subject,” similar to the development of Gehry’s architectural style.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the process and continuous trajectory of Gehry’s work from 1983 to 2000 and relate this process to Wölfflin’s five concepts.
The Sirmai-Peterson Residence, built in 1982, features buildings of different colors gathered together. The main cross-shaped structure is a compilation of small buildings, with some independent buildings scattered around the main building. This style demonstrates a “main building” and “subordinate buildings.”
His next work, Chiat/Day Building, completed in 1985, has a unique facade composed of three buildings in the shape of “a boat,” “a pair of binoculars,” and “trees.” These three buildings together form the facade. These three buildings appear to be works of pop art and make the large existing building look like it is divided into smaller units.
Third, the Vitra Design Museum, completed in 1987, is composed of several pieces of motif, including the shape of a cross. The cross shape also appears at the Sirmai-Peterson house, but in the main building. This implies that the relationship between the main and subordinate buildings change while fusing with each other.
Fourth, the Bilbao Guggenheim Museum, completed in 1991, demonstrates a quite smooth surface in which elements of architecture together form an entire building. This work more substantially features the fusion of the main building with subordinate buildings.
Fifth, the design of the Experience Music Project, built in 1996, comprises six differently colored buildings that together form one big space with a waved metallic surface. The surface of these buildings appears similar to a cloth waving in the wind.
The paper clarified the fact that the works of Frank O. Gehry exhibit a gradual development from 1983 to 2000, containing the same five Renaissance and Baroque concepts by Heinrich Wölfflin, including Mannerism. Gehry’s works completed after 2000 are detailed in a subsequent paper.
(Section1) This is part three of the study which analyzes and clarifies the correlation between Kazuo Shinohara’s design logic and his works. His logic is expressed through the conception of “ordinary/ extraordinary” that is consistent throughout the four styles. This paper is intended to identify how the change of words modified by “ordinary/ extraordinary” across the four styles (identified in the previous paper) are correlated with the change in spatial dimension of his works.
(Section2) We measure the volume of the main space of his residential works (Vo), the percentage of max peak of Visual distance (P), and the width of 80% of Visual distance(W). With these, we classify spatial dimensions into several types through cluster analysis. The results are as follows:
1. Spatial dimensions are classified into four types (A, B, C and D).
2. Three types out of four have corresponding relationships with the styles. (A=the first style, B=the second style, C=the Third style)
3. The first style is small in size and has relatively homogeneous space with little variances in shape. The second style is relatively small in size and flat. The third style is large in size with many variances in terms of shape.
(Section3) Through the analysis, we examine the correlation between the text analysis and the spatial dimension analysis. The results are as follows:
1. For the first style, space types are identified, and “extraordinary” abstract space and extraordinary scale are affirmed in his text. On the other hand, a tendency toward small homogeneous space with little variance is recognized in the spatial dimension analysis. It is not normal to apply similar scales simultaneously for floor, wall and ceiling. In other words, we identify “extraordinary” scaling here. Thus, there is correlation between the texts and the drawings.
2. For the second style, “extraordinary” irrational space and huge surface of wall are affirmed in his text. On the other hand, we identify the irrational height of space in relatively small flat space and the resulting huge wall surface in the spatial dimension analysis. Therefore, there is correlation between the texts and the drawings.
3. For the third style, “substance(objects)” types are identified, and the conversion of “ordinary” materials into “extraordinary” things is frequently mentioned in his text. One of the examples of “ordinary things” is structure (pillar, beam, slant of 45 degrees and so on). On the other hand, there is a tendency toward large and heterogeneous space with many variances in the spatial dimension analysis. “Substance(objects)” such as structure exposed to space and slant of 45 degrees are partially attributable to this tendency. Thus, there is correlation between the texts and the drawings.
In the first paper, we’ve identified the correlation between his texts and drawings in the first and second styles through the analysis of text and structure. In the second paper, we’ve identified the correlation between his texts and drawings in the third style through the structural form analysis and in the fourth style with the spatial form analysis. In this paper, we’ve identified the correlation between his texts and drawings in the first, second and third styles through the analysis of spatial dimension.